Comparison of MARS-KS to SPACE for counter current flow limitation model

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1 Comparison of MARS-KS to SPACE for counter current limitation model Won Woong Lee, Min Gil Kim, Jeong I Lee Department of Nuclear and Quantum engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 291 Daeha-ro, (373-1, Guseong-dong), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon , Republic of KOREA Tel: , Fax: , Young Seo Bang Safety Evaluation Department Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) 62 Gwaha-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon Republic of KOREA Abstract In two phase, the counter current limitation (CCFL) occurs in a situation in which the liquid and gas in the opposite direction. When gas s upward with small rate while the liquid s downward, the interface between the liquid phase and the gas phase is smooth since the interaction between two s is small. However, if the gas upward is large enough, the downward liquid decreases drastically or s in the opposite direction due to interfacial drag. Various complex physical phenomena occur at the interface between the liquid phase and the gas phase. This is an important phenomenon which may occur during loss of coolant type accidents in a nuclear power plant. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model will be evaluated for MARS-KS based on two-phase two-field governing equations and SPACE code based on two-phase three-field governing equations. This study is conducted by comparing MARS-KS code to SPACE code results of liquid up and liquid down rate for different gas rate for the famous Duler s CCFL experimental data. I. INTRODUCTION In nuclear reactor system, the counter current limitation (CCFL) is an important phenomenon for evaluating the safety of nuclear reactors. In two phase, CCFL occurs in a situation in which the liquid and gas in the opposite direction. Generally, if the gas is faster than the liquid, interfacial drag is generated at the interface between the gas and the liquid. If the relative velocity of two phases is increased, the interfacial drag is increased and the interface becomes chaotic. Therefore, the liquid can be limited by the increased interfacial drag. For example, in a small diameter tube in which the liquid phase downward along the inner wall of small tube and the gas phase upward in the center of the tube, at low gas, the liquid phase s totally downward and the interface between the liquid phase and the gas phase is smooth since the interaction between two s is small. However, as the gas is increased, the liquid phase surface becomes more disturbed and some of liquid phase starts to be carried upward. If the gas upward is large enough, the downward liquid decreases drastically or s in the opposite direction. Conversely, if the gas is constant and the liquid is increased, the liquid downward is reached at the maximum value while the excess of the liquid phase s upward. Therefore, the liquid downward cannot be increased without decreasing the gas rate. Various complex physical phenomena occur at the interface between the liquid phase and the gas phase. This is an important phenomenon which may occur during loss of coolant type accidents (LOCA) in a nuclear power plant. In particular, CCFL occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus and steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to have s in two opposite directions. For example, during the blowdown process of LOCA, the emergency core cooling system fills water via downcomer as the steam generated due to the decreased pressure in reactor vessel s through the downcomer annulus. In this situation, countercurrent 1

2 can occur in the downcomer annulus of the reactor vessel which can limit ECCS water ing into the reactor core for cooling. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermalhydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model will be evaluated with MARS-KS based on two-phase two-field governing equations and SPACE code based on two-phase three-field governing equations. This study will be conducted by comparing MARS-KS code which is being used for evaluating the safety of a Korean Nuclear Power Plant and SPACE code which is currently under assessment for evaluating the safety of the designed nuclear power plant. In this study, comparison of the results of liquid up and liquid down rate for different gas rate from two code to the famous Duler s CCFL experimental data are presented. This study will be helpful to understand the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations, and further improving the accuracy of system analysis codes. II. CCFL MODEL II.A. CCFL Theory Countercurrent is defined as one of the two phase patterns. CCFL correlations were derived by the dimensionless superficial velocity of phase (=gas or liquid). There are three types of CCFL correlations as follows: 1/2 g j Ku H 1/2 f M j C (1) 1/2 g 1/2 g 1/2 f M Ku C (2) 1/2 f M H C (3) where j H ρ j g cwδ 1/2 is the superficial velocity, (6) is the density of phase, is the gravity acceleration, D is the tube diameter, is the surface tension, w is the interpolative length determined from: g c w D 1 β L where L is the Laplace capillary constant and is the scaling constant between 0 and 1. Equations (1) ~ (3) show the Wallis, the Kutateladze and the Banoff correlations. The Wallis correlation is derived by a balance between inertial forces in the gas and hydrostatic forces to develop the following gas and liquid non-dimensional average volumetric fluxes. However, the Kutateladze correlation is derived from considerations of the stability of the liquid film or from the gas needed to suspend the largest stable liquid drop. The Banoff correlation interpolates the Wallis correlation for =0 and the Kutateladze correlation for =1. β (7) II.B. Model Implementation MARS-KS and SPACE code have the ability to solve countercurrent. In order to predict the CCFL, the Banoff correlation is implemented in MARS-KS and SPACE codes, respectively. Since the Banoff correlation reverts to the Wallis correlation and the Kutateladze correalation depending on the scaling constant, MARS-KS and SPACE codes can accommodate three CCFL correlations with a user option specifying the scaling constant. The CCFL model can be applied to various geometries and conditions depending on appropriate value of the slope, and the gas intercept. where j is the dimensionless superficial velocity, Ku is the Kutateladze number, H is the dimensionless flux of phase (=gas or liquid), M is the slope and C is the gas intercept. j, Ku, 1/2 j ( ) g cdδ j Ku H are as follows: ρ (4) 2 ρ j g c Δ 1/4 (5) III. ANALYSIS III.A. Duler s air/water flooding test In this study, the CCFL model of MARS-KS and SPACE are evaluated for predicting Duler s air/water flooding test data. This facility is designed to study the interaction between liquid downward and gas upward. This facility consists of air inlet section, test section, liquid entrance and exit sections. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the Duler s experimental facility. The liquid entrance is located at elevation of 2m from the end of the air inlet section. The exit section is located at elevation of 1.8m from the liquid entrance. The test section 2

3 consists of m diameter, 4m long, vertically oriented cylindrical pipe. Water is injected through the liquid entrance and it s downward along the inner wall of the test section pipe. is injected through the air inlet section and it s upward in the center of pipe. rate from to g/s at intervals of g/s for each case. Figure 1 Schematics of Duler s air/water flooding experimental facility Figure 2 Nodalization of MARS-KS code III.B. System Code Modeling Duler s experiment is modeled in MARS-KS and SPACE codes respectively with the same nodalization. The liquid entrance and the air inlet section are modeled using branch component. Figures 2 and 3 show nodalization of MARS-KS and SPACE code. The pressure of 0.1MPa and the temperature of 300K are used for initial conditions and boundary conditions in all of components except for the water exit section (tmdpvol 200 and TFBC 200) and the air inlet section (tmbpvol 103 and TFBC 103). The pressure of the water exit section is at 0.104MPa, which is slightly higher than atmospheric pressure 0.1MPa. Pressure of the air inlet section is 0.102MPa. Since the air is injected from the air inlet (tmdpvol 103 and TFBC 103) and discharged to the exit section (tmbpvol 110 and TFBC 110). From the previous study, the Wallis correlation is appeared to be the best fitted form for the test. The user input data of 1.3 for the slope and 0.88 for the gas intercept are used. These values are suggested in the SPACE assessment manual. In Duler s experiment, air and water rates are control variables. Table 1 shows the air and water rate conditions of Duler s experiment. MARS-KS and SPACE calculations were conducted in the range of the air Figure 3 Nodalization of SPACE code 3

4 Table 1 and Water rate conditions of Duler s experiment Water rate rate Case , , , , , , Case , , , , , , 0.031, , , , , , , , Case Case , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , IV. RESULTS Figure 4 Liquid down rate versus air rate Figure 5 Liquid up rate versus air rate case. Square mar for case 1, circle mar for case 2, triangle mar for case 3 and X-mar for case 4. As shown in Figure 4, a good agreement with SPACE results and the experimental data is observed at 1.3 slope and 0.88 gas intercept. However, in the results of SPACE, there is a slight difference of the liquid down rate depending on the cases when the air rate is fixed. However, the results of MARS-KS show a trend contrary to the results of SPACE. A large difference with the experimental data is observed at 1.3 for the slope and 0.88 for the gas intercept. And when the air rate is fixed, the liquid down rate is constant in all cases. In other words, there is a maximum value of the liquid down at the fixed air. MARS-KS shows the trend which cannot increase the liquid down without decreasing the air rate. Figure 5 shows results of the liquid up rate versus the air rate. In this figure, a good agreement with SPACE results and the experimental data is observed. However, there is a large difference with MARS-KS results and the experimental data. This is because interfacial drag force or entrained liquid rate of MARS-KS is calculated higher than those of SPACE. Table 2 shows average and standard deviation of MARS-KS and SPACE calculation results over time at typical case of the liquid injection rate 0.126g/s. In MARS-KS and SPACE, standard deviations of liquid down are reasonably low compared to each liquid down rate average value. However, in case of liquid up, most of standard deviation are too high compared to the liquid up rate average value. Several standard deviations are even higher than the average value. Therefore, it is doubtful whether calculation of the liquid up rate are reasonable in MARS-KS and SPACE. Figure 4 shows the results of MARS-KS and SPACE calculation along with the experimental data. The gray dashed line indicates the experimental data. The blue dashed line is the results of MARS-KS and the red dashed line is the results of SPACE code. Each mar indicates each 4

5 Table 2 Average and Standard deviation of MARS-KS and SPACE at the liquid injection rate of 0.126g/s MARS-KS SPACE Liquid Liquid down Standard down Standard (Average) deviation (Average) deviation Liquid up (Average) Standard deviation Liquid up (Average) Standard deviation E E E E As an example of Table 2, Figures 6~9 show the liquid down/up rate versus time at the liquid injection rate of 0.126g/s and the air rate of 0.038g/s in MARS-KS and SPACE codes, respectively. The air is injected at 250sec in MARS-KS code and 200sec in SPACE code as shown in Figures 6~9. The green dashed line indicates the liquid injection rate 0.126g/s. These figures show fluctuation in the results and the magnitude of the fluctuation is represented as the standard deviation in Table 2. In Figures 6 and 8, the fluctuation is small and therefore the standard deviation is small in Table 2. However, the fluctuation of the liquid up rate is very large in Figures 7 and 9. It is noteworthy that the fluctuation magnitude is sometimes larger than the total liquid rate injected to the test section. Figure 6 Liquid down rate versus time of MARS-KS at liquid injection rate 0.126g/s and air rate 0.038g/s Figure 7 Liquid up rate versus time of MARS- KS at liquid injection rate 0.126g/s and air rate 0.038g/s Figure 8 Liquid down rate versus time of SPACE at liquid injection rate 0.126g/s and air rate 0.038g/s 5

6 Figure 9 Liquid up rate versus time of SPACE at liquid injection rate 0.126g/s and air rate 0.038g/s results of MARS-KS without application of CCFL option show a trend that the liquid down rate is decreased generally at higher liquid rate. It means that a part of the liquid injection s upward due to the interfacial drag force or entrained liquid. Therefore, the liquid up rate is increased without application of CCFL option as shown in Figure 11. Although there is a large difference in the results of MARS-KS, it is possible to fit the data with MARS-KS results by controlling the slope and the gas intercept as shown in Figures 12 and 13. The blue dashed line of Figures 8 and 9 show the results of MARS-KS at 1.3 slope and 0.95 gas intercept. The red dashed line of Figures 12 and 13 show the results of SPACE at 1.3 slope and 0.88 gas intercept. Figure 10 Liquid down rate versus air rate without application of CCFL option Figure 12 Liquid down rate versus air rate at 1.3 for the slope and 0.95 for the gas intercept Figure 11 - Liquid up rate versus air rate without application of CCFL option Figure 13 Liquid up rate versus air rate at 1.3 for the slope and 0.95 for the gas intercept Figures 10 and 11 show the liquid down and up of MARS-KS and SPACE without application of CCFL option. As shown in the figures, SPACE code results show that most of the liquid injection reaches the water drain pipe with small amount liquid up. However, the V. CONCLUSIONS In the nuclear reactor system, the counter current limitation (CCFL) is an important phenomenon for 6

7 evaluating the safety of nuclear reactors. This is because CCFL phenomenon can limit injection of ECCS water when CCFL occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus or steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model was evaluated with MARS-KS and SPACE codes for studying the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations. This study was conducted by comparing MARS-KS and SPACE code results of liquid up and liquid down rate for different gas rate to the famous Duler s CCFL experimental data. By using 1.3 slope and 0.88 for gas intercept with user option of CCFL model, SPACE code result shows a good agreement with the Duler s experimental data. However, there exists a slight difference in the liquid down rate with the experimental data and SPACE code results. Although the liquid down rate is constant depending on the liquid injection rate for MARS-KS results for the same value for slope (1.3) and gas intercept (0.88). By controlling the gas intercept value (0.95), it is possible to fit the results of MARS-KS with Duler s experiment data. Without application of CCFL option, MARS-KS shows overestimated liquid up rate at the liquid injection rate of 0.126g/s. This is because MARS-KS overestimates the interfacial drag force or the entrained liquid rate. In the future, these results will be analyzed in more detail to understand the reason for such discrepancy. Furthermore, the reason for high standard deviation in the liquid up calculation will be investigated as well. 4. KHNP, KEPCO E&C, KAERI, SPACE Manual, Volume I, II, IV (2013) 5. Myung Tae Oh, Chan Eo Par, Jong Joo Sohn and Eun Kee Kim, CCFL Model of the SPACE Code and Its Validation, Korean Nuclear Society Spring Meeting (2011). 6. S. Al Issa and R. Macian, A review of CCFL phenomenon, Annals of Nuclear Energy, 38, (2011) 7. Yi-Hsiang Cheng, Chunuan Shih, Jong-Rong Wang and Hao-Tzu Lin, A study of steam-water countercurrent model in TRACE code, 17 th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (2009) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This wor was supported by the project Feasibility assessment by SET and independent review for the SPACE code funded by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). REFERENCES 1. Salomon Levy, Two-phase in complex systems, Chapter 5, JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2. A. E. Duler and L. Smith, Two Phase Interactions in Counter-Current Flow: Studies of the Flooding Mechanism, NUREG/CR-0617 (1979) 3. KAERI, MARS Code Manual, Volume I, II, IV (2009) 7

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