# Lab 4: Root Locus Based Control Design

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1 Lab 4: Root Locus Based Control Design References: Franklin, Powell and Emami-Naeini. Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 3 rd ed. Addison-Wesley, Massachusetts: Ogata, Katsuhiko. Modern Control Engineering, 5 th ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey: Introduction The objective in control system design is to manipulate a system s response via a compensator (i.e. controller). The response of a compensated system is presumably more useful than the uncompensated version. Lab 3, Basic Control Actions, demonstrated the use of the PI compensator. For the hydraulic motor, a proportional gain decreased the time constant of the response although it left a non-zero steady state error. An integral gain term eliminated this steady state error. The derivative gain slowed down the system response, thus reducing overshoot in the system. A desired system response is obtained by carefully selecting the PI compensator s gain parameters. Gain selection, aside from deciding the form of the compensator, is a major part of basic control system design. There are many methods by which one may choose compensator gains. In Lab 3, students were asked to try different proportional and integral gains that were chosen semi-randomly by the instructor. The point in that exercise was to observe the effects of changing the various gain parameters. If the point is to obtain a good response from a system whose mathematical representation is unknown, the Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules (Franklin p. 191, Ogata 5 th ed. p. 568) are used to select the PID controller gains. When a reasonably accurate mathematical representation of the system is known, as in the case of the hydraulic motor in the Parker-Hannifin Motion Control Laboratory, there are more sophisticated and powerful methods by which to select the gains. The root locus method is one such method that will be explored in this laboratory exercise. Frequency response methods and others will be investigated in future exercises. In this laboratory exercise, a proportional and PI compensator will be designed for the hydraulic motor using the root locus method and MATLAB. The mathematical model for the motor system was developed in Lab 2, Time Domain System ID First Order System. The designed control system will be simulated using Simulink and then implemented on the Parker Trainer Stand. A comparison of the simulation to the actual response will yield differences that must be explained in the laboratory report. Experimental Objectives Completion of the laboratory exercise will have required you to: Simulate a physical system using a data obtained from a Plant Identification. 1

2 Design a proportional and PI compensator using root locus design methods. Physically implement the compensators designed in the lab. Explain discrepancies between the recorded speed output from the physical system and that of the simulation. Understand qualitatively the information contained within a system s root locus plot. Overview of Design Process Design of a compensator using the root locus design method typically involves the following steps: Obtain a plant model. Translate design requirements into ζ and/or ω n information. System characteristics such as time constant (for first order systems) and overshoot and rise time (for second order systems) are design requirements. Translate ζ and/or ω n information into closed loop pole locations. Draw the root locus plot of the compensated system for a range of gains K c. Select a gain from the root locus plot which corresponds to the desired pole locations and use it in the compensator. Iterate if the system characteristics are not met due to unmodeled dynamics. In the Prelab assignment, you completed the first three steps. In this lab, you will complete the remaining steps in the compensator design process and then test your compensators in simulation and on the experimental system. Root Locus Design Using MATLAB A compensator design using the root locus method can be done completely in MATLAB with the tool rltool. Once the compensator gains have been designed, one should always test the closed loop system using Simulink before hardware implementation. This is recommended in case errors have been made in the formulation of the controller. Experimental Procedure Experiment 1: Root Locus Design with a Proportional Compensator Only The open loop hydraulic motor system that utilized the BD90 valve, as identified in Lab 2 at 300 psi, should have a time constant of about 50 ms and a steady state gain of about In this first exercise, we desire the time constant to be 25 ms. Thus, we close the loop and implement a proportional only controller because there is no requirement on the steady state error or overshoot. In the Prelab assignment you determined the time constant needed such that the time constant of the motor s 2

4 Start the system and start the controller. Obtain a good response for a step input of 800 RPM. Save the data in c:\me460\yourlogin. Stop the hydraulics. Plot the data and the simulated response on the same plot. Be sure to account for any time delay. Label, title and save the figure. Experiment 2: Root Locus Design with a PI Controller Unfortunately, the above proportional compensator was not good enough for the boss, who has decided that the design requirements will now be that the overshoot, M p, be exactly 1.5% and the peak time, t p, be approximately 0.21 seconds. In the Prelab assignment you related these design requirements to values for ζ and ω n. Again, we choose to use the root locus method to design the PI compensator. However, now there are two gains, K i and K c, which need to be chosen. Unfortunately, basic root locus methods allow us to investigate the movement of the closed loop poles with respect to only ONE gain as it is varied from zero to infinity. To circumvent this problem, we specify the ratio K i /K c. This changes the problem so that there is only one independent gain that needs to be varied. In rltool you can modify both gain and pole and zero locations. Draw a block diagram on paper of the closed loop system with a PI compensator. Keep everything symbolic for now. Using block diagram algebra, or any other acceptable method, find the closed loop transfer function of the system. The integrator has added another pole to the closed loop transfer function when compared with the proportional only system. What else has the integrator added to the closed loop equations? Manipulate the denominator until it has the form of Equation (1) in the Prelab assignment. K c is the gain from the proportional controller, and the ratio K i /K c should appear somewhere. For the first part of this lab experiment, assume the ratio K i /K c to be 32. Create the root locus plot for the modeled system using rltool by following the same procedure in the first exercise. Activate the grid in the root locus to plot the lines of constant ζ and ω n determined in the first step. Note that their intersection is the location of the complex closed loop poles that you calculated in the Prelab assignment. The root locus should pass through the intersection or pretty close to it. Note that only the closed loop poles which lie on the root locus are possible for the system. Quite often, the locus will not pass through the intersection of the desired ζ and ω n, which means that the design requirements cannot be met simultaneously. In this case, the problem is professorial enough that the locus should pass reasonably close to the desired complex poles. Title, label and save the root locus plot. Simulate the response of the closed loop system to a step input of 800 RPM using Simulink. Save and plot the results. Implement the control system on the physical system. Remember to have an instructor check the hydraulics and the block diagram before starting the system. Record the response to a step input of 800 RPM. Save and plot the results as before. 4

5 Lab Report 1. Include all plots created and saved during lab in your lab report. 2. Include your answers to all of the Prelab assignment questions, as well as the question under the second bullet in Experiment While there is too much uncertainty and variation in the system for the actual and simulated responses to correspond exactly, they should have the same qualitative shape. In some cases the actual step response may exhibit different shape features when compared to the simulated response. Why? Use the plots from both the proportional only and PI compensated systems in formulating an answer. 4. Theoretically, the system s response (i.e. ω n or τ) can be made to be arbitrarily fast simply by increasing the proportional gain and perhaps the ratio K i /K c. In practice, this is not true. Why not? 5

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