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1 Available online at ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 62 ( 203 ) The 9 th Asia-Oceania Symposium on Fire Science and Technology An experimental study on buoyant spilled thermal plume temperature profile from over-ventilated enclosure fires in a reduced air pressure Fei Tang a, Longhua Hu a, *, Qiang Wang a, Xiaochun Zhang a, Kaihua Lu a, Michael Delichatsios b a State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei , China b FireSERT, School of Built Environment and Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT38 8GQ, Northern Ireland Abstract To investigate the effect of a reduced air pressure condition on buoyant spilled thermal plume temperature profile from over-ventilated enclosure fires, the same scale model experiments were performed correspondingly in both Hefei city (altitude: 50 m, ambient pressure: atm) and Lhasa city (altitude: 3650 m, ambient pressure: 0.64 atm). Comparative experimental results for both the lateral (normal to façade) and vertical (along facade) spilled plume temperature profile show that the lateral decay of temperature in the reduced air pressure is much faster than that in the normal air pressure condition. Meanwhile, the normalied spilled thermal plume temperature near the façade wall is much higher in the reduced pressure atmosphere than that in the normal pressure condition at the same height, indicating possibly weaker air entrainment of the buoyant spill plume in reduced pressure. These results reveal that fire safety regulations to counteract the vertical fire spread to upper floors need to be specified more rigorous at high altitude. 203 Published International by Elsevier Association Ltd. for Selection Fire Safety and/or Science. peer-review Published under responsibility by Elsevier Ltd. of the Open Asia-Oceania access under Association CC BY-NC-ND for Fire license. Science and Selection Technology. and peer-review under responsibility of the Asian-Oceania Association of Fire Science and Technology Keywords: Over-ventilated enclosure fires; Spilled plume temperature; Reduced air pressure Nomenclature A area of the window (m 2 ) C p specific heat of air at constant pressure (kj/kg K) g gravitational acceleration (m/s 2 ) H height of the window m air inflow rate (kg/s) m Q a F fuel supply flow rate (kg/s) convective heat release rate of the fire (kw) Q inside heat release rate inside the compartment (kw) r o Yokoi s length scale T ambient temperature (K) W width of the window Z vertical distance from the centre of opening Greek symbols ambient density (kg/m 3 ) * Corresponding author. Tel.: ; fax: address: International Association for Fire Safety Science. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Asian-Oceania Association of Fire Science and Technology doi: 0.06/j.proeng

2 220 Fei Tang et al. / Procedia Engineering 62 ( 203 ) g hot gases density inside the enclosure (kg/m 3 ) local plume density (kg/m 3 ) Δ H ox heat release per mass of air consumed at normal conditions (3000 kj/kg) Δ T temperature rise above the ambient (K) Δ T max the maximum temperature rise above the ambient in the lateral direction of a certain height (K) characteristic length scale, 2/5 = ( A H) Θ Yokoi s dimensionless temperature Θ. Introduction Lee s dimensionless temperature Buoyant rising thermal plume in high-rise building façade outflow from a burning enclosure causes great threat to upper floors and leads to catastrophic loss of life and property, in which the temperature profile of rising thermal plume is a key parameter. Over the past decades, a number of researchers [-] investigate thermal plume on external facades from both over-ventilated and under-ventilated compartment fires. Yokoi [] has proposed non-dimensional vertical temperature correlation of the façade fire plume in well-ventilated condition. Dimensionless temperature Θ correlated by normalied height / r 0 is as follows: r o Θ= = function( ) () r 3 c 2 QT 2 2 p g o Length scale HW ro = (2) 2π where is the vertical distance from half the height of the opening, T is the ambient temperature, Δ T is the maximum temperature rise at location, Q is the convective heat flow rate at the opening, is the local plume density of the hot gases, H and W are the height and width of the opening. Yokoi s temperature Θ can be divided into three regions [, 9]. One region is near the exit where the decrease in dimensionless temperatures Θ with distance from the opening is small and negligible. The second region occurs for / r0.5, the dimensionless temperature Θ r /. A third region occurs for 0 / r0 0, the dimensionless temperature varies nearly as Θ ( r0 / ). In recent years, Lee and Delichatsios et al. [7, 9] re-examined Yokoi s work including the definition of its length scale and dimensionless temperature correlation, and proposed a new length scale and new temperature correlation, in which a new length scale correlate Yokoi s experimental data better than using Yokoi s length scale. In addition, the local plume density in the dimensionless Yokoi s temperature Θ was replaced by the ambient density. Lee s work let us a better understanding the physics of outflow from façade fire plume. A new length scale and new temperature correlation Θ is as following: Θ= = function( ) (3) 3 c 2 QT 2 2 p g where length scale 2/5 2/5 3/2 g /2 g = WH = AH (4) For the over-ventilated enclosure fires, All the air is consumed inside the compartment, the total heat release inside the

3 Fei Tang et al. / Procedia Engineering 62 ( 203 ) / 2 compartment cannot reach 500AH [5-8] (in normal atmosphere pressure condition, atm). However, all those previous works considered in default that the fire occurs in the standard pressure atmosphere condition with a normal air density. In reduced pressure atmosphere where the air density is corresponding lower, the air mass inflow rate should be lower. In the reduced pressure atmosphere for Lhasa city (0.64 atm), we can have the maximum air inflow rate which is consumed inside the compartment: m Ag H AH /2 /2 /2 a = in kg/s (5a) This means for a given fuel supply rate or fire sie in the compartment at high altitude with reduced air pressure, less amount of the fuel can be consumed inside the compartment. Also we can have the maximum total heat release inside the compartment ΔH Q 0.33 c T Ag H 3000*0.35AH 000AH ox / 2 / 2 / 2 / 2 inside = p = in kw (5b) ct p At the same time, in a reduced pressure atmosphere at high altitude, with lower ambient air density, the entrainment air mass flow rate into the buoyant plume decreases. The thermal plume temperature profile from the façade fire plume, which relates closely to entrainment, should also change. This has never been revealed before. In this paper, a serious of reduced scale experiments were performed correspondingly both in Hefei city (altitude: 50 m, ambient pressure: atm) and in Lhasa city (altitude: 3650 m, ambient pressure: 0.64 atm) fire laboratories. The façade plume temperature profile was measured and compared at these two different ambient air pressures. Both the lateral (normal to façade) and vertical (along facade) temperature profiles of the spilled façade plume were investigated and correlated to provide a supplement and improvement over previous results in the literatures. The experimental devices, equipment and conditions are discussed in section 2, and the results and discussion are presented in section 3 followed by major conclusions in section Experimental 2.. Apparatus A reduced scale model was built as shown in Fig., constituted by a burning enclosure and a façade wall. The burning enclosure is 0.4 m cubic including a 0.03 m thick inner ceramic fiber board for thermal insulation. The facade wall are m wide and 2.2 m high, supported by steel structure and covered by a fire resisting board. The experiments were carried out at two different altitudes having different ambient air pressures (Hefei city: 50 m, ambient pressure: atm; Lhasa city: 3650 m, ambient pressure: 0.64 atm). Different ambient conditions were considered as listed in Table. There is an opening at the center of front façade wall of compartment. In the experiments, three opening geometries (0.5 m 0.5 m, 0.2 m 0.2 m, 0.2 m 0. m) were considered as listed in Table 2. Table. Environmental condition in Hefei and Lhasa city Location Altitude Atmospheric pressure ( kpa ) Ambient density (kg/m 3 ) Average humidity (%) Ambient temperature ( C) Hefei city Lhasa city A porous propane gas burner was used as the fire source placed at the center flush with the compartment floor. The fuel supply rate and hence the total heat release rate (HRR) of the fire were controlled by flow meter. A summary of these test conditions is presented in Table 2. All cases represent over-ventilated conditions.

4 222 Fei Tang et al. / Procedia Engineering 62 ( 203 ) Outer corner 40 cm Opening (a) Gas burner Inner corner 0. from façade wall Thermocouples 5 40 cm Gas burner Opening H W 0 cm (b) 0. from façade wall Thermocouples 49. H W 0 cm 40 cm Opening (c) Gas burner Fig.. Experimental model and measurement setup (a) top view (b) Hefei model (lateral view) (c) Lhasa model (lateral view).

5 Fei Tang et al. / Procedia Engineering 62 ( 203 ) Measurements and test conditions Thermocouple array was positioned outside the opening for Hefei experimental model and Lhasa experimental model respectively as also shown in Fig. (b) and Fig. (c). Their intervals are with the nearest one being 0. away from the façade wall. These rows of thermocouples are used to measure the temperature profile of the buoyant spill plume region above the façade flame. Type K thermocouples with diameter of 0.5 mm are used with measurement uncertainty less than C or 3%. Table 2. Summary of reduced-scale experimental scenarios Opening geometry Total heat release rate (kw) Height Width Location: Hefei city (altitude: 50 m, ambient pressure: atm) Location: Lhasa city (altitude: 3650 m, ambient pressure: 0.64 atm) / / / / 3. Results and discussion 3.. Lateral temperature profile As the air density is lower in reduced pressure atmosphere, this will result in a lower entrainment mass flow rate into the plume. The buoyant plume temperature profile in a reduced air pressure should be different from that in a normal air pressure condition. This section is to clarify the lateral spill plume temperature profile from over-ventilated enclosure fires at these two different ambient air pressure conditions. Figure 2 shows the typical lateral temperature profile of two aspect ratio openings at different ambient air pressures. It is found that the temperature close to the façade wall in the reduced air pressure is higher than that in normal air pressure. It can be explained by a lower entrainment air inflow rate into the plume due to lower air density, and also indicates that it has higher thermal threaten to upper floors and adjacent buildings. Figure 3 shows the normalied temperature rise / max with normalied distance dw / from the façade wall at different ambient air pressures. It is found that the normalied lateral temperature profile of the façade plume in the reduced pressure atmosphere is still quite different from that in the normal air pressure condition. The plume shape in reduced air pressure is indicated to be thinner than that in normal air pressure condition. Also the decay of lateral temperature is much faster in the reduced air pressure than that in the normal air pressure condition. Temperature ( o C) cm 20cm Lhasa data Z kw 0.5kw Hefei data Z kw 5.kw Experimental data Temperature ( o C) cm 0cm Lhasa data Z kw 8.8kw Hefei data Z kw 0.3kw Experimental data (a) Horiontal distance from the facade wall, dw (cm) (b) Horiontal distance from the facade wall, dw (cm) Fig. 2. Lateral temperature profile of spill plume, (a) (H) (W); (b) (H) 0 cm (W).

6 224 Fei Tang et al. / Procedia Engineering 62 ( 203 ) (a) Δ T max cm 20cm d Hefei Z w / Lhasa Z Normalied value (b) Δ T max cm 0cm Normalied value d Hefei Z w / Lhasa Z Fig. 3. Normalied lateral temperature profile of spill plume showing that the horiontal decay of temperature is much faster in reduced pressure Vertical temperature profile Figure 4 correlates the vertical maximum temperature of buoyant spill plume in the buoyant plume region at the two different air pressures. It is clearly found that the spill plume temperature is well collapsed by Lee s new correlation [7, 9] based on Θ as shown in Eq. 3. The correlation results are shown in Eq. 6. The correlation results for the power of are both close to the idea value of -3/5. However, the normalied temperature is shown to be a bit higher in reduced pressure. Application of current fire protection measure settings to high altitude locations should be reconsidered to be even more conservative in reduced atmospheric pressure Hefei city (atm): Θ= = 3.87( ) (6a) ( QT )/( c g) p Lhasa city (0.64atm): Θ= = 4.32( 0.68 ) (6b) ( QT)/( cp g) 00 0 Hefei (atm) correlation Lhasa (0.64atm) correlation Θ= = 3.87( ) ( QT)/( cp g) 0.63 Θ= = 4.32( ) ( QT)/( cp g) 0. Θ 0.68 Fig. 4. Collapse of the experimental data non-dimensionally by Eq. (3). 4. Conclusions Reduced scale model experiments were conducted to investigate both lateral and vertical temperature profile of a

7 Fei Tang et al. / Procedia Engineering 62 ( 203 ) buoyant façade spill plume from an over-ventilated enclosure fires at two attitudes under two different ambient pressures ( atm and 0.64 atm). Major findings include: () The spill thermal plume temperature at a given height decays faster laterally in the direction normal to the façade due to lower air entrainment mass flow rate as density is lower in reduced pressure. (2) The vertical maximum temperature of the spill thermal plume near the external façade wall is well collapsed by Lee s new correlation Θ (Eq. 3), and it is higher in the reduced air pressure condition than that in the normal air pressure condition at the same height, suggesting that the fire safety regulations to counteract the vertical fire spread to upper floors need to be specified more rigorous at high altitude. These findings are helpful to improve over previous results in the literature on the understanding of the plateau enclosure façade fire behavior. Acknowledgements This paper was supported by National Nature Foundation of China under Grant No.57680, National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 202CB79702, Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University under Grant No. NCET References [] Yokoi, S., 960. Trajectory of Hot Gas Ejected from a Window of a Burning Concrete Building. Building Research Institute Report 34, p. 89. [2] Yokoi, S., 960. Temperature Distribution of Hot Gas Spurting out of the Window of Burning Concrete Building. Building Research Institute Report 34, p. 89. [3] Himoto, K., Tsuchihashi, T., Tanaka, Y., Tanaka, T., Modeling the Trajectory of Window Flames with regard to Flow Attachment to the Adjacent Wall. Fire Safety Journal 44, p [4] Yamaguchi, J. I., Tanaka, T., Temperature Profiles of Window Jet Plume, Fire Science Technology 24, p.7. [5] Lee, Y. P., Delichatsios, M. A., Silcock, G. W. H , Heat Fluxes and Flame Heights in Facades from Fires in Enclosures of Varying Geometry, Proceedings of Combustion Institute 3, p [6] Lee, Y. P., Heat Fluxes and Flame Heights in External Facade Fires, University of Ulster, PhD thesis. [7] Lee, Y. P., Delichatsios, M. A., Ohmiya, Y., The Study for the Physics of the Outflow from the Opening of a Burning Enclosure, Proceedings of the 5th International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Haards, Edinburgh, p. 38. [8] Lee, Y. P., Delichatsios, M. A., Ohmiya, Y., Wakatsuki, K., Yanagisawa, A., Goto, D., Heat Fluxes on Opposite Building Wall by Flames Emerging From an Enclosure, Proceedings of Combustion Institute 32, p [9] Lee, Y. P., Delichatsios, M. A., Ohmiya, Y., 202. The Physics of the Outflow From the Opening of an Enclosure Fire and Re-Examination of Yokoi s Correlation. Fire Safety Journal 49, p.82. [0] Hu, L. H., Lu, K. H., Delichatsios, M. A.,He, L. H., Tang, F., 202. An Experimental Investigation and Statistical Characteriation of Intermittent Flame Ejecting Behavior of Enclosure Fires with an Opening. Combustion and Flame 59, p.78. [] Tang, F., Hu, L. H., Delichatsios, M. A., Lu, K. H., Zhu, W., 202. Experimental Study on Flame Height and Temperature Profile of Buoyant Window Spill Plume from an Under-Ventilated Compartment Fire. International Journal Heat and Mass Transfer 55, p. 93.

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