Upset Recovery Training Concepts and Strategies Repairing the Cracks in the Foundation

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1 Upset Recovery Training Concepts and Strategies Repairing the Cracks in the Foundation Bombardier Safety Standdown 2012 Wichita, Kansas Paul BJ Ransbury, President Aviation Performance Solutions

2 Thank You for the Opportunity UPRT Training Density Pilots per Year ~ 80 Flights per Week ~ 400 UPRT Sets per Day Paul BJ Ransbury APS Emergency Maneuver Training President 16-Years Full-Time Development & Delivery of Upset Prevention & Recovery Training (UPRT) Airbus A320 Airline Pilot B.Sc. Honors Mathematics & Physics, Royal Military College Part 141 Chief Flight Instructor Master CFI Aerobatics / ATP / CFI / CFII / MEI /AGI F/A-18 Hornet Fighter Pilot / Fighter Weapons Instructor 4,500+ Upset Recovery Flights Hours (Piston & Jet Aircraft) APS is the Official In-Flight Upset Recovery Provider for:

3 Overview Learn Outline the Loss of Control Threat Why Loss of Control In-Flight can Penetrate our Defenses and Training Apply Discuss Knowledge Concepts in Upset Prevention & Recovery Intervention Share Links to Useful Industry Documents You may not have

4

5 Question #1 Why are professional pilots still losing control of high performance jet airplanes?

6 Critical Lesson Today Management of Angle of Attack (AOA)

7 The Need Loss of Control In Flight (LOC-I) fatalities have risen in prominence despite improvements in aircraft design and existing training.

8 General Aviation LOC-I Status LOC-I SCF-NP Loss of control (LOC) was identified far and away as the most prevalent type of fatal GA accident with 1,190 fatal accidents followed by controlled flight into terrain, with 432 GENERAL AVIATION JOINT STEERING COMMITTEE (GAJSC)

9

10 Chance of Next Fatality Being LOC-I* Runway Excursion (T/O & LDG) 2.0 X more likely to be LOC-I Smoke/Fire 350 X more likely to be LOC-I Engine Failure / Power Plant 1000 X more likely to be LOC-I Runway Incursion X more likely to be LOC-I *Source: Boeing/CAST July 2012

11 Major Threat: The Aerodynamic Stall Dynamic Instability Jet Characteristics C-5 Galaxy Loss of Control Diego Garcia TURN UP THE VOLUME AND DON T RELAX THIS IS SCARY! Duration: 2 Minutes and 51 Seconds

12 Status of Pilot Population Pilots are well trained Aircraft have protection systems: stick shakers stick pushers audible / visual warnings push-to-level buttons FBW flight envelope protection airframe parachutes angle-of-attack indications (in some platforms) Yet despite today s best training and systems

13 13

14 Why?

15 Grand Building Ultimate in Safety Four Massive Pilings Foundation

16 Grand Building The Unexpected Ultimate in Safety Four Massive Pilings Foundation

17 LOC-I Accidents Predictable: No Likelihood: Rare Severity: Catastrophic Training Need: Critical Current Training Status: Untrained or Inadequate

18 Licensing Assumptions The Four Pilings Embedded into Existing Pilot Training Why the Classic Track of Licensing Training is Penetrable by LOC-I

19 Training Assumptions (Pilings) 1. Aircraft is within normal operational envelope and in a non-agitated flight condition (Prevention) 2. Situational awareness and information can be accurately correlated by the pilot with respect to observed flight condition. 3. Airplane handling skills and strategies established by regulatory licensing can directly resolve an escalating condition. 4. Human psychophysical response is predictable and reliable.

20 What is an upset? What is an Airplane Upset? Attitude Envelope Pitch (+up) + 30 o + 25 o Roll (Left) 60 o + 10 o 60 o Roll (Right) 45 o - 10 o - 30 o Pitch (-down) Pitch attitude greater than 25 deg nose up. Pitch attitude greater than 10 deg nose down. Bank angle greater than 45 deg. Or, within those parameters, but flying at airspeeds inappropriate for the conditions. L/D Max Stall Vmo / Mmo

21 All-Attitude Knowledge Deficiencies Pitch (+up) + 90 o All-Attitude Daily Threat + 50 o + 30 o + 25 o + 10 o 60 o Roll (Left) Roll (Right) 180 o 135 o 90 o - 10 o 135 o 45 o 180 o - 50 o Upset Definition Airplane Upset Recovery Training Aid - 90 o Pitch (-down) 4.9 % Upset Definition (45 AOB, +25 & -10 Pitch) 11.1 % Max Licensing Limits (60 AOB, +/-30 Pitch) 100 % All-Attitude Training (180 AOB, +/- 90 Pitch)

22 Colgan Air 3407

23 All-Attitude Knowledge Deficiencies Pitch (+up) + 90 o + 50 o + 30 o + 25 o All-Attitude Daily Threat Colgan o 60 o Roll (Left) Roll (Right) 180 o 135 o 90 o - 10 o 135 o 45 o 180 o - 50 o Upset Definition Airplane Upset Recovery Training Aid - 90 o Pitch (-down) 4.9 % Upset Definition (45 AOB, +25 & -10 Pitch) 11.1 % Max Licensing Limits (60 AOB, +/-30 Pitch) 100 % All-Attitude Training (180 AOB, +/- 90 Pitch)

24 Training Assumptions 1. Aircraft is within normal operational envelope and in a non-agitated flight condition (Prevention) 2. Situational awareness and information can be accurately correlated by the pilot with respect to observed flight condition. 3. Airplane handling skills and strategies established by regulatory licensing can directly resolve an escalating condition. 4. Human psychophysical response is predictable and reliable.

25 Air France 447 Animation Assess Situational & Flight Condition Awareness

26 Training Assumptions 1. Aircraft is within normal operational envelope and in a non-agitated flight condition (Prevention). 2. Situational awareness and information can be accurately correlated by the pilot with respect to observed flight condition. 3. Airplane handling skills and strategies established by regulatory licensing can directly resolve an escalating condition. 4. Human psychophysical response is predictable and reliable.

27

28 All-Envelope Knowledge Deficiencies Stall Warning Full Stall L/D Max

29 Learning Objective Stall Awareness Prevention & Recovery technique: Managing Angle-of-Attack (SAFO July 2010) AC : Stall & Stick Pusher Circular 6 Aug 12 UPDATED Reduce AOA as First Priority Stall and Approach to Stall Evaluation Criteria MUST NOT mandate a predetermined minimum altitude loss Realistic Stall Scenarios in Operational Conditions Pilot Training: Stall and Approach to Stall Treated the Same Stick Pusher Training (if aircraft is equipped) Recognizing Symptoms Buffet Reduced Lateral Control / Reduced Stability Inability to Arrest Descent Associated Stall Warnings (usually present) tinyurl.com/ac

30 Training Assumptions 1. Aircraft is within normal operational envelope and in a non-agitated flight condition (Prevention). 2. Situational awareness and information can be accurately correlated by the pilot with respect to observed flight condition. 3. Airplane handling skills and strategies established by regulatory licensing can directly resolve an escalating condition. 4. Human psychophysical response is predictable and reliable.

31 4-Psychophysical response is predictable & reliable CASS San Antonio, Texas 31

32 PreTraining Evaluation Exercise 4000-Hr Corporate Pilot

33 Training Assumptions 1. Aircraft is within normal operational envelope and in a non-agitated flight condition (Prevention). 2. Situational awareness and information can be accurately correlated by the pilot with respect to observed flight condition. 3. Airplane handling skills and strategies established by regulatory licensing can directly resolve an escalating condition. 4. Human psychophysical response is predictable and reliable.

34 Supporting Evidence

35 CAST LOC-I

36 Analysis: CAST AIAA Modeling and Simulations Technology Conference Aug 2012 Unexpected Pilot Performance Contributing to Loss of Control in Flight (LOC-I)* Accident Dataset # Normal Envelope Existing Adequate Skills Cuing/SA Inadequate Data Inadequate Data Reliable Response All Twenty (20) CAST July 2011 Accidents Analyzed by Three Independent Evaluators From 62% to 100% Correlation Inadequate Data Inadequate Data 18 tinyurl.com/aiaa-loci-performance

37 Question #2 How do training managers mitigate the LOC-I threat to their flight department through training and awareness?

38 Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT) Today & Tomorrow

39 Element 1 - Academics Element 1 - Academics Awareness & Prevention Airplane Upset Recovery Training Aid Revision 2 is today s industry reference ICATEE* UPRT Manual Sections Pilot Academic Knowledge & Skill Preparation Instructor Guidance in UPRT Authorized Training Providers Regulatory Guidance *International Committee for Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes (ICATEE) Royal Aeronautical Society

40 Sample Academic Concepts Flight Envelope Awareness Dynamic Margin of Safety Implications of Varying Load Conditions A Study of the V-G Diagram Critical Important of Angle of Attack Management in an Airplane Upset Stall / Spin Awareness: An Escalating Threat Nose-Low and Nose-Low High-Bank Events Nose-High Events

41 Critical Lesson Today Management of Angle of Attack (AOA) Upset / Loss of Control In-Flight Priorities 1. Regain and/or Maintain Control (First & Foremost) 2. Minimize Altitude Loss as Appropriate

42 AOA Awareness Stall-Spin Threat

43 AOA in Stall Mitigation

44 AOA in Nose-Low Upsets

45 AOA in Nose-High Upsets

46 First Step 90% Upset Solution Upset Definition Pitch (+up) + 90 o Roll (Left) + 50 o + 30 o + 25 o + 10 o Roll (Right) 180 o 135 o 90 o - 10 o 90 o 135 o 180 o - 50 o - 90 o Pitch (-down) 4.9 % Upset Definition (45 AOB, +25 & -10 Pitch) 87.5 % PUSH-Valid Region 12.5 % PUSH-Possibly-Valid Region (20% Chance? ~ 2.5%)

47 Critical Lesson Today Management of Angle of Attack (AOA) Often Best First Step PUSH Upset / Loss of Control In-Flight Priorities 1. Regain and/or Maintain Control (First & Foremost) 2. Minimize Altitude Loss as Appropriate

48 Strategy in LOC-I Mitigation Systemic Deficiency in All-Attitude Exposure What Does Strategy Matter? An Airplane Upset can be Incapacitating Mentally and Physically NASA Research Reveals Human Limitations Core Elements of Any Strategy Planned Approach to Recovery Ability to Recall Strategy in a Crisis Enhance Mental Discipline Repetition to Proficiency

49 Upset Strategies Primary Control Strategies Angle of Attack Energy and/or Pitching Moments Yaw Lift Vector Manage Settings, Performance and Configurations Alternate Control Strategies Pitch Upset Roll Upset Yaw Upset

50 Element 2 - Airplane Exposure to Psychological component Physiological component Accurate recovery environment Requires Qualified aircraft Qualified Instructors

51

52

53 Element 3: Simulators CL Stall Stick pusher (if available) Stall warning Normal Flight Approach to Stall Fully-Developed Stall α

54 Cardinal Simulator Rule AVOID AND ELIMINATE NEGATIVE TRAINING

55 Investigating UPRT Providers Questions to Ask a Prospective UPRT Provider Company Get Industry-relevant References and Call Them Safety Record (Investigate any Accidents) Program Written Syllabus (preferably Part 141 in US) Building Block AURTA Revision 2 Compliant Delivered in Relation to the LOC-I Threat Distribution Vetted by Industry. If so, how? NOT Aerobatics: Ask for an explanation why Instructors Standardized to What and How? Corporate and/or Commercial Operational Experience Instructional Experience Training Platforms: On-Aircraft: Aerobatic-certified or Equivalent (Investigate Level of Maintenance) Simulators: Operated within Fidelity Envelope

56 Manual Handling Skills Degradation Systems Knowledge An additional potential benefit of UPRT Manual Handling career path

57 ... the future

58 Question #3 What does a comprehensive loss of control in-flight mitigation program look like?

59 UPRT Footprint Academic Preparation Awareness Training Prevention: Recognition & Avoidance Aeronautical Decision Making Proportional Counter-Response Recovery: Recognition & Recovery Primary Control Strategies Alternate Control Strategies Type / Class Specific Considerations Startle / Surprise Factor CRM Integration (if applicable)

60 UPRT Differences Training Type/Class-Specific Consideration Examples Fly-By Wire Flight Envelope Protections Pitch / Roll Optimization Thrust Management Rudder / Cyclic Control Implications Secondary Flight Control Integration Trim / Speedbrakes / Spoilers Configuration Changes Placement of FFS Differences Training Considered by Core Skill Development in Licensing Corporate / Air Carrier Level Type Rating / Recurrent Training

61 LOC-I Risk-Time Analysis RISK Competency Growth Dynamic 1. Awareness 2. Prevention 3. Recovery + Enhanced Prevention Perception / Perception / Perception Detection Detection / Perception Detection / Detection Incapacitated Incapacitated Accident Incapacitated * Adopted Concept from Tony Kern TIME

62 Critical Lesson Today Management of Angle of Attack (AOA) Often Best First Step PUSH Upset / Loss of Control In-Flight Priorities 1. Regain and/or Maintain Control (First & Foremost) 2. Minimize Altitude Loss as Appropriate

63 Grand Building Ultimate in Safety Four Massive Pilings Foundation

64 The Unexpected Unexpected

65 Closing Summary Upset Prevention & Recovery Training Requires Zero to Hero Integration Standardized and Complimentary Licensing Type Rating / Recurrent Training On-Going Differences Training Mitigating the LOC-I Threat Involves Regulatory Mandates Quality-Assured Industry-Standardized UPRT Instructors Transferring Risk Away from You, Your Passengers and the Traveling Public through Enhanced Flight Training Solutions Hinge on Training the Pilot

66 Upset Recovery Training Concepts and Strategies Repairing the Cracks in the Foundation Today s Resources AC (Stall / Stick Pusher) PL (Aug 2013) tinyurl.com/aiaa-loci-performance Airplane Upset Recovery Training Aid tinyurl.com/uprt-questions Bombardier Safety Standdown 2012 Wichita, Kansas Paul BJ Ransbury, President Aviation Performance Solutions

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