# THE ROLE OF NAVIGATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT DURING SHIP S MANOEUVRING IN LIMITED WATERS

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3 The Role of Navigational Risk Assessment During Ship s Manoeuvring in Limited Waters 3. The measure of safety navigation Ship handling is first and foremost supposed to be safe so that will not bring about a navigational accident, which is an unwanted event resulting in losses. The losses may be different kinds like a loss of human health or life, damage or loss of cargo and ship, the pollution on environment, damage to a port structure or financial losses due to the port or its part being blocked. The safety level is most often determined by risk measure. There are many ways of risk to be defined. Generally risk is identified with possible effect (losses) of an unwanted event (accident). A more exact definition says that it is the probability of losses due to accident, which may arise in a particular part of the man-technique-environment system. In practice it means the necessity of mailing conception of risk reduction measures and calculation the risk reduction achieved and the associated value of losses [3]. The risk concept used to be defined in different of way. Mainly the risk referred to as navigational risk may be expressed as: R N = P A C, (1) R N - navigational risk, P A - frequency of accident, C - consequence of accident in relevant units (losses). As it has already been mentioned, a picture of the situation closer to completeness is presented by navigational risk. Knowing the probability of the accident, its effects can be taken into account in the calculations. When applying the risk, three methods can be distinguished [2]: - the value of absolute risk; - risk constant; - relative increase of risk. In the first method the determined risk value refers to the assumed value limit. Sometimes this value is specified in regulations. R N R p, (2) R N - determined risk value, R p - assumed risk value limit. The next method of constant risk is a development of the first. It is applied in situations where the effects of the accident are likely to change. This can take place when a ship of a specified size manoeuvring on a certain water area is carrying in turn cargoes of various hazard degrees (various effects in case of accident, e.g. coal, and the other time crude oil products). Then, to maintain a steady level of safety, the risks must be equal to each other. R N1 = R N2 = P A1 C 1 = P A2 C 2, (3) R N1, R N2 - navigational risk, P A1, C 1 - probability of an accident and consequences of the accident with cargo of low hazard degree, P A2, C 2 - probability and consequences of an accident with cargo of higher hazard degree. Taking into consideration that the risk is a combination of accident probability and its consequences, the following can be written: R = P A + S, (4) P A - relative increase of accident probability, S - relative increase of accident consequences. 119

5 The Role of Navigational Risk Assessment During Ship s Manoeuvring in Limited Waters H - depth, T - ship s draft, R B - safe underkeel clearance (UKC). The safe underkeel clearance should enable the ship to manoeuvre within an area so that no damage to the hull occurs that might happen due to the hull impact on the ground. A risk of an accident exists when the under keel clearance is insufficient [5]. When determining the optimized UKC we have to reconcile contradictory interests of maritime administration and port authorities. The former is responsible for the safety of navigation, so it wants UKC to be as large as possible. The latter, wishes to handle ships as large as possible, therefore they prefer to accept ships drawing to the maximum, in other words, with the minimized UKC. The maximum UKC requirement entails restricted use of the capacity of some ships, which is ineffective in terms of costs for ports and ship operators. In the extreme cases, certain ships will resign from the services of a given port. Therefore, the UKC optimization in some ports will be of advantage. It is possible if the right methods are applied. Their analysis leads to a conclusion that the best applicable methods for UKC optimization are the coefficient method and the method of components sum. In the coefficient method one has to define the value R min as part of the ship s draft: R min = T c, (8) = coefficient and T c = deepest draft of the hull. The applied coefficient values range from 0.04 to 0.4 [10]. The other method consists in the determination of R min as the algebraic sum of component reserves [6] which accounts for errors of each component determination: R min = R i + r, (9) R i = depth component reserves and r = sum of errors of components determination. The UKC is assumed to have the static and dynamic component. This is due to the dynamic changes of particular reserves. The static component encompasses corrections that change little in time. This refers to a ship lying in calm waters, not proceeding. The dynamic component includes the reserve for ship s squatting in motion and the wave impact. One should emphasize that with this division the dynamic component should also account for the reserve for ship s heel while altering course (turning) Safety distance to structure (SDS) The accessible port water area (for given depth) warrants safety manoeuvring for fulfill condition [2]:, (10) - requisite area of ship s manoeuvring, - accessible water area. Ships contact with structure can be intentional or not. Intentional contact steps out when ship berthing to quay. During this contact energy dependent from virtual ship masses and its perpendicular component speed to the wharf is emitted. In result of ship pressure on wharf comes into being reaction force. Both emitted energy during berthing and bulk reaction force cannot exceed admissible value, definite by reliability of ship and wharfs. These values can be decreased by means of fenders, being usually of wharf equipment. Ship should manoeuvre in such kind to not exceed of admissible energy of fender-structure system. Unintentional contact can cause navigational accident. Process of ship movement in limited water area relies by suitable manoeuvring. During of ship manoeuvring it can happen the navigational accident. Same events 121

6 W. Galor can occur strike in structures, when depth of water area is greater than draught ship. There are usually structures like wharf, breakwater, locks (Fig. 1), etc., and also floated objects moored to structure Safety distance of approach (SDA) Fig. 1. The ship in the lock (Czy ykówko Lock) The fundamental measure of ships passing is distance to closest point of approach (DCPA). Its value should be safety, it means: DCPA..DCPA min, (11) DCPA = distance to closest point of approach and DCPA min = acceptable distance to closest point of approach Safety of air drought (SAD) Air drought is distance over ship, when manoeuvre under construction. They mainly consist: - bridges (road, railway) over waterway (Fig. 2), - high voltage lines, - pipelines over waterway, The condition of safety ship movement is following: H S < H C, (12) H S - the height of highest point of ship, H C - the height of lowest point of construction over waterway. Fig. 2. The railway bridge (Podjuchy- Szczecin) 122

7 The Role of Navigational Risk Assessment During Ship s Manoeuvring in Limited Waters In many cases, the sea-river ship s superstructure is regulated. It permits to decrease of ships height. Also other elements of ship s construction can be disassembled for instance masts of radar antenna, radio etc Safety of berthing (SOB) Condition of the safety of the maneuver while berthing the ship to the quay can be as follows [7]: E(t) E berth k or E(t) E ship k, (13) E(t) - maximum kinetic energy of the ships impact absorbed by the system berth - fender ship, E berth k - admissible kinetic energy absorbed by the system berth - fender, E ship k - admissible kinetic energy, near which the formed strengths of the reaction of the system berth fender do not cause the durable deformation of the ships hull yet. Factors which have the influence on the size of the maximum kinetic energy of the ship s impact against the berth construction (Fig. 3) are as follows: Fig. 3. The berthing of ship to the quay (Mi dzyzdroje Pier) - ship manoeuvrability (kind and the power of the propulsion, thrusters), - hydrometeorological conditions (wind, current), - tugs service (the number of tugboats, their power), - the manoeuvring tactics (captain s or pilot s skill). 5. Conclusions Limited area as such area used to ship navigation is characterised by existing of elements increasing free choice possibility of way by ship. It causing that realisation of basic navigation aim, which is safety and efficiency ship operating, can be difficult or sometimes impossible. The ship can came natural objects (coast, water bottom) and artificial (water port structures-locks, bridges etc.) obstructers. Also many other ships can encounter. It caused that the navigation in limited waters is harder than on open seas. The criterions of safety assessment of ship movement need more precisely of qualify. The risk can be used as measure of safety. This risk is a sum of independent components connected with different possibilities of potential accidents. They are a result of unwanted contact with objects on water area. The follwing components to determine the overall risk were taken into account: - safety under keel clearance (SUKC), - safety distance to structure (SDS), 123

8 W. Galor - safety distance of approach (SDA), - safety air drought (SAD), - safety of berthing (SOB). The presented considerations in the paper can permit to analysis of safety ships in limited waters by quantity measurement manner. As results, it is possible achieved effective effects by using of ones to practically managing of safety of maneuvering ship in limited waters, as optimize process of such navigation. References [1] Galor, W., The management of ship safety in water area, Proceedings of the Marine Technology IV, Editors CA Brebbia, WIT Press Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton, Boston [2] Galor, W., Bezpiecze stwo eglugi na akwenach ograniczonych budowlami hydrotechnicznymi, FRWSM, Szczecin [3] Galor, W., Kryteria bezpiecze stwa ruchu statku po akwenie portowym, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademi Morskiej w Szczecinie, Nr 3(75), Szczecin [4] Galor, W., The movement of ship in water areas limited by port structures, Annual of Navigation No. 10, Gdynia [5] Galor, W., Analiza okre lania zapasu wody pod st pk, Materia y XI Mi dzynarodowej Konferencji Naukowo-Technicznej In ynieria Ruchu Morskiego, Szczecin [6] Galor, W., The ship s dynamic under keel clearance as an element of port safety management, Confer. Proc. The 4 th International Conference on Safety and Reliability, Vol. I, Kraków [7] Galor, W., Some problems of ship s durning berthing, Materia y Konferencyjne XI Konferencji Komputerowe Systemy Wspomagania Nauki, Przemys u i Transportu Transcomp, Zakopane [8] Galor, W., The criterion of safety navigation assessment in sea-river shipping, Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Editor A. Weintrit, publ. by CRC Press/Balkema, The Netherland [9] Holec, M., Rutkowski, G., Próba zdefiniowania akwenu trudnego pod wzgl dem nawigacyjnym, Zeszyty Naukowe WSM, Nr 32, Gdynia [10] Mazurkiewicz, B., Morskie budowle hydrotechniczne, Wyd. FRPOiGM, Gda sk

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