# Diffusivity in Gases Experiment ver 05.10a

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Diffusivity in Gases Experiment ver 05.0a number of experimental techniques have been developed for the measurement of the diffusivity in gases. Both steady-state and unsteady-state methods are used. However, an accurate determination of the diffusivity demands a careful analysis of the experimental method involved. To demonstrate some of the problems encountered in when making diffusivity measurements, an unsteady-state procedure will be used to determine the diffusivity in a binary system. The results and method will be analyzed in some detail. THEORY convenient and classical method for determining the diffusivity in binary, gaseous systems is to measure the time necessary to produce a concentration change when two different gases of equal volumes are allowed to diffuse into each other after an initial separation at a flat interface. It is necessary that the two gaseous species be ideal to the extent that there be no pressure change upon mixing when isothermal conditions prevail if this method is to function satisfactorily. For cylindrical chambers where the interface is normal to their longitudinal axes, the diffusion takes place in one dimension only. The differential mass-balance for either of the two molecular species in the system is given by where: c t N c total molar density of the system N z molar flux of a species '' along the z-axis t time mole fraction of species '' In this particular situation equimolal counterdiffusion occurs in stationary coordinates. pplying Fick's First Law of diffusion, it reduces to N z z () cdab () where D ab is the mass diffusivity for the binary system based on concentration driving forces. When the total molar density c and mass diffusivity D ab are independent of the composition of species B, combination of equations () and () gives D ab t (3)

2 The boundary conditions for this differential equation, determined by the apparatus, are where L is the length of each diffusion cell. z L The initial value condition, determined by experimental procedure, is zl 0 0 solution to equation (3) with conditions (4-6) is with the eigenvalues λ n n. L (4) (5) L < z < 0 ( z) (6) t < z < L + n Sin( λn L) Cos( λn z) e λ L n λn Dabt Instead of measuring the concentration at a particular point in the system as a function of time, the diffusion process may be stopped at any particular time and the average concentration in each cell determined. The average concentration of molecular species '' in each cell is B dz B dz 4 ± k 0 ( k + ) e ( k ) + L where the + sign refers to the lower diffusion cell and the sign refers to the upper diffusion cell. The infinite series in equation (8) must be truncated in some way in order to develop an analytical or numerical expression for the diffusivity. If the series is truncated to the first term a direct analytical solution for the diffusivity can be made 4 ± e Dabt L D ab 4L Ln t ± 4 Dabt ( ) The use of this equation must be validated by comparison of the first term to subsequent terms. If subsequent terms are negligible compared to the first term then equation (9) is usable. The average concentrations in the diffusion cells can be determined in many ways. One of the simplest and fastest methods is a gravimetric scheme whereby one of the two gases being investigated is preferentially reacted with and/or absorbed on solid materials and a change in weight is used to determine the amount of gas in the binary mixture. (7) (8) (9)

3 PROCEDURE Before conducting this experiment, you should understand and become familiar with the operation of the equipment. (Note that the diffusion cells are constructed of glass and are therefore to be handled with care.) Proper procedures are:. Close both gas tanks completely by turning the regulator valve clockwise until it stops (Figure ). Figure : Gas Tank Regulator. Rotate the diffusion cells to their loading positions. Each cell will be centered over its outlet valve and the cells will be situated 0º to each other (Figure ). Figure : Loading Position 3. Open the inlet valves on the top of the upper cell and bottom of the lower cell. To open a valve, turn the disk handle one turn counterclockwise. 4. Remove the caps on the upper side of the lower cell and the lower side of the upper diffusion cell. 5. Connect the gray tubing to the inlet of the lower cell and the black tubing to the inlet of the upper cell (Figure 3). Figure 3: Initial Tubing Connections 6. Turn the nitrogen gas tank valve two turns counterclockwise. 7. Turn the nitrogen pressure valve two turns counterclockwise.

4 8. Turn the nitrogen regulator valve one-half turn counterclockwise. 9. Slowly turn the nitrogen pressure valve clockwise until the reading on the nitrogen rotameter reads between one and two SCFH (Figure 4). Figure 4: Rotameter Positions 0. Use the nitrogen rotameter knob to adjust the flow rate to.0 SCFH. Counterclockwise turning increases the flow rate while clockwise turning decreases the flow rate. The left pressure gauge on the nitrogen regulator should show less than psig.. Repeat steps 6-0 for proper CO flow.. llow the gasses to flow through the cells for 5 minutes. 3. In quick succession perform the following steps i. Close both inlet valves. ii. Rotate the cells into neutral position (Figure 5). iii. Close both regulator valves. Figure 5: Neutral Position 4. Rotate the cells in a smooth, slow fashion into diffusing position (Figure 6). Do this with as little shaking or jarring as possible. This rotation should be accomplished in about seconds. No more, no less. Figure 6: Diffusing Position

5 5. Immediately start the stopwatch. llow diffusion to occur for at least 5 minutes. During this time prepare an absorption tube, if necessary. Directions on how to prepare absorption tubes are included in the next section. 6. minute before stopping diffusion weigh a prepared absorption tube on the analytical balance. Record the initial mass in a lab notebook! Clamp the absorption tube to the post located next to the apparatus. The scarite section of the tube should be lower than the Drierite end. The vertical center of the absorption tube should be level with the outlet valve of the upper cell (Figure 7). Figure 7: Tube Orientation on the Clamp Stand 7. t the chosen time, rotate the cells out of diffusing position into neutral position and stop the stopwatch. Record this time in a lab notebook! 8. Remove the gray tubing from the inlet valve of the lower cell. Remove both end caps from the absorption tube. ttach the clear plastic end of the transfer tubing to the scarite end so that flushed gas will flow upward through the tube reacting first with scarite before contacting the Drierite. Connect the other end of the transfer tubing to the outlet valve of the upper cell. Remove the cap from the outlet valve of the upper cell if not already done so (Figure 8). Figure 8: Transfer Tubing Connections 9. Remove the black tubing from the inlet valve of the upper cell. 0. djust the flow of nitrogen gas using steps 7-0 with the following changes: i. Step 9: Turn the nitrogen pressure valve clockwise until the rotameter indicates a gas flow of 0.5 SCFH. ii. Step 0: djust gas flow using the rotameter knob to a flow rate of 0.5 SCFH.. Close the nitrogen regulator valve.. Connect the black tubing to the inlet valve of the upper cell. 3. Cover the outlet valve of the lower cell with a valve cap. Leave the outlet valve of the upper cell uncapped.

6 4. Rotate the cells into loading position. 5. Slowly open the nitrogen regulator valve one-half turn counterclockwise. 6. Check the nitrogen rotameter. djust the gas flow rate to maintain 0.5 SCFH. 7. llow the nitrogen to flow for 0 seconds exactly. 8. Remove the clear end of the transfer tubing from the absorption tube. Immediately replace the end caps. llow the nitrogen to continue to flow through the upper cell. 9. Weigh the absorption tube. Record this mass in a lab notebook! 30. In quick succession: i. Close the nitrogen regulator valve. ii. Close the inlet valve of the upper cell. 3. Rotate the cells into diffusing position. llow the CO in the lower cell to diffuse into the upper cell for at least 5 minutes. 3. Clamp the absorption tube to the stand. The scarite end should be on bottom, as before. The vertical center of the absorption tube should be level with the inlet valve of the lower cell. Remove both end caps from the absorption tube. ttach the clear end of the transfer tubing to the scarite end of the absorption tube (Figure 9). Figure 9: Flushing of Lower Cell 33. Open both inlet valves one-half of a turn counterclockwise. 34. Repeat Steps 5-9 in order to flush the upper-lower cells combination. 35. Close the nitrogen regulator valve. SHUTDOWN Shutdown is straightforward. Simply ensure the following items are done. Clean out all unused absorption tubes and place waste in the waste container. Leave the counter clean! sponge to clean and a paper towel to dry are appropriate means. Close the regulator valves and open the inlet valves. Remove both diffusion caps and remove all tubing from the diffusion cells. Rotate the cells into loading position and leave the apparatus in a vertical position. In an emergency situation, close both gas tanks before leaving.

7 PREPRTION OF BSORPTION TUBES The absorbent used to capture flushed CO is scarite, a mixture of sodium hydroxide on silica gel. The measured mass of the tube initially and after each cell flushing provides the relative amounts of carbon dioxide absorbed from the cells. The assumptions that 00% of the carbon dioxide present in the cells is absorbed, or that the percentage absorbed are equal for both cells may or may not be valid. In the course of data analysis and drafting of reports the assumptions used in order to reach conclusions must be stated and explained. The proper preparation of an absorption tube is as follows:. Each tube consists of a long, hollow tube, two end pieces, and two end caps. Clean each piece with a paper towel. DO NOT blow into the tube in order to clean out residue.. Fill each end piece with glass wool. Place an end cap on each end piece. 3. Place an end piece on one end of the tube. 4. Using a funnel, slowly pour scarite into an upright tube (the end with the attached end piece is on bottom and the open end is on top) until 75% of the inner volume is filled. Do not hold it too close to your body, especially your face; the pouring action creates a fine dust which is corrosive to skin and mucous membranes. 5. Gently push glass wool into the tube above the scarite. 6. In a manner similar to step 4, pour Drierite into the tube until the remaining 0% of the tube volume is occupied. DO NOT leave the bottles of scarite and Drierite uncapped. 7. Place the other end piece onto the open end. 8. Gently brush off the tube with a paper towel to remove any dust. 9. Place any waste into the waste container and replace the cap immediately. scarite is a hazardous waste once destined for disposal. Proper experimental procedure includes the careful handling of the absorption tube. ll reasonable means to ensure that all change in absorption tube mass is due only to carbon dioxide absorption should be taken. It should not be handled by bare hands. Gloves or paper towels are acceptable means of tube handling. Careful weighing of the tube is essential; a difference of 0.mg can be the difference between reasonable and unreasonable values. The tube should be weighed on the analytical balance, with the door on the balance closed. The weighing should occur immediately before and after flushing.

### Ch. 11 Mass transfer principles

Transport of chemical species in solid, liquid, or gas mixture Transport driven by composition gradient, similar to temperature gradients driving heat transport We will look at two mass transport mechanisms,

### LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES revised by Igor Bolotin 03/05/12

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES revised by Igor Bolotin 03/05/ This experiment will introduce you to the kinetic properties of low-pressure gases. You will make observations on the rates with which selected

### The Ideal Gas Constant

Chem 2115 Experiment # 8 The Ideal Gas Constant OBJECTIVE: This experiment is designed to provide experience in gas handling methods and experimental insight into the relationships between pressure, volume,

### Determination of the Gas-Law Constant (R) using CO2

Determination of the Gas-Law Constant (R) using CO2 EXPERIMENT 11 Prepared by Edward L. Brown and Miranda Raines, Lee University The student will become familiar with ideal gases and how their properties

### Gas Laws. 2 HCl(aq) + CaCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + CaCl 2 (aq) HCl(aq) + NaHCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + NaCl(aq)

Gas Laws Introduction: Although we cannot see gases, we can observe their behavior and study their properties. For example, we can watch a balloon filled with helium gas floating in air and conclude that

### Gas Laws. 2 HCl(aq) + CaCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + CaCl 2 (aq) HCl(aq) + NaHCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + NaCl(aq)

Gas Laws Introduction: Although we cannot see gases, we can observe their behavior and study their properties. For example, we can watch a balloon filled with helium gas floating in air and conclude that

### Fall 2004 Homework Problem Set 9 Due Wednesday, November 24, at start of class

0.30 Fall 004 Homework Problem Set 9 Due Wednesday, November 4, at start of class Part A. Consider an iron surface which serves as a catalyst for the production of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. The

### LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES adapted by Luke Hanley and Mike Trenary

ADH 1/7/014 LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES adapted by Luke Hanley and Mike Trenary This experiment will introduce you to the kinetic properties of low-pressure gases. You will make observations on the

### Heat Engine. Reading: Appropriate sections for first, second law of thermodynamics, and PV diagrams.

Heat Engine Equipment: Capstone, 2 large glass beakers (one for ice water, the other for boiling water), temperature sensor, pressure sensor, rotary motion sensor, meter stick, calipers, set of weights,

### mass of container full of air = g mass of container with extra air = g volume of air released = cm 3

1992 Q32 The air pressure inside the passenger cabin of an airliner is 9 x 10 4 Pa when the airliner is at its cruising height. The pressure of the outside atmosphere at this height is 4 x 10 4 Pa. Calculate

### Additional Reading General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, by Timberlake, chapter 8.

Gas Laws EXPERIMENTAL TASK Determine the mathematical relationship between the volume of a gas sample and its absolute temperature, using experimental data; and to determine the mathematical relationship

### Chapter 13 Gases. H. Cannon, C. Clapper and T. Guillot Klein High School. Pressure/Temperature Conversions

Chapter 13 Gases Pressure/Temperature Conversions Convert the following: 1. 3.50 atm = kpa 2. 123 atm = mmhg 3. 970.0 mmhg = torr 4. 870.0 torr = kpa 5. 250.0 kpa = atm 6. 205.0 mmhg = kpa 7. 12.4 atm

### THE DECOMPOSITION OF POTASSIUM CHLORATE This lab is derived almost entirely from a lab used at the United States Naval Academy

THE DECOMPOSITION OF POTASSIUM CHLORATE This lab is derived almost entirely from a lab used at the United States Naval Academy PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment is to study the decomposition of potassium

### EXPERIMENT 8 Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor

EXPERIMENT 8 Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor Purpose: In this experiment you will use the ideal gas law to calculate the molecular weight of a volatile liquid compound by measuring the mass,

### PURE SUBSTANCE. Nitrogen and gaseous air are pure substances.

CLASS Third Units PURE SUBSTANCE Pure substance: A substance that has a fixed chemical composition throughout. Air is a mixture of several gases, but it is considered to be a pure substance. Nitrogen and

### Multiple Choice (40%)

AP Chemistry Test (Chapter 5) Please do not write on this test thank you! Multiple Choice (40%) 1) A sealed rigid container is filled with three ideal gases: A, B and C. The partial pressure of each gas

### Gas Absorption Draft Standard Operating Procedure

Gas Absorption Draft Standard Operating Procedure R.C. 9-14 Scope Page 1 Equipment Overview Page 1 Safety Page 2 Operating Procedure Page 4 Equipment Description Page 16 Gas Absorption Experiment Draft

### CHM111 Lab Gas Laws Grading Rubric

Name Team Name CHM111 Lab Gas Laws Grading Rubric Criteria Points possible Points earned Lab Performance Printed lab handout and rubric was brought to lab 3 Safety and proper waste disposal procedures

### End of Chapter Exercises

End of Chapter Exercises Exercises 1 12 are conceptual questions that are designed to see if you have understood the main concepts of the chapter. 1. While on an airplane, you take a drink from your water

### Determination of R: The Gas-Law Constant

Determination of R: The Gas-Law Constant PURPOSE: EXPERIMENT 9 To gain a feeling for how well real gases obey the ideal-gas law and to determine the ideal-gas-law constant R. APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS: KClO

### What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in multicellular organisms?

INV~t:;TIGATION 6 CELLULAR RESPIRATION* What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in multicellular organisms? BACKGROUND Living systems require free energy and matter to maintain order, to grow,

### Chapter 3 EXPERIMENTAL: EQUIPMENT, SET-UP, AND PROCEDURE

Chapter 3 EXPERIMENTAL: EQUIPMENT, SET-UP, AND PROCEDURE 72 3.0 Introduction The experimental work was carried out in three stages. First stage: a laboratory scale single nozzle horizontal jet ejector

### MASS TRANSFER LAB. Make & Model. S. No. Equipment

MASS TRANSFER LAB S. No. Equipment Make & Model Manufacture Qty 1 Liquid / Liquid Extraction Unit UOP5-A Armfield 1 2 Gas Liquid Absorption UOP7-A Armfield 1 3 Diffusion of a Liquid Apparatus CER A-A Armfield

### Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids

Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids Property is meaning any measurable characteristic of a substance, such as pressure, volume, or temperature, or a characteristic that can be calculated or deduced,

### UNIT 10 - GASES. Notes & Worksheets - Honors

Ideal Gas Equation 1 WKSHT 1.) What is the pressure exerted by 2.0 moles of an ideal gas when it occupies a volume of 12.0 L at 373 K? 2.) A flashbulb of volume 2.6 cm 3 contains O 2 gas at a pressure

### Experiment 8: Minor Losses

Experiment 8: Minor Losses Purpose: To determine the loss factors for flow through a range of pipe fittings including bends, a contraction, an enlargement and a gate-valve. Introduction: Energy losses

### Chapter 5: Gases 5.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works.

Chapter 5: Gases 5.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. A Gas Uniformly fills any container. Easily compressed. Mixes completely

### The Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate

The Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate Small quantities of molecular oxygen (O 2 ) can be obtained from the thermal decomposition of certain oxides, peroxides, and salts of oxoacids. Some examples of

### Behavior of Gases Chapter 12 Assignment & Problem Set

Behavior of Gases Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Behavior of Gases 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition

### Please do not write on this test. Please use the answer sheet. 1) Please choose all conditions that would allow a gas sample to behave ideally.

AP Chemistry Test (Chapter 5) Please do not write on this test. Please use the answer sheet. Multiple Choice (50%) 1) Please choose all conditions that would allow a gas sample to behave ideally. I) Nonpolar

### LABORATORY TECHNIQUES. Pouring Liquids

LABORATORY TECHNIQUES Working in the chemistry laboratory you will be handling potentially dangerous substances and performing unfamiliar tasks. This section provides you with a guide to the safe laboratory

### Experiment 1 Introduction to Some Laboratory Measurements

Experiment 1 Introduction to Some Laboratory Measurements Introduction In this experiment you will familiarize yourself with the English & metric systems of measurement, weigh with a centigram balance,

### CHEM254 #4 The Synthesis of a Tertiary Alcohol Using a Pre-Made Grignard Reagent 1

CHEM254 #4 The Synthesis of a Tertiary Alcohol Using a Pre-Made Grignard Reagent 1 Background In this project, we will perform a Grignard reaction using a pre-made Grignard reagent. Grignard reagents can

### LNG Regulator Test Kit

OVERVIEW Chart provides a LNG Economizer/Regulator Test Kit to help save money and time by allowing a technician to more accurately and easily diagnose the operability of the pressure control regulator/economizer

### . In an elevator accelerating upward (A) both the elevator accelerating upward (B) the first is equations are valid

IIT JEE Achiever 2014 Ist Year Physics-2: Worksheet-1 Date: 2014-06-26 Hydrostatics 1. A liquid can easily change its shape but a solid cannot because (A) the density of a liquid is smaller than that of

### 4.) There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles. This means that

KINETIC MOLECULAR (K-M) THEORY OF MATTER NOTES - based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion - assumptions of the K-M Theory 1.) Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that

### Section 5.1 Pressure. Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works.

Chapter 5 Gases Section 5.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 2 Section 5.1 Pressure

### I. Subject: Compressed gas cylinders, regulators, and portable liquid systems.

I. Subject: Compressed gas cylinders, regulators, and portable liquid systems. II. Objective: To provide safe and effective use, storage, and transport of therapeutic gases. II. Procedure: A. Compressed

### POWER FLUSH KIT INSTRUCTIONS

1 GENERAL INFORMATION POWER FLUSH KIT INSTRUCTIONS ACE Power Flush is an ozone-safe solvent engineered specifically for flushing refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Used exactly like the old R-11

### APBiology Unit 2, Chapter 8

APBiology Unit 2, Chapter 8 Research Question What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in multicellular organisms? Background Living systems require free energy and matter to maintain order,

### BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY

BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY Dr.R.Selvakumar.M.D.D.A.DNB Professor of Anaesthesiology, K.A.P.Viswanatham Govt medical college, Trichy. The current practice of Anaesthesiology demands knowledge

### MEDICAL GASES Manufacture, Storage, Transport & Delivery B.KIRUTHIGA LECTURER DEPT OF PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY

MEDICAL GASES Manufacture, Storage, Transport & Delivery B.KIRUTHIGA LECTURER DEPT OF PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY Composition of the Air We breathe earth s atmosphere composed of: Nitrogen (78%) Oxygen (21%)

### EXPERIMENT XI. Careful!! Improper handling of the vacuum line may result in the release of SO 2 which is an irritating and suffocating gas.

Chem 366-3 Page XI - 1 EXPERIMENT XI INFRARED SPECTRUM OF SO2 (S&G, 5th ed. Expt 36, 6th ed. Expt. 35) 1. Pre-Lab preparation. The description of this experiment has disappeared from the more recent editions

### Read ENTIRE lab up to Disposal Section. MAKE NOTES!!! **For Procedures, Highlight equipment used and circle quantities measured out.

Lab Ch 2 Mass, Volume, & Density Lab Partners: READ Prelab!!! Read ENTIRE lab up to Disposal Section. MAKE NOTES!!! **For Procedures, Highlight equipment used and circle quantities measured out. Density

### LEAP CO 2 Laboratory CO 2 mixtures test facility

LEAP CO 2 Laboratory CO 2 mixtures test facility THE PROJECT AIM CO 2 flows made available by several capture techniques are contaminated with impurities and this affects the design and operations of the

### AQUARIUS. Operating Instructions for the. Type 70 Electrolytic Gas Soldering / Welding Unit. Table of Contents

AQUARIUS Operating Instructions for the Type 70 Electrolytic Gas Soldering / Welding Unit Table of Contents 1. Important General Remarks 2 2. Safety Instructions 2 3. Description of the Soldering Unit

### 1. Quantity of a gas (moles) 2. Temperature of the gas. 3. Volume occupied by the gas. 4. Pressure exerted by the gas. PV = nrt

Experiment 5 Stoichiometry : Gases Determining the Ideal Gas Constant Lab Owl Announcement: Upon completion of this lab log onto OWL. Your fourth Lab Owl assignment, Lab Owl: Exp 5 should appear there.

### Cornelius Keg Topping System for Barrels

Product# KEG405 MoreInstructions Cornelius Keg Topping System for Barrels Keg Like A Pro! Congratulations on your purchase and welcome to kegging! This guide is designed to teach you how to clean, sanitize,

### LEAK SEALING SYSTEMS

OPERATION MANUAL FOR LEAK SEALING SYSTEMS 04 FEB 2016 PN 22-891709 Paratech Incorporated Headquarters Paratech Europe, Branch of Paratech Inc. P.O. Box 1000, Frankfort, IL 60423 USA P.O. Box 174, 5260

### Students measure the change in pressure by varying the volume of trapped air in a syringe while:

How Does a Trapped Gas Behave? Teacher Information Objective Students investigate the effect of changes in the volume of a confined gas on pressure at constant temperature. Using the pressure sensor, students

### 11.1 Dumas Method - Pre-Lab Questions

11.1 Dumas Method - Pre-Lab Questions Name: Instructor: Date: Section/Group: Show all work for full credit. 1. If a 275-mL gas container has pressure of 732.6 mm Hg at -28 C, how many moles of gas are

### CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The research included the development and verification of the earlier apparatus, and the collection and validation of moisture diffusion data under both isothermal and

### THE GAS STATE. Unit 4. CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas.

Unit 4 THE GAS STATE CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9. Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas Page 4 # to 4 9. Boyles Law P α /V PV = Constant P V = P V Pressure Atmospheric Pressure

### Intermolecular Forces

Experiment 2 Intermolecular Forces Prepared by Ross S. Nord, Eastern Michigan University with large parts adapted from Chemistry with Computers by Dan D. Holmquist and Donald D. Volz PURPOSE The purpose

### MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Product: HELIUM Chemical Name Helium Chemical Family: Inert Rare Gas Identification: Symbol : He UN 1046 Synonyms: Helium -4, refrigerant gas R-704, laser Star helium, Medipure

### A) It cannot be predicted. B) It is squared. C) It is doubled. D) It is halved. E) It does not change.

AP Chemistry Test (Chapter 5) Class Set Multiple Choice (50%) 1) A sample of argon gas is sealed in a container. The volume of the container is doubled at a constant temperature. What happens to the pressure

### Objective To identify a pure liquid substance using the physical properties of solubility, density, and boiling point.

Chemistry 1020 Identification of an Unknown Liquid Objective To identify a pure liquid substance using the physical properties of solubility, density, and boiling point. Text reference solubility, density,

### CFD SIMULATIONS OF GAS DISPERSION IN VENTILATED ROOMS

CFD SIMULATIONS OF GAS DISPERSION IN VENTILATED ROOMS T. Gélain, C. Prévost Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saclay, France Abstract In order to better understand the risks due

### INSTRUCTIONS: CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE SULFIDES IN OIL-BASED DRILLING FLUID

OFI Testing Equipment Chemical Analysis of Active Sulfides Instructions Page 1 of 4 INSTRUCTIONS: CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE SULFIDES IN OIL-BASED DRILLING FLUID DESCRIPTION: 1. The Garrett Gas Train

### Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 10, page 1] D J Weinkauff - Nerinx Hall High School. Chapter 10 Gases

Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 10, page 1] Chapter 10 Gases We have talked a little about gases in Chapter 3 and we dealt briefly with them in our stoichiometric calculations in

### To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode CLICK HERE EXERCISE! EXERCISE! To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode CLICK HERE

Boyle s Law Boyle s law Pressure and volume are inversely related (constant T, temperature, and n, # of moles of gas). PV k (kis a constant for a given sample of air at a specific temperature) P V P V

### 1. Safety glasses are to be worn at all times in the laboratory except in the study area adjacent to the lab.

SAFETY RULES page 1 General Precautions 1. Safety glasses are to be worn at all times in the laboratory except in the study area adjacent to the lab. 2. No horseplay. This includes running, throwing of

### BASIC RULES OF USAGE, OLIS DSM-20 CD Management The instrument is currently managed by the Analytical Biophysics Core Facility.

Olis DSM-20 instructrions and rules p. 1 BASIC RULES OF USAGE, OLIS DSM-20 CD Management The instrument is currently managed by the Analytical Biophysics Core Facility. Signup On a first-come, first-served

### Usage Policies Notebook for Parylene Coating System

Usage Policies Notebook for Parylene Coating System Revision date September 2014 2 Emergency Plan for Parylene Coating System Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies Contact information Person Lab

### EXPERIMENT. Identification of Gases

EXPERIMENT Identification of Gases Hands-On Labs, Inc. Version 42-0189-00-02 Review the safety materials and wear goggles when working with chemicals. Read the entire exercise before you begin. Take time

### Boyle s Law VC 09. Experiment 9: Gas Laws. Abstract

Experiment 9: Gas Laws VC 09 Abstract In this laboratory activity, you will experimentally confirm Boyle s Law, determine absolute zero from Gay-Lussac's Law, and determine the molecular weight of acetone,

### The Determination of the Value for Molar Volume

Objective The Determination of the Value for Molar Volume Using a chemical reaction that produces a gas, measure the appropriate values to allow a determination of the value for molar volume. Brief Overview

### 1. Study the performance of a binary distillation column operated in batch mode.

Goals for batch distillation using the East distillation column: 1. Study the performance of a binary distillation column operated in batch mode. 2. Determine the overall and local efficiency of the column

### CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases The word kinetic refers to. Kinetic energy is the an object has because of its motion. Kinetic Molecular

### Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3 What do YOU know about oxygen? Dissolved Oxygen. Oxygen. I can t breath in the water but the fish can!

Slide 1 Dissolved Oxygen I can t breath in the water but the fish can! Slide 2 Oxygen Oxygen is one of the fundamental resources required by life forms on Earth. Aquatic ecosystems have a wide assortment

### Membrane modules for nitrogen and oxygen generator systems. Technology Overview ENGINEERING YOUR SUCCESS.

Membrane modules for nitrogen and oxygen generator systems Technology Overview ENGINEERING YOUR SUCCESS. Parker modules the heart of OEM tailor-made nitrogen generators OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer)

### Fluids PROCEDURE. 1. Record the mass of the block of wood. 2. Record the mass of the beaker of water (without the block).

Fluids This format for this experiment will be a little different from what you re used to. Instead of spending all your time at one station interacting with a single apparatus you ll be spending 10-15

### METHOD 3A - DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES (INSTRUMENTAL ANALYZER PROCEDURE)

METHOD 3A - DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES (INSTRUMENTAL ANALYZER PROCEDURE) 1.0 Scope and Application What is Method 3A? Method 3A is a

### Figure Vapor-liquid equilibrium for a binary mixture. The dashed lines show the equilibrium compositions.

Another way to view this problem is to say that the final volume contains V m 3 of alcohol at 5.93 kpa and 20 C V m 3 of air at 94.07 kpa and 20 C V m 3 of air plus alcohol at 100 kpa and 20 C Thus, the

### 1. Determining Solution Concentration

In this exercise you will determine the concentration of salt solutions by measuring samples with known concentration and making a calibration curve. You will review units of concentration, and how to

### CHAPTER 5 : THE AIR AROUND US

CHAPTER 5 : THE AIR AROUND US The Composition of Air Air is a mixture consist of Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Carbon dioxide 0.03% Inert gases 0.97% Water vapour Microorganism Dust The percentage of the constituents

### 256 Pneumatic Pressure Indicator

256 Pneumatic Pressure Indicator 51425699 Copyright 2002 Slope Indicator Company. All Rights Reserved. This equipment should be installed, maintained, and operated by technically qualified personnel. Any

### Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes:

Name: Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes: Block: In chemistry, the relationships between gas physical properties are described as gas laws. Some of these properties are pressure, volume,

Chapter 13 Gases Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1 Section 13.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. Copyright Cengage

### PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIP IN GASES

PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIP IN GASES LAB PS2.PALM INTRODUCTION Gases are made up of molecules that are in constant motion and exert pressure when they collide with the walls of their container. The

### UNIT 4 IB MATERIAL PARTICLE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER PHASES & ATTRACTIONS

UNIT 4 IB MATERIAL Name: PARTICLE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER PHASES & ATTRACTIONS ESSENTIALS: Know, Understand, and Be Able To Apply Avogadro s law to calculate reacting volumes of gases. Apply the concept of

### 8. Now plot on the following grid the values of T (K) and V from the table above, and connect the points.

Charles s Law According to Charles s law, the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies directly with its Kelvin temperature if its pressure is constant. The following table contains Celsius temperature and

### Lab 5- Cellular Respiration

Lab 5- Cellular Respiration Background: Many cellular processes require energy. Aerobic cellular respiration supplies energy by the oxidation of glucose. This is a complex process involving a number of

### Gas Laws. Introduction

Gas Laws Introduction In 1662 Robert Boyle found that, at constant temperature, the pressure of a gas and its volume are inversely proportional such that P x V = constant. This relationship is known as

### Distillation Design The McCabe-Thiele Method

Distillation Design The McCabe-Thiele Method Distiller diagam Introduction Using rigorous tray-by-tray calculations l is time consuming, and is often unnecessary. One quick method of estimation i for number

### 94270 Vapor Guard Tank Blanketing Valve Vapor Guard Tank Blanketing Valve What is Tank Blanketing? Features How does it work?

94270 What is Tank Blanketing? blanketing systems are used to prevent the escape of liquid vapors into the atmosphere or to prevent moisture from entering a tank and contaminating its contents. A tank

### Name Date Class CHAPTER ASSESSMENT. 1. Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.

Name ate lass HPTER 14 HPTER SSESSMENT Gases Reviewing Vocabulary Match the definition in olumn with the term in olumn. olumn 1. Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal

### States of Matter Review

States of Matter Review May 13 8:16 PM Physical States of Matter (Phases) Solid Liquid Melting Gas Condensation Freezing Evaporation Deposition Sublimation Sep 13 6:04 PM 1 May 13 8:11 PM Gases Chapter

### PremAire INSTRUCTIONS FOR VORTEX TUBE MODE OF OPERATION

DUAL SUPPLY REGULATOR ESCAPE CYLINDER VORTEX MAIN INLET PremAire INSTRUCTIONS FOR VORTEX TUBE MODE OF OPERATION WARNING THIS MANUAL MUST BE READ CAREFULLY BY ALL PERSONS WHO HAVE OR WILL HAVE THE RESPONSIBILITY

### Hydrofluoric Acid SOP

Introduction Hydrofluoric acid (HF) has a number of chemical, physical, and toxicological properties, which make handling this material especially hazardous. Anhydrous HF is a clear, colorless, fuming,

### 711 DISSOLUTION. Portions of the present general chapter text that are national USP text, and therefore not part of the

Change to read: 711 DISSOLUTION This general chapter is harmonized with the corresponding texts of the European Pharmacopoeia and/or the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. The texts of these pharmacopeias are therefore

### Chemical Injection Technologies Installation/Service Bulletin

Bulletin 4002 Chemical Injection Technologies Installation/Service Bulletin SUPERIOR Series CL-16/26/56 Automatic Switchover Gas Chlorinator - Installation & Operation IMPORTANT!! READ THESE PRECAUTIONS

### INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECTROPHOTOMETER AND PIPETTING SKILLS

INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECTROPHOTOMETER AND PIPETTING SKILLS Section A: Intro to the spectrophotometer A commonly used instrument in the analysis of cellular extracts is the Spectrophotometer. Today you

### USER S MANUAL. N2-MISTRAL-0 / 25 L/min NITROGEN GENERATOR. Rev. 3 - August 2008

USER S MANUAL N2-MISTRAL-0 / 25 L/min NITROGEN GENERATOR Rev. 3 - August 2008 MATHESON TRI-GAS 166 Keystone Drive Montgomeryville, PA 18936 Phone: 215-641-2700 Fax: 215-641-2714 Email: mtgmmville@matheson-trigas.com

### Lab Skills Practice: Pipetting Small Volumes. B3 Summer Science Camp at Olympic High School 2016

Lab Skills Practice: Pipetting Small Volumes B3 Summer Science Camp at Olympic High School 2016 Pipetter types Serological and micropipettes are used to accurately transfer small liquid volumes (micro-liter

### Boyle s Law Practice

Boyle s Law Practice Boyle s Law is an indirect relationship. Most of these problems can be done in your head without showing your work. 1. Herman has 30.0 L of helium gas trapped in a cylinder by a piston.

### Interchangeability Criteria.

Interchangeability Criteria. A substitute gas should burn satisfactorily with negligible change in burner performance on all types of burners without the need for special adjustment. The important requirements