Aalborg Universitet. CLIMA proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress Heiselberg, Per Kvols. Publication date: 2016

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1 Aalborg Unverstet CLIMA proceedngs of the 12th REHVA World Congress Heselberg, Per Kvols Publcaton date: 2016 Document Verson Publsher's PDF, also known as Verson of record Lnk to publcaton from Aalborg Unversty Ctaton for publshed verson (APA): Heselberg, P. K. (Ed.) (2016). CLIMA proceedngs of the 12th REHVA World Congress: volume 5. Aalborg: Aalborg Unversty, Department of Cvl Engneerng. General rghts Copyrght and moral rghts for the publcatons made accessble n the publc portal are retaned by the authors and/or other copyrght owners and t s a condton of accessng publcatons that users recognse and abde by the legal requrements assocated wth these rghts.? Users may download and prnt one copy of any publcaton from the publc portal for the purpose of prvate study or research.? You may not further dstrbute the materal or use t for any proft-makng actvty or commercal gan? You may freely dstrbute the URL dentfyng the publcaton n the publc portal? Take down polcy If you beleve that ths document breaches copyrght please contact us at provdng detals, and we wll remove access to the work mmedately and nvestgate your clam. Downloaded from vbn.aau.dk on: January 20, 2018

2 Influence of the ar renovaton rate on the rsk of cross nfectons n a hosptal room wth a combned radant and mxng ventlaton system F. A. Berlanga #1, I. Olmedo #2, M. Ruz de Adana #3, F. Pec #4 # Department of Physcal Chemstry and Appled Thermodynamcs Unversty of Cordoba Medna Azahara Cordoba, Span Abstract Ths study ams to test how mxng ventlaton combned wth a hydronc radant floor system performs removng arborne exhaled contamnants usng two dfferent ar renovaton rates. The two selected renovaton rates are 2 ACH and 7.5 ACH. Temperature and velocty probes are used to evaluate temperature and velocty profles n the room. A tracer gas (CO2) s used to measure the rsk of cross nfecton between two breathng thermal mankns. One of the mankns (P) represents a lyng person over a horzontal surface and ts breathng represents the only source of contamnants nto the chamber. The other one (HW) represents a standng person near P. The concentraton of exhaled contamnants reachng ts breathng zone s studed. Temperature and ar velocty profles show that a nearly completely ar stablty stuaton s reached at the occuped zone. Ths stablty s nfluenced by the ar renovaton rate performed. Tracer gas measurement results show a smlar dstrbuton of exhaled contamnants but wth some dscrepances for both tests conducted. A hgher tracer gas concentraton reaches the nearby zone of HW mankn when the ar renovaton rate s ncreased from 2 to 7.5 ACH. Ths can lead to a hgher cross nfecton rate. The obtaned results suggest that that a hgher ventlaton rate not necessary leads to a decrease of the arborne cross nfecton rsk for the occupants n an enclosed area. Keywords - Arborne Cross Infecton; Breathng; Hydronc Radant Systems; Ventlaton 1. Introducton A sgnfcant ncrease n the study of ventlaton performance n ndoor publc places such hosptals s beng takn place n recent tmes [1 3]. New ventlaton methods have been tested to provde better ventlaton and energy effcent systems [4 6]. Hosptals are potentally rsky places for arborne cross nfecton between patents, health workers and vstants [7].

3 One of the major source of contamnants whch can transmt pathogens s breathng. Breathng exhaled ar contents droplets n whch nucle can content several pathogens. Cause of the small sze of the droplets exhaled, tracer gases are a good tool to study the spreadng of these contamnants [8,9]. Usually, mxng ventlaton s used to remove arborne contamnants [10]. Energy effcent systems lke hydronc radant floors and celngs may be an alternatve to provde comfort condtons and reduce ventlaton rates [11,12]. Ths study ams to test how mxng ventlaton combned wth hydronc radant systems performs removng arborne exhaled contamnants usng two dfferent ar renovaton rates 2. Methods The experments have been taken place nto an solated expermental chamber. People at the chamber are represented by two breathng thermal mankns. One of them (P) ams to represent a lyng person at supne poston over a horzontal surface, such a patent n a hosptal ward. The other one (HW) represents a standng person near the frst one, such a health worker. P mankn represents the only contamnant source of the room whle the presence of contamnants nto the breathng zone of HW s studed. The two breathng mankns, nhalng through the mouth and exhalng through the nose, have ther mouths algned n a vertcal plane. A complete descrpton of the dstrbuton of the chamber can be seen n Fgure 1 and Fgure 2. Fg. 1. Horzontal secton of the expermental chamber. (D) Four-way mxng dffusers. (R) Exhaust grlles. (Pt) Vertcal pole. (L) Lamps.

4 Fg. 2. Front vew of the expermental chamber wth the vertcal pole (Pt). (P1 to P5) Probe postons. Condtoned clean ar at neutral condtons (24 C) s suppled to the room through four four-way mxng dffusers and extracted by four exhaust grlls placed n the corners of the room. Ths study proposes two dfferent experments modfyng the ventlaton rate of the chamber. Test 1 s performed under a ventlaton rate of 2 ACH (61.2 m 3 /h) whle Test 2 s performed under a ventlaton rate of 7.5 ACH (229.5 m 3 /h). Durng both tests the hydronc radant system mantans a surface floor temperature of 17 ºC. Temperature of the two mankns s controlled to mantan t at 34 ºC on ther surface. Mankns breathng corresponds wth the one of a man of 1.70 m heght and 70 kg weght usng the expressons obtaned from the research of Gupta [13]. Breathng orfces of the mankns corresponds wth crcles of 20 mm 2 for each nostrl and 126 mm 2 for mouth. More nformaton about the geometrcal desgn and performance of the two breathng mankns can be found at [14,15]. Tests have been conducted once statonary condtons have been obtaned nsde the expermental chamber. Expermental chamber condtons are consdered statonary when the temperature fluctuatons nsde the room reman under 0.5 ºC. Each test has been performed durng 2 hours. Ar velocty along the heght of the room has been measured at fve dfferent ponts usng a vertcal pole (Pt) near the standng mankn, Fgure 1 and Fgure 2. The velocty probes, TSI 8475, have an accuracy of 1%. Ar temperature along the heght of the room has also been measured at the same fve ponts where the ar velocty s regstered. The exact heghts of the temperature and velocty probes along the pole can be seen at Fgure 2. Temperature has been regstered usng J type thermocouples wth an

5 accuracy of 2%. Temperature measurement frequency s 1 Hz for each probe. To measure contamnants propagaton and evaluate HW cross nfecton rsk, the breathng of P s seeded wth ppm of CO 2 as tracer gas. Ths concentraton s the one of a restng breathng [16]. Four CO2METER SprntIR 5% NDIR CO 2 probes wth a 1% accuracy have been dstrbuted around the expermental chamber to measure tracer gas concentraton. Three of them have been placed near the breathng zone of the HW, as can be seen at Fgure 3, the remanng one at the ar exhaust of the room. Measurement frequency for each probe s 1 Hz. Fg. 3. CO 2 probe postons at the breathng area of HW. 3. Results and dscusson Absolute ar velocty measurements along the vertcal probe of the expermental chamber have been processed and ther average value ( u ) at each measurement pont durng each test have been obtaned together wth the standard devaton (σ ). Results have been summarzed n Table 1. Table 1. Absolute average ar velocty along the vertcal pole (Pt) for the two tests performed. (H R = z/h) represents the normalzed heght of each probe respect to the total heght of the room. Test 1 Test 2 Probe z, (m) H R u,(m/s) σ u,(m/s) σ P P P P P

6 Average ar veloctes along the heght of the room for the two experments performed are represented n Fgure 4. Fg. 4. Absolute average ar velocty measurements along the vertcal pole (Pt). Results show that the ar velocty values obtaned at the occuped zone of the chamber, up to a normalzed heght of H R =0.656, are relatvely low n both cases. However, these velocty values are hgher n the upper part of the room, close to the celng, for both cases. It seems clear the exstence of an ar stablty regon n the occuped zone that was also vsualzed n prelmnary experments usng smoke. It s observed that the ar velocty vertcal profle s always hgher n Test 2 than n Test 1. Measurements obtaned at the zone between the breathng ponts of the P and HW, placed at and n normalzed heght respectvely, approxmately at the nterval between P3 and P4, shows that ar velocty remans under 0.1 m/s at both experments. Temperature measurements conducted along the vertcal pole have been obtaned. Average temperature at each measurement pont ( T ) and the exhaust ar temperature ( T r ) are used to obtan relatve temperatures (T R ), usng Equaton 1. T = T / T (1) R Results for Test 1 and Test 2 are summarzed at Table 2. r

7 Table 2. Temperature measurements along the vertcal pole. Test 1 Test 2 Probe H R T,(ºC) T R σ T,(ºC) T R σ P P P P P Exhaust Average relatve temperatures along wth the relatve heght of the probes are represented n Fgure 5 for the two experments conducted. Fg. 5. Relatve temperature dstrbuton along the heght of the expermental chamber. Results show that the temperature profle along the heght of the room s smlar n both cases. The nfluence of the hydronc radant floor s notable n the lower part of the room, where the mnmum temperature value s regstered. Test 2 provdes a hgher relatve temperature values for all the ponts consdered. Ths fact ndcates that hgher ventlaton rates approxmate temperature values regstered along the vertcal pole wth the exhaust one, mprovng temperature homogenety along the heght of the room. A vertcal temperature gradent at the lower part of the room s present n both experments. It shows a maxmum value of 8.33 ºC/m n Test 1 and 5.51 ºC/m n Test 2 between probes postons P1 and P2. The slope of the gradent decreases wth heght beng 1.81 ºC/m n Test 1 and 3.64 ºC/m n Test 2 between P3 and P4, whch s the nterval between the breathng

8 regons of the two mankns. Moderate postve temperature gradents such as the obtaned at ths research do not nduce convectve ar flows [17]. Average concentraton measurements of CO 2 ( c ) as tracer gas at three dfferent postons near the HW mankn are obtaned together wth the standard devaton (σ ) of ts values. Relatve average tracer gas concentraton (c R ) has been obtaned aganst tracer gas concentraton nto the exhaust ( c r ) usng Equaton 2. c = c / c (2) R r All these results together wth the relatve heght of each CO 2 probe are summarzed n Table 3 for Test 1 and Test 2. Table 3. CO 2 concentraton at three dfferent heghts close the HW mankn. Test 1 Test 2 Probe H R c, (ppm) c R σ c, (ppm) c R σ CL CM CH Exhaust Relatve CO 2 concentraton aganst relatve heght s shown for both experments n Fgure 5. Fg. 5. Relatve CO 2 concentraton at the breathng zone of the standng mankn

9 Results show smlar vertcal concentraton gradents for both tests but wth some dscrepances. At the heght of the chest of HW (CL), 0.02 m above the P s mouth, the contamnant concentraton s less than 1 for the two tests, whch s consdered lower than the value for a fully mxed ar stuaton. There s an ar stablty of the ar n the exhalaton regon of P generated by the temperature stratfcaton provoked by the cool floor and the lack of ar turbulence even when the arflow rate s hgh, correspondng to 7.5 ACH. Ths ar stablty makes the exhaled contamnants flow to the upper part of the room wthout mxng wth the ar surroundng HW. The clean ar close to the floor s nduced to the chest of HW by thermal stratfcaton. Ths phenomenon also generates a low exposure level (CM) to the HW, below 1 for the two tests studed. The separaton dstance between the two mankns s enough to have no nterference between the exhalaton of P and the mcroenvronment around HW. However, at a hgher poston, above the head of HW mankn (CH), the contamnant concentraton value s hgher than 1, and the standard devaton ncreases especally for test 2. In that part of the room the ar from the dffusers nduces the exhaled contamnants, whch are mxed wth the clean ar of the room, ncreasng the contamnant concentraton above the head of HW (CH). The ncrease of the contamnant concentraton for test 1 (2ACH) at ths poston s lower than for test 2 (7.5 ACH) due to the stronger nfluence of the ar from the dffusers that nduces more ar from the stable regon of the exhalaton. The elevated flow rate of the ar nduces ar from the lower part of the room drvng t to the upper part and transportng the exhaled contamnants. The ncreasng of standard devaton wth heght also explans the dstrbuton of exhaled contamnants n the upper part of the room, out of the stablty regon. When usng 2 ACH (test 1) the lack of ar movement nduced from the dffusers, produce a lock up phenomenon that mantans the contamnants above the patent. Many authors [18,19], for smlar condtons of postve temperature gradent, have reported a lock-up phenomenon of the exhaled contamnants due to the ar stablty generated at the heght of the exhalaton of the source mankn. Ths makes the transport of contamnants n the ar to other areas, such as to the mcroenvronment of HW dffcult. For test 2 (7.5 ACH) there s a smlar contamnant dstrbuton, especally n the lower part of the room, due to the temperature gradent generated by the cool floor. 4. Conclusons Ths study evaluates the nfluence of renovaton rates n arborne contamnants removal when a mxng ventlaton system s combned wth a hydronc radant floor system. Test 1 evaluates a very low ventlaton rate, 2 ACH wth the am of comparng t wth Test 2, whch uses a common ventlaton rate of 7.5 ACH. Results obtaned from measurements of absolute velocty and temperature along the heght of the room show a postve vertcal

10 temperature and velocty gradent generated by the cool hydronc floor and nfluenced by the ventlaton rate used durng each test. Hgher ventlaton rates lead to an ncrease of absolute ar velocty and ts varaton wth tme nsde the chamber, especally n the upper part. CO 2 measurements show a smlar dstrbuton of exhaled contamnants but wth some dscrepances. In both cases there s an ar stablty n the lower part of the room that generates low concentraton values of contamnants n the regon near the HW. However, the arflow generated by the dffusers n the upper part of the room nduces a mxng flow that conduces to an ncrease value of the contamnant concentraton above the head of the HW. Ths behavor s especally observed for test 2, usng 7.5 ACH. Whle for test 1, 2 ACH, the concentraton values above the head of the HW are stll low. Ths study demonstrates that a hgher ventlaton rates does not necessarly lead to a better stuaton n terms of cross nfecton rsk and contamnant exposton of people nsde ndoor places. Studyng the dsperson of exhaled contamnants, specal care should be taken on possble stablty regons generated by the ventlaton systems and on the temperature and velocty gradents that are generated n ndoor envronments. Acknowledgment The authors acknowledge the fnancal support receved from the Mnstero de Economa y Compettvdad, Secretaría de Estado de Investgacón, Desarrollo e Innovacón, Span, to the Natonal R&D project TRACER wth reference DPI C2-2-R, enttled Ventlaton system nfluence on arborne transmsson of human exhaled boaerosols. Cross nfecton rsk evaluaton. Ths project s cofnanced by the European Regonal Development Fund (ERDF). References [1] I. Eames, J.W. Tang, Y. L, P. Wlson, Arborne transmsson of dsease n hosptals., J. R. Soc. Interface. 6 Suppl 6 (2009) S697 S702. do: /rsf focus. [2] J.W. Tang, Investgatng the arborne transmsson pathway - dfferent approaches wth the same objectves, Indoor Ar. 25 (2015) do: /na [3] J. Rchmond-Bryant, Transport of exhaled partculate matter n arborne nfecton solaton rooms, Buld. Envron. 44 (2009) do: /j.buldenv [4] D. Lcna, A.K. Melkov, C. Sekhar, K.W. Tham, Human convectve boundary layer and ts nteracton wth room ventlaton flow., Indoor Ar. (2014) do: /na [5] H. Qan, Y. L, W.H. Seto, P. Chng, W.H. Chng, H.Q. Sun, Natural ventlaton for reducng arborne nfecton n hosptals, Buld. Envron. 45 (2010) do: /j.buldenv [6] A.K. Melkov, Z.D. Bolashkov, E. Georgev, Novel ventlaton strategy for reducng the rsk of arborne cross nfecton n hosptal rooms, (2011) 1 6. [7] C. Beggs, L.D. Knbbs, G.R. Johnson, L. Morawska, Envronmental contamnaton and hosptal-acqured nfecton: factors that are easly overlooked, Indoor Ar. 25 (2015) do: /na

11 [8] Y. Yn, J.K. Gupta, X. Zhang, J. Lu, Q. Chen, Dstrbutons of respratory contamnants from a patent wth dfferent postures and exhalng modes n a sngle-bed npatent room, Buld. Envron. 46 (2011) do: /j.buldenv [9] C. a. Glkeson, M. a. Camargo-Valero, L.E. Pckn, C.J. Noakes, Measurement of ventlaton and arborne nfecton rsk n large naturally ventlated hosptal wards, Buld. Envron. 65 (2013) do: /j.buldenv [10] Y. Yn, W. Xu, J.K. Gupta, A. Guty, P. Marmon, A. Mannng, et al., Expermental Study on Dsplacement and Mxng Ventlaton Systems for a Patent Ward, HVAC&R Res. 15 (2009) do: / [11] N. Fonseca, Expermental study of thermal condton n a room wth hydronc coolng radant surfaces, Int. J. Refrg. 34 (2011) do: /j.jrefrg [12] M. De Carl, B.W. Olesen, Feld measurements of operatve temperatures n buldngs heated or cooled by embedded water-based radant systems, n: ASHRAE Trans., 2002: pp [13] J.K. Gupta, C.-H. Ln, Q. Chen, Characterzng exhaled arflow from breathng and talkng., Indoor Ar. 20 (2010) do: /j x. [14] F.A. Berlanga Cañete, M.R. de Adana, I. Olmedo, Dseño y construccón de un sstema de emulacón de la respracón para manquíes térmcos para la realzacón de ensayos expermentales de sstemas de clmatzacón (Thermal Mankn Breathng Systeem Desgn and Producton Amed to HVAQ Expermental Tests), n: IX Congr. Nac. Ing. Termodnámca, 2015: pp [15] F.A. Berlanga Cañete, M.R. de Adana, I. Olmedo, Dseño y construccón de manquíes térmcos para la realzacón de ensayos expermentales de sstemas de clmatzacón (Thermal Mankn Desgn and Producton Amed to HVAQ Expermental Tests), n: IX Congr. Nac. Ing. Termodnámca, Cartagena, 2015: pp do: [16] N.M. Tsoukas, Z. Tannous, a F. Wlson, S.C. George, Sngle-exhalaton profles of NO and CO2 n humans: effect of dynamcally changng flow rate., J. Appl. Physol. 85 (1998) [17] G. Gong, B. Han, H. Luo, C. Xu, K. L, Research on the Ar Stablty of Lmted Space, Int. J. Green Energy. 7 (2010) do: / [18] G. Cao, P. V. Nelsen, R.L. Jensen, P. Heselberg, L. Lu, J. Hekknen, Protected zone ventlaton and reduced personal exposure to arborne cross-nfecton, Indoor Ar. 25 (2015) do: /na [19] C. Xu, P. V. Nelsen, G. Gong, R.L. Jensen, L. Lu, Influence of ar stablty and metabolc rate on exhaled flow, Indoor Ar. 25 (2015) do: /na

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