# Introduction Volume & Area Based formulas Figure 1

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Introduction From Firefighter to Incident Commander, we all must understand Needed Fire Flows (NFF). What lines need pulled on arrival? What kind of water supply rate do we need to sustain? When things are not working well, what do we base our new strategy on? What are all these formulas about, what are they intended for and what are their limitations? Although there are multiple formulas from around the world, we will primarily discuss six; ISO, Iowa, NFA, Grimwood & Grimwood Heavy and Pierson. NFPA 1142 can also be referred to for water supply calculations needed for live fire evolutions. After determining total structure area and NFF, the percent involvement is applied to adjust for only the area involved in each of the formulas. There are enough texts and articles on the entire process of each but there are some important clarifications and points that should be made. Another Look at Needed Fire Flows By Larry L. Pierson Jr. (Carolina Fire Rescue Journal) Volume & Area Based formulas Volume based NFFs calculate volume or the cubic space of a given area such as LxWxH (Length x Width x Height). These formulas provide a 3 Dimensional matching of fire volume to amount of water needed to absorb the BTUs. As ceiling heights increase, so goes the fire volume and so goes the needed volume of water/steam to cool/exclude oxygen for the fire. Area based formulas only calculate LxW. This will simplify mathematics but will cause obvious differences when the same NFF is stated for a structure with 7' ceilings and another structure the same square footage that has 15' ceilings. Both type formulas increase NFF at proportional rates to one another and as the size of the structure increases, NFF increases... up to a point. At ceiling heights greater than16½ (represented by the teal vertical line in Fig 1), area based formulas will begin to exponentially decrease NFFs in comparison to a volume formula s continual increase. Why is this 16½ mark so important? Because it is usually not the bread and butter, one or two room house fires that firefighters underestimate NFF. How tall is the ceiling in your local grocery store, textile mill, church sanctuary, superstore or other commercial facility? Most likely anywhere from 15 to 25 or more feet. Figure 1

2 Application rates and stream types Use too low of an application rate (NFF) and the fire is most likely going to control the scene, not the firefighters. Each fire and each compartment may require different stream types or patterns for the most effective suppression. There is no one stream type that is the best for every occasion but combination nozzles provide the dominant fire to stream type matching flexibility. There is a literal difference in the definitions but the difference between a straight stream and a solid stream is pretty much semantics. Most combination nozzles provide an effective straight stream with just as much reach and penetration. While there are other situations such as standpipe operations where I would generally recommend the use of a solid bore nozzle, most NFF formulas are based on some level of steam generation and oxygen exclusion. If a firefighter selects a fog pattern that is too wide, penetration will likely not occur and steam will be produced without cooling the main core of the fire volume or causing other problems. Consider the following quotes: 1. Fire Protection Handbook, NFPA 18th Edition. Fire Streams "Solid streams, with a lower surface area to volume ratio, do not have as good heat transfer characteristics as spray nozzles and, consequently, are not as effective in absorbing heat." 2. Research paper from NIST Building & Fire Research lab website Anomalous effects of water in firefighting: Increased fire intensities by azeotropic distillation effects The greatest single effect of water in fire extinguishing applications is its great cooling capacity, particularly when used in fog or mist form 3. Essentials of Firefighting 4th edition, pg 494 Solid streams provide less heat absorption per gallon delivered than other type streams 4. Fire Department Hydraulics - Mahoney Chp 1 pg 2 - The absorption of additional heat reduces the volume of the liquid, with volume reduction continuing until the last drop of water has been converted to steam Chp 4 Pg 83 - Skillful application of the water will not only absorb the heat in the immediate area of water application, but will produce large volumes of steam that will flow into remote areas and help control the fire. The methods of water application have been well studied and established. Just remember that if you choose to use a straight or solid stream, you should add some factor of an increased NFF than what the formulas provide. Firefighters need to train on recognizing which patterns match conditions. NFF is just a number, it still has to make sense. All the formulas have limitations and you may experience some results that will make your head shake and say That just doesn t seem right. Flow rates may appear way too low and the alarm should sound off that a serious safety issue is at hand. Flow rates may appear excessive and to any firefighter with a little experience, they will recognize overkill even beyond an increased safety margin. The old saying Big fire, Big water is true but a trained person will recognize how big the fire is, how big it will get and how much water is needed. Refer to the 14x70 mobile home fire in Fig.1. The NFA formula calls for 327gpm (14x70)/3. That is at 100% involvement so we are definitely into a defensive mode with an exterior attack (Reminder that accuracy for NFA is questionable after 50% involvement). For 327gpm, at least two 1¾ lines or one 2½ and an 1¾ will be required to actively engage in suppression. While this is definitely not a dramatic overkill, the fire is most likely going to be confined, contained or knocked down with one 1¾ line. The Pierson and Grimwood heavy formulas result in an NFF of 137gpm and 144gpm respectively. Iowa results in a NFF of 69gpm which is quite low. Any of these should be considered starting at a minimum of 150gpm. I cannot recall a mobile home fire in my career that could not be controlled with one 1¾ flowing and the other 1¾ staffed for backup. If a proper application rate, nozzle selection and other tactics are used, an engine with a 1,000 gallon tank will most likely not go empty. Again referring to Fig.1, the 40'x40' building with a 16½ ceiling has a total cubic volume of 26,400Ft 3. Next the 38'x38' with 20' ceilings has a total of 28,800Ft 3, larger than the first but the NFA formula actually decreases the NFF compared to the smaller structure. These are the instances that show a difference between area and volume formulas. If a NFF result doesn t seem quite right, adjust it.

4 Figure 2 Firefighters may be exposed to superheated gasses while trying to protect exposures. (Courtyard of the Shafer Dorms, Warren Wilson College of 4 dorms were involved with fire on arrival, the 4 th was defended with ground mount deck guns, elevated streams, other master streams and handlines) Exposures and massive defensive operations Iowa and the Grimwood formulas do not have specific applications built in for determining NFF for exposure protection. For ISO, refer to: NFA provides 25% of the total NFF for each exposure including upper floors (up to 5) and NFPA 1142 provides exposure protection considerations (considered an exposure if it is within 50' and structure is more than 100Ft 2 ). There are a few issues that need to be considered for exposure protection. 1. What is the size or vertical surface area of fire threatening the exposure? 2. What is the size or vertical surface area of the exposure that needs protected? 3. What is the distance from the hostile fire to the exposure? 4. What are the height comparisons between both? 5. What is the wind direction and speed? Is weather forcing hostile fire toward the exposure or away? 6. Is the area that firefighters must work to defend the exposure in a potential collapse zone? Streams which project farther will have to be employed to reduce firefighter s risk. 7. What are the two types of construction involved and what construction features such as windows, bay doors or a solid masonry wall apply? 8. Remember, at some point firefighters also become exposures. Just because they are performing exterior operations doesn t mean that they won t receive burns, breathe in superheated gasses or be exposed to an IDLH environment. All of these factors contribute to a realization that one application rate will not be effective for every exposure scenario. Providing 25% of the total NFF for an exposure does not work in every case. A long facility 200' by 25' wide with 12' ceilings would have an NFA NFF rate of 1,667gpm. An exposure on the 25' wide side would require an NFA exposure flow rate of 417gpm (1667x.25). That is probably excessive for the 25' side but far too little for the 200' side if the entire side is burning. NFPA 1142 provides detail that includes the construction class which will have effect on the exposure. Each rate is a starting point that can be adjusted for the wide variety of conditions.

5 Figure 3 Figure 3 Provides an example that could also be used to determine the exposure flow rate in comparison with the formula from the NFA. This formula looks at the amount or surface size involved and the distance. Figure the length and height of the structure s side and if the exposure is within around 25', the result (Ft 2 surface) is your exposure s NFF rate. As the distance between the exposure and hostile fire increases, less water will be needed so the NFF is multiplied by a distance factor. Another factor in defensive operations also involves large facilities. Even master streams can only reach so far. If you have a commercial structure 1,000' long and 600' wide that is fully involved then any calculation involving square footage can just about be FIGURE 4 - Some defensive operations with exposure protection can easily require rates into the thousands of gpm. If the NFF for an exposure seems too low or isn t working, crank it up. (Beacon fire, Swannanoa, One structure suffered damage to vinyl siding at almost 200' away)

6 thrown out the window. In such cases we are looking at what we can do with the perimeter. Summary It is important to remember that the NFF is an application rate. The nozzle may only have to be opened for 5-10 seconds but it must be flowing the NFF rate. Preplans can state NFF and display the NFF for various % of involvement. You will likely need a NFF that is greater than what you would calculate on arrival. You must anticipate the size of the fire when the total NFF will actually be in use or the sustaining water supply is established. In one scenario, you arrive at 25% involvement. Will the involvement be at 50% by the time lines are deployed? Stay ahead of the game. None of the formulas are perfect. None of the formulas are wrong. None of the formulas ingrain every factor that the fireground gives us. None of the formulas tell you exactly what you should do. To gain accuracy with a formula, complexity will generally be increased. Avoid the phrase formulas are not for the fireground. The IC or Operations Chief may be able to calculate a formula better than the task involved first arriving firefighter or officer. Formulas should be used in table top scenarios, training sessions and provided with photo comparisons when you ask a firefighter or officer What lines would you pull? These scenarios and training are carried forward for fireground use and decision making. Every person on the fireground needs to understand the NFF concept. Except for those rare fires that make us go wow when we arrive, take control of the fire, not the other way around. When the fire begins to control us, we step back and control it through confinement. Study all these formulas and strategies so you can be an informed and educated firefighter. Larry L. Pierson Jr. - Deputy Chief of the Swannanoa Fire Department in Buncombe County.

### ESCONDIDO FIRE DEPT TRAINING MANUAL Section DRIVER OPERATOR Page 1 of 14 Hydraulics Revised

DRIVER OPERATOR Page 1 of 14 HYDRAULICS Hydraulics applied in the dynamic fire ground environment is an art that comes with study and experience. The following describes the factors that must be mastered

### Chapter 1 FF I Orientation and Fire Service History

Chapter 1 FF I Orientation and Fire Service History After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to describe how the history and culture of the fire service influence its basic mission, the

### ESCONDIDO FIRE DEPT TRAINING MANUAL Section ENGINE MODULE Page 1 of 9 Hose Line Operations Revised

ENGINE MODULE Page 1 of 9 HOSE LINE OPERATIONS In order to successfully attack a fire, a firefighter must know how to operate and control the hose line. In doing so, a firefighter must control the nozzle

### Direct attack. 1 Introduction

Direct attack 1 Introduction In several previous articles we discussed the direct attack. Simply put, this comes down to the following: direct attack is putting water onto the fuel. The goal is to lower

### RAPID INTERVENTION CREW TEAMS

RAPID INTERVENTION CREW TEAMS Arlington Fire Department Fire Training Academy January 1998 PURPOSE STATEMENT The purpose of this month s program is to present guidelines and practices of a basic Search

### Special Edition. Back To Basics. Search Operations. A Review of the Basics of Fireground Search

Special Edition Back To Basics Search Operations A Review of the Basics of Fireground Search This special edition is devoted to specific skills and duties relating to fireground search.. Members should

### SCENARIO 18 Leak on Intermodal Pressure Tank Container

INCIDENT OVERVIEW Your fire department responds to a marine terminal for a report of a gas leak involving an intermodal tank in a container yard. Upon arrival at the marine terminal, the Port Authority

### The term MAYDAY typically will be used in the following situations:

Page: 1 of 6 This procedure identifies individual, company, and command level activities for the search and rescue of a lost or trapped firefighter(s). LOST OR TRAPPED FIREFIGHTER The rescue of trapped

### CFBT LEVEL I COURSE INFORMATION SHEET

CFBT LEVEL I COURSE INFORMATION SHEET Course Description Compartment Fire Behavior Training (CFBT) Level I examines fire behavior in a structural environment. Critical learning outcomes include the ability

### Rapid Intervention Teams

Rapid Intervention Teams High Country Training Center Training On Demand Captain T. Houston, LDFR Objectives Review air management principles Identify the components of a Mayday call Describe the steps

### SITUATIONAL AWARENESS, DISORIENTATION and IMPROVING FIREFIGHTER SURVIVAL AT STRUCTURAL FIRES

SITUATIONAL AWARENESS, DISORIENTATION and IMPROVING FIREFIGHTER SURVIVAL AT STRUCTURAL FIRES LT. MIKE MASON Within the modern day fire service at structural fires firefighters are faced with an ever changing

### PBCFR Reserve Battalion Combat Skills Check Off

PBCFR Reserve Battalion Combat s Check Off Member s Name: Approved for Combat: Introduction All Palm Beach County Reserve Battalion members who are certified by the State of Florida with a minimum of FF

### TESTING SKILLS PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS #1 Selecting the Appropriate Fire Extinguisher Subject: Fireground Operations Section 101 NFPA 1001 5.3.16 Firefighter I OBJECTIVE Extinguish incipient Class A, Class B, and

### Enabling Objectives (EO): EO Identify certain practices that could be considered unsafe and result in injury or death.

Instructor Guide Topic: Personal Safety Awareness (Revised 6/2010) Teaching and Learning Domain: Cognitive Time Required: 2 hours Materials: Appropriate visuals and chalkboard or easel pad References:

### CLEARWATER FIRE AND RESCUE DEPARTMENT STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE APPROVED BY: EFFECTIVE DATE: 10/12/07 REVISION DATE:

CLEARWATER FIRE AND RESCUE DEPARTMENT STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE SUBJECT: Truck Company SUB PAGE 1 OF 6 APPROVED BY: JAMIE D. GEER, FIRE CHIEF, FIRE AND RESCUE DEPARTMENT FORMS REQUIRED: NOTE: Current

### SKILL VERIFICATION BOOK FIREFIGHTER I MODULE I FIRE PROTECTION BUREAU. Assigned to: Name:

Assigned to: Name: Skill Book Initiated: Department/District: Identification Number: SKILL VERIFICATION BOOK FIREFIGHTER I MODULE I Third Edition September 2004 Meeting the requirements of NFPA 1001, 2002

### MANURE GAS DANGERS CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H 2 S)

MANURE GAS DANGERS Since the increased use of manure storage facilities in agriculture there have been numerous instances where a farmer, family member, or employee has been asphyxiated or succumbed to

### Yakima County Fire District 12 Standard Operating Guidlines SOG 2-11 Interior Structure Firefighting

Yakima County Fire District 12 Standard Operating Guidlines SOG 2-11 Interior Structure Firefighting REFERENCES: WAC 296-305-05001 (8) WAC 296-305-05001 (10) WAC 296-305-05001 (11) Policy 1201, 2103, 2123,

### Hazardous Materials Awareness & Operations

Hazardous Materials Awareness & Operations Skill Sheet Package Based on NFPA 472: Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents, 2013 edition. Alabama

### TEMPLETON FIRE DEPARTMENT

SUBJECT: Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC) Page 1 of 12 PURPOSE: To assure that the appropriate level of Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC) shall be implemented at structure fires and other applicable incidents;

### second test was conducted using at 3/4inch nozzle to determine a practical maximum pressure for the pump.

I am writing this memo to you from the perspective of a fire apparatus operator and tester. Though I offer this collection of my observations and opinions, I do so voluntarily but with the full integrity

### INSTRUCTOR GUIDE REFERENCES: PUMPING APPARATUS DRIVER/OPERATOR HANDBOOK, FIRST EDITION, IFSTA

TOPIC: RELAY PUMPING OPERATIONS LEVEL OF INSTRUCTION: TIME REQUIRED: ONE HOUR INSTRUCTOR GUIDE MATERIALS: APPROPRIATE AUDIO VISUAL SUPPORT REFERENCES: PUMPING APPARATUS DRIVER/OPERATOR HANDBOOK, FIRST

### APPLCATIONS OF POSITIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION DURING AIRPORT AND ARFF INCIDENTS. Leroy B. Coffman III, Tempest Technology Corporation, USA

APPLCATIONS OF POSITIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION DURING AIRPORT AND ARFF INCIDENTS Leroy B. Coffman III, Tempest Technology Corporation, USA ABSTRACT Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) is the use of high-powered

### TESTING SKILLS SAFETY

SAFETY #1 Techniques for Actions When Trapped or Disoriented Subject: Fireground Operations Section 101 NFPA 1001 5.3.5 Firefighter I OBJECTIVE Exit a hazardous area as a team, given vision obscured conditions,

### What is rehab? What are the effects of heavy exertion in the heat? Does heat stress really happen?

The Practical Guide to Heat Stress and Emergency Incident Rehab What it is, what it isn t and how to get it done. Disclaimer There are many ways to skin a cat... they are all bad for the cat We do not

### INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND TACTICAL OPERATIONS MANUAL

Series 354 Rapid Intervention Team(RIT) Page 1 of 6 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND TACTICAL OPERATIONS MANUAL OPERATIONAL GUIDELINE RAPID INTERVENTION TEAM (RIT) SERIES 354 PURPOSE Fire departments are

### PART 3 MODULE 6 GEOMETRY: UNITS OF GEOMETRIC MEASURE

PART 3 MODULE 6 GEOMETRY: UNITS OF GEOMETRIC MEASURE LINEAR MEASURE In geometry, linear measure is the measure of distance. For instance, lengths, heights, and widths of geometric figures are distances,

### Hazardous Material Emergency Spill Response Protocol WAC

Hazardous Material Emergency Spill Response Protocol WAC 296-824 1.0 Policy PLU s highest priority is to protect employee and student health and safety. On that basis, PLU employees or students will not

### HAP e-help. Obtaining Consistent Results Using HAP and the ASHRAE 62MZ Ventilation Rate Procedure Spreadsheet. Introduction

Introduction A key task in commercial building HVAC design is determining outdoor ventilation airflow rates. In most jurisdictions in the United States, ventilation airflow rates must comply with local

### FLAMMABLE & COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS PROGRAM

FLAMMABLE & COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS PROGRAM 1.0 PURPOSE This program applies to employees, visitors and contractors (persons) for the purpose of articulating safe work practices when working with and around

Inerting System Design for Medium Speed Vertical Spindle Coal Pulverizers The PRB Coal Users Group plans to develop a Design Guide for Mill Inerting as an aid to users when designing a mill inerting system.

### a. Cari s first tank is 4 feet wide, 8 feet long and 5 feet high. How many cubic feet of water can her tank hold?

5.MD Cari's Aquarium Alignments to Content Standards: 5.MD.C.5.b Task Cari is the lead architect for the city s new aquarium. All of the tanks in the aquarium will be rectangular prisms where the side

### HAZARDOUS MATERIALS OPERATIONS NFPA 472, 2008 Edition

5.2 Core Competencies Analyzing the Incident JPR - HMO #1 5.2.1 Surveying the Hazardous Materials/WMD Incidents Revised: June 30, 2011 Standard Area: Competencies Analyzing the Incident STANDARD: 5.2.1.3.2

### Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC) Operations

Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC) Operations SAN FRANCISCO FIRE DEPARTMENT blank page Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC) Operations May 2012 San Francisco Fire Department 698 2 nd Street San Francisco, CA 94107

### Certification Guide Fire Fighter I

International Fire Service Certification Program September 2014 Edition; Revised April 2017 FIRE PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY Certification Guide Fire Fighter I NFPA 1001 Standard for Fire Fighter Professional

### Pump Stages. By Tom Murray

Pump Stages By Tom Murray As is often the case, we in the fire service tend to make things more difficult than they need to be. I believe this is the situation when discussing the pros and cons of single,

### Liquid Level Measurement

Technical Article Liquid Level Measurement A pressure transmitter can be used to determine the liquid level in a tank, well, river or other body of liquid. The pressure at the bottom of a liquid filled

### VACUUM TESTING PRECAST CONCRETE MANHOLES

1 OF 5 testing is a quick, safe and practical way to validate manhole system integrity. Manhole sections can be tested at the precast concrete plant prior to delivery or on site prior to backfilling. Here

### MFD Monroe Fire Department. Standard Operating Guidelines. Drivers Clearance & Training Program Guidance ADMINISTRATION

Monroe Fire Department Standard Operating Guidelines Drivers Clearance & Training Program Guidance ADMINISTRATION Goal: to develop and maintain a force of driver-operators and ensure they are proficient

### Number of Pages: 13 SOG Number: 1-13

Purpose: The purpose of this SOG is to establish command procedures, identify optional levels of rapid intervention capability, minimum training and equipment requirements for functioning RIT teams and

### OVERVIEW. Flow Coefficient C v. Operating Conditions. Specific Gravity

VERVIEW This valve sizing software program is based on the use of nomenclature and sizing equations from ISA Standard S75.01 and IEC Standard 534-2. The sizing equations are based on equations for predicting

### HIGHER PE (National 6) TACTICS Pupil Workbook

STRATHAVEN ACADEMY HIGHER PE (National 6) TACTICS Pupil Workbook PHYSICAL FACTORS (Tactics) and MENTAL FACTORS Impacting on Performance Name: Class: Teacher s Name: 1 What is a Tactic? SECTION 1 A tactic

### API Standard Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks: Nonrefrigerated and Refrigerated

General API Standard 2000 - Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks: Is there any limit for the maximum allowable linear velocity or any other parameter for the roof of a floating roof tank

### SECTION 2 THE ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF THE GAME

SECTION 2 THE ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF THE GAME After 18 years of developing players, I have come to find that there are certain key elements to any area of basketball. Any offensive skill, defensive skill,

### PERFORMANCE CRITERIA AND INSTRUCTIONS

JPR Task(s): Roll Fire Hose OMMISSION ON FIRE PROTETION PERSONNEL STANDARDS AND EDUATION OMMONWEALTH OF KENTUKY FIREFIGHTER 1 OMPETENY EVALUATION andidate #: Skill No. 1-31 PERFORMANE RITERIA AND INSTRUTIONS

### The importance of t. Gordon Craig, Coerver Coaching Director

Gordon Craig, Coerver Coaching Director The importance of t Inspired by the ideas of the Dutch coach, Wiel Coerver in the 60 s, that all the great skills from the top players at the time could be taught

### National5/6 PE TACTICS Pupil Workbook

STRATHAVEN ACADEMY National5/6 PE TACTICS Pupil Workbook PHYSICAL FACTORS (Tactics) and MENTAL FACTORS Impacting on Performance Name: Class: Teacher s Name: What is a Tactic? A tactic is a plan of action

### NFPA Standard on. Training for Initial Emergency Scene Operations Edition

NFPA 1410 Standard on Training for Initial Emergency Scene Operations 2005 Edition Copyright 2005, National Fire Protection Association, All Rights Reserved This edition of NFPA 1410, Standard on Training

### Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator Apparatus Testing. Chapter Test. Directions: Write the correct letter on the blank before each question.

Chapter 15 Test Name: Date: Directions: Write the correct letter on the blank before each question. Objective 1: Distinguish among preperformance tests for pumping apparatus. 1. Which standard is commonly

### Gas Accumulation Potential & Leak Detection when Converting to Gas

Gas Accumulation Potential & Leak Detection when Converting to Gas Coal to Gas / PCUG Conference Chattanooga, TN October 29, 2013 Robert G. Mudry, P.E. Airflow Sciences Corporation Introduction Coal to

### The Application of Temperature and/or Pressure Correction Factors in Gas Measurement

The Application of Temperature and/or Pressure Correction Factors in Gas Measurement COMBINED BOYLE S CHARLES GAS LAWS To convert measured volume at metered pressure and temperature to selling volume at

### Policy and Procedures Manual

Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute Policy and Procedures Manual PROCEDURE: Live Structural Fire Training Evolutions EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 AUTHORIZED BY: Steven T. Edwards, Director Maryland Fire

### Idaho Fire Service Technology Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator Skill Sheet: 1

Skill Sheet: 1 Standard 4.2.1, 4.2.2 Task: Perform and document routine test, inspection and servicing functions on specified systems and components. Performance Outcome: Given a fire department pumping

### ALAMEDA COUNTY FIRE CHIEFS ASSOCIATION

ALAMEDA COUNTY FIRE CHIEFS ASSOCIATION RAPID INTERVENTION CREWS APPENDIX T Alameda County - Alameda - Albany - Berkeley - CalFire - East Bay Regional Parks - Emeryville - Fremont Hayward - Livermore-Pleasanton

### SHIPPENSBURG FIRE DEPARTMENT STANDARD ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINE

SHIPPENSBURG FIRE DEPARTMENT STANDARD ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINE Title: NEW MEMBER ORIENTATION Date: 11/30/10 SAG # 1.05 Page 1 of 1 Purpose: To ensure that all personnel receive the proper training before

CLEARWATER FIRE ACADEMY March 16-17-18 Orofino High School Orofino, Idaho Sponsored by: Clearwater Fire Chiefs Association Orofino Fire Department Eastern Idaho Technical College 2 0 Clearwater Fire Academy

### STRUCTURED INQUIRY: Investigating Surface Area to Volume Ratio in Cells

STRUCTURED INQUIRY: Investigating Surface Area to Volume Ratio in Cells Introduction: All organisms are composed of cells. The size and shape of a cell determines how well it can deliver nutrients to its

### Essentials of Fire Fighting,

Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 8 Rescue and Extrication Chapter 8 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to summarize procedures and guidelines for rescue

### DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF AIR EXCHANGE RATE METHODS TO IMPROVE COST EFFECTIVENESS WHILE MAINTAINING ACCURACY

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF AIR EXCHANGE RATE METHODS TO IMPROVE COST EFFECTIVENESS WHILE MAINTAINING ACCURACY Prepared by: Joachim Eberharter (Joachim.Eberharter@tetratech.com) and James Elliot (Tetra

### City of Greencastle Fire Department

City of Greencastle Fire Department Training Division Instruction page: September 2012 Fire Suppression: Master Streams Each shift shall review the Master Stream outline below and do all 3 skill evolutions.

### Live Fire Training Safety 3 1 n/a 30 No None Video (a) CD-Rom (p) 3 1 n/a 30 No 1A and 1S or equivalent

* 1A 01-05-0030 Live Fire Training Safety 3 1 n/a 30 No None Video (a) 3 * 1B 01-05-0009 Conducting Live Fire Training Evolutions 3 1 n/a 30 No 1A 1S or equivalent Video (a) 3 * 1C 01-15-0007 Incident

### MABAS Division V Training Guide RIT. Appendix C

Appendix C PURPOSE: This training guideline encompasses all emergency environments including those considered an Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) atmosphere. Special response teams may require

### 2012 NFPA 70E: Electrical Safety In The Workplace

ERI Safety Videos Preventing Injuries Through Employee Training 2984 2012 NFPA 70E: Electrical Safety In The Workplace Leader s Guide ERI Safety Videos 2012 NFPA 70E: Electrical Safety In The Workplace

### Liquid level measurement using hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy

iquid level measurement using hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution icense, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license,

### UNDERSTANDING A DIVE COMPUTER. by S. Angelini, Ph.D. Mares S.p.A.

UNDERSTANDING A DIVE COMPUTER by S. Angelini, Ph.D. Mares S.p.A. Dive Computer UNDERSTANDING A DIVE COMPUTER The decompression algorithm in a dive computer is an attempt to replicate the effects of a dive

### SABERINDO PACIF SABERINDO PACIFIC CIFIC SABERINDO PA. A Tyco International Company

CIF A Tyco International Company 1 Foam Concentrate CIF 3% AFFF -UL Listed -UL Canada Listed 6% AFFF 6 parts AFFF concentrate to 94 parts water -UL Listed- Foam Liquid -UL Canada Listed 3% FLUOROPROTEIN

### "WORK PRACTICES AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS"

PRESENTER'S GUIDE "WORK PRACTICES AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS" Training for the OSHA HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS and EMERGENCY RESPONSE (HAZWOPER) REGULATION Quality Safety and Health Products, for Today...

### Improving RIT Operations

Improving RIT Operations How to improve your department s RIT operations for future and current demands Being familiar with the means of delivering air to a downed firefighter is critical. Jim Crawford,

### then the work done is, if the force and the displacement are in opposite directions, then the work done is.

1. What is the formula for work? W= x 2. What are the 8 forms of energy? 3. Write the formula for the following: Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. If the force and the displacement are in the same direction,

### Unit 1 Summary. License Math: Basic Math in Real Estate. Converting fractions to decimals

Converting fractions to decimals Some real estate math problems will contain fractions. While it is possible to solve the problem using fractions, it s typically easier to convert the fraction to a decimal

### Hazardous Materials/WMD Incident Response: Awareness (Online) Lesson Number: 6. Multiple-choice: Choose the one best answer.

Hazardous Materials/WMD Incident Response: Awareness (Online) Lesson Number: 6 The following progress evaluation is the final exam. It contains 50 multiple-choice questions worth 2 points each for a total

Head to Head Demo Comparison Sheet Task Force Tips Crossfire Portable/Deck Mount Monitor The purpose of this document is to encourage you to compare TFT products head to head, apples to apples, with like

### Course Firefighter I. Unit II Safety and Orientation

Course Firefighter I Unit II Safety and Orientation Essential Question Why is proficiency donning and doffing SCBA important for firefighters? TEKS 130.299(c) (2)(C), (10)(B), (11)(A)(C)(E), (14)(A)(B)

### Bare Essentials First Responders Self-defense Training

Bare Essentials First Responders Self-defense Training By L. Rivera Ever since the beginning of time, humans have used their fists, rocks, sticks and whatever else was available to them as a mean to fight,

### 1. Study the performance of a binary distillation column operated in batch mode.

Goals for batch distillation using the East distillation column: 1. Study the performance of a binary distillation column operated in batch mode. 2. Determine the overall and local efficiency of the column

### RESOLUTION MEPC.86(44) adopted on 13 March 2000 AMENDMENTS TO THE GUIDELINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SHIPBOARD OIL POLLUTION EMERGENCY PLANS

MEPC 44/20 RESOLUTION MEPC.86(44) THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION COMMITTEE, RECALLING Article 38(a) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization concerning the function of the Committee,

### San Ramon Valley Fire Protection District

San Ramon Valley Fire Protection District March, 2009 Company Performance Standards i Introduction This manual establishes a series of standard incident-based company evolutions for District use. Collectively,

### Chapter 20 - Waves. A wave - Eg: A musician s instrument; a cell phone call & a stone thrown into a pond A wave carries from one place to another.

Section 20.1 - Waves Chapter 20 - Waves A wave - Eg: A musician s instrument; a cell phone call & a stone thrown into a pond A wave carries from one place to another. Waves can change motion, we know that

### CALCULATING THE SPEED OF SOUND IN NATURAL GAS USING AGA REPORT NO Walnut Lake Rd th Street Houston TX Garner, IA 50438

CALCULATING THE SPEED OF SOUND IN NATURAL GAS USING AGA REPORT NO. 10 Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy JPS Measurement Consultants, Inc Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc (CEESI) 13002 Walnut Lake

### Call Now: , press 1 to register.

Changes at the State Fire Academy: The State Fire Academy is always striving to continuously improve their training product. As such, there are three changes you will notice on the schedule: EVOT Emergency

### Series Confined Space Rescue - Draft Page 1 of 6 Adopted: Revised: INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND TACTICAL OPERATIONS MANUAL

Series 387 - Confined Space Rescue - Draft Page 1 of 6 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND TACTICAL OPERATIONS MANUAL SERIES 387 PURPOSE OPERATIONAL GUIDELINE CONFINED SPACE RESCUE To establish guidelines relative

### Protective Envelope and Foam

Note Taking Guide Protective Envelope and Foam Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute University of Maryland Steven T. Edwards Fall 2011 Copyright 2011 by the Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute. All rights

### Pipe-Away Pressure Vacuum Vent /Conservation Vent

R R Pressure Vacuum Vent / End of Line Conservation Vent Flame Arrester with Pressure Vacuum Vent Pipe Away Pressure Vacuum Vent / Conservation Vent Vacuum Relief Vent Pressure Emergency Vent Free Vents

### Fire Apparatus Operator Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting

Fire Apparatus Operator Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Skill Sheet Package Based on NFPA 1002: Standard on Fire Apparatus Driver/ Operator Professional Qualifications, 2014 Edition. Alabama Fire College

### Standbys. (Owner: Risk Management Section Supervisor)

BTCP/BTRF Standbys (Owner: Risk Management Section Supervisor) Site Safety Standard 5500 Introduction Scope The purpose of this standard is to specify detailed roles and responsibilities of Standby personnel

### Bollard Pull. Bollard Pull is, the tractive force of a tug, expressed in metric tonnes (t) or kn.

Bollard Pull (Capt. P. Zahalka, Association of Hanseatic Marine Underwriters) Bollard Pull is, the tractive force of a tug, expressed in metric tonnes (t) or kn. This figure is not accurately determinable

### Laboratory Safety. Helena Hagelin-Weaver, Camilo Velez Cuervo, Ya-His Hwang and Fan Ren

Laboratory Safety Helena Hagelin-Weaver, Camilo Velez Cuervo, Ya-His Hwang and Fan Ren Types of Hazards Falling Objects Trip or Slip Hazards Hot Surfaces Burn Hazard Mechanical and Electrical Hazards Compressed

### maintaining storage tank dissolved oxygen levels utilizing gas transfer membranes

Water Technologies & Solutions technical paper maintaining storage tank dissolved oxygen levels utilizing gas transfer membranes Authors: W.E. Haas, SUEZ, J. Helmrich, Florida Power and Light and J.E.

### EVALUATING AND INTERPRETING APPLICATION UNIFORMITY OF CENTER PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

Page Break EVALUATING AND INTERPRETING APPLICATION UNIFORMITY OF CENTER PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS With rising fuel prices it is increasingly important that irrigation systems apply water uniformly in order

### Instruction Guide for using Dive Tables (draft)

Instruction Guide for using Dive Tables (draft) Revision 1.0 US Navy Tables Rev 6 December 2009 Landis Bullock This guide is intended to supplement the instruction of a qualified SCUBA Instructor, not

### Guide for Reading. Vocabulary compressibility

14.1 Properties of Gases Connecting to Your World In organized soccer, there are rules about equipment. For international competitions, the ball s mass must be not more than 450 grams and not less than

### MSC Guidelines for Review of Emergency Evacuation Plans (NVIC 8-93)

Procedure Number: H2 Revision Date: 10/07/2014 K. B. FERRIE, CDR, Chief, Hull Division Purpose The purpose of this Plan Review Guideline is to provide the submitter with general guidance and information