1 VENTILATION AND PERFUSION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE Dr.HARIPRASAD VS
2 Ventilation Total ventilation - total rate of air flow in and out of the lung during normal tidal breathing. Alveolar ventilation -represents the amount of fresh inspired air available for gas exchange in alveolar gas compartment V A =V E -V D V A x n=v T x n-v D x n Also; V CO2 = V A xf CO2 V A = V CO2 /P CO2
4 Alveolar gas equation pao2 FIO2 PATM ph2o paco2 The alveolar partial pressure of oxygen The fraction of inspired gas that is oxygen The prevailing atmospheric pressure The saturated vapour pressure of water at body temperature The arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pco2) 107 mmhg.21 RER The respiratory exchange ratio mmhg 47 mmhg 40 mmhg
5 Anatomical Dead space Volume of the conducting airways. Usually 150 Ml. Increases with large breath. Measured by fowler s or N 2 wash out method.
6 Subject breaths though a valve box N2 concentration at the mouth is analyzed Following a single breath of pure O 2,N 2 conc increases as dead space gas is washed out by the alveolar gas, finally reaching a plateau.
7 Physiologic dead space Physiologic dead space is the volume of lung that does not eliminate CO2 In normal subjects, Anatomical D.S = Physiological DS patients with lung disease, the physiologic DS > Anatomical D.S inequality of blood flow and ventilation within the lung
9 Dead space ventilation Pulmonary embolism Vascular obliteration ex. PAH Emphysema
10 Regional Differences in Ventilation change in volume per unit resting volume! lower regions of the lung ventilate better than do the upper zones. Supine position-ventilation of the lowermost (posterior) lung exceeds that of the uppermost (anterior) lung. Lateral position -the dependent lung is best ventilated.
11 Why? weight of the lung - lower portions of the lung requires a larger pressure below it than above it intrapleural pressure is less negative at the bottom. Basal region has a small resting volume, expanding pressure & placed on the steep part of the pressure volume curve. Paradox
12 At low lung volumes the intrapleural pressure at the base exceeds airway pressure. the lung at the base compressed, and ventilation is impossible until the intrapleural pressure falls apex of the lung is on a favourable part of the pressure-volume curve and ventilates well.
13 Airway Closure The compressed region of lung at the base does not have all its gas exhaled out. airways in the region of respiratory bronchioles close first trapping gas in the distal alveoli. 1. only at very low lung volumes in young normal subjects. 2. Elderly airway closure in the lowermost regions of the lung occurs at higher volumes Dependent regions of the lung may be only intermittently ventilated leading to defective gas exchange
14 Distribution of Blood Flow Blood flow within the lung is unequal.
15 On mild exercise, both upper and lower zone blood flows increase, and the regional differences become less pronounced. The uneven distribution of blood flow is due to the hydrostatic pressure differences within the blood vessels. difference in pressure between the top and bottom- 30 cm of H 2 O This is a large pressure difference for a lowpressure system as the pulmonary circulation J Appl Physiol 15:
16 No blood flow possible. Severe hemorrhage Positive pressure ventila Alveolar dead space.
17 Zone 4 -can be seen at the lung bases at low lung volumes or in Pulmonary oedema. Pulmonary interstitial pressure (Pi) rises as lung volume decreases due to reduced radial tethering of the lung Parenchyma Pa > Pi > Pv > PA
19 Shunt blood that enters the arterial system without going through ventilated areas of the lung. Physiological thebesian veins Bronchial veins Pathological Intracardiac A-V malformations
20 Shunt equation Q T = total blood flow Qs= shunt blood flow CvO2= O2 concentration in shunted blood Cc O2= O2 concentration in end-capillary blood CaO 2 = O 2 concentration in the arterial blood
21 a 5% shunt for every 100 mm Hg decrease in Pao2 below 700 mm Hg while the patient is breathing 100%. If Pa O2 on Fi O2 1.0 is 200, the shunt is approximately ( )* 5 ie 25 %. Pure shunt does not respond to increase in Fi O2. ARDS 25-50% shunt, responds to PEEP.
22 Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio What determines the concentration of dye? rate at which the dye is added (ventilation) rate at which water is pumped (blood flow)
23 Alterations in the Ventilation- Perfusion Ratio
24 O2-CO2 diagram
25 Regional changes in V-Q Ventilation increases slowly from top to bottom of the lung and blood flow increases more rapidly. V-Q ratio is abnormally high at the top of the lung and much lower at the bottom
26 Regional differences in gas exchange down the normal lung
27 Po2 at the apex is higher than at the base of the lung. However, the major share of the blood leaving the lung comes from the lower zones, where the Po2 is low. This depresses the arterial oxygen saturation.
28 V-Q mismatch in disease state.
30 Low V-Q ratio.
32 Units with high V-Q ratio add little oxygen to the blood, compared the decrement caused by the alveoli with the low ratio. The net result of these mechanisms is a depression of the arterial Po2 below that of the mixed alveolar Po2 alveolar-arterial O2 difference. Normal-4
33 CO2 dissociation curve is linear Although the elimination of CO2 is impaired by V/Q inequality, this can be corrected by increasing the ventilation to the alveoli.
34 Distributions of Ventilation- Perfusion Ratios All the ventilation and blood flow goes to compartments with normal V-Q ratio of 1.0. no blood flow to the unventilated compartment (shunt).
35 V-Q distribution in COPD large amount of ventilation to lung units with high V-Q ratios. Physiologic dead space excessive ventilation to high V-Q units constitute wasted ventilation. There is little blood flow to units with an abnormally low VA /Q, causing hypoxemia.
36 Increase in ventilation to high VA /Q units physiologic dead space. large amounts of blood flow to low VA /Q units physiologic shunt severe hypoxemia type B disease.
37 Hypoxic vasoconstriction Alveolar hypoxia constricts small pulmonary arteries direct effect of the low PO2 on vascular smooth muscle Directs blood flow away from poorly ventilated areas minimizing the arterial hypoxemia. Bronchodilators can abolish this mechanism and cause mild hypoxia by increasing the blood flow to poorly ventilated areas.
38 V-Q mismatch in Asthma considerable amount of the total blood flow to units with a low VA /Q mild hypoxemia
39 Bronchodilators increase the hypoxemia, by abolishing the HPV and, increasing the blood flow to lung units with low V/Q ratio s
40 V-Q mismatch in Pulmonary Edema abnormal accumulation of fluid in the extravascular spaces and tissues. severe hypoxemia results from; Shunt - > 50 % Blood flow to low V- Q areas
42 Pulmonary Embolism Moderate hypoxemia without carbon dioxide retention diffusion impairment opening up of latent pulmonary a-v anastomoses V-Q inequality-areas with High V-Q ratios dead space ventilation Shunting
43 blood flow is greatly reduced but not completely absent, leading to areas with high V-Q ratio s. Shunt occurs due to blood flow through the areas with hemorrhagic atelectasis, in which the alveoli are not functional.
44 The large physiological dead space in pulmonary embolism can cause hypercapnia, however the substantial increase in ventilation maintains the Paco 2 at a normal level. In the setting of acute PE, hypercapnia reflects massive embolism as the ventilatory muscles are unable to sustain the marked increase of minute ventilation needed to maintain normal arterial Paco2
45 Interstitial Pulmonary Fibrosis Basic pathology -thickening of the interstitium of the alveolar wall Spirometry -restrictive pattern Characterized by hypoxia and hypocapnia at rest. mild hypoxia at rest, worsened by exercise.
46 Cause of hypoxia? Rest V-Q Inequality Major factor during rest D.I minor factor, as lung as enormous reserves of diffusion at rest. Exercise Diffusion impairment Major factor during exercise Exercise - time for RBC S in pulmonary circulation Further worsens hypoxia V-Q Inequality Inadequate in Cardiac output ( PaO2 in mixed blood, PVR ) Inappropriately high
47 hypoxemia can be explained by the degree of VA /Q inequality at rest. Measured PaO2 below predicted in exercise! Additional hypoxemia is due to D.I
48 DL Co as a diagnostic test? Dlco is strikingly reduced in ILD Remains low in exercise, normal- 2-3 fold. Etiology- thickening of the blood gas barrier blood volume because of obliterated of blood vessels by the fibrotic process if the Dlco is not low, the diagnosis of ILDshould be regarded with suspicion.
49 Diseases of the Chest Wall Scoliosis -lateral curvature of the spine More serious kyphosis - posterior curvature. Restrictive lung disease! Hypoxemia due to : V-Q inequality Atelectasis & compression of dependent areas Airway closure
50 Hypercapnia Due to W.O.B caused by Stiff chest wall respiratory muscles operating at mechanical disadvantage reduced ventilatory response to CO2
51 Take home points! V-Q matching is required for maintaining normal PO2 and PCO2 levels in blood. V-Q mismatching is one of the most common causes of hypoxia and rarely hypercapnia in most of the lung diseases. Shunt and dead space ventilation are the two ends of the spectrum of V-Q mismatch.
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