GAS EXCHANGE & CIRCULATION CHAPTER 42 ( )

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1 Winter 08 1 of 10 GAS EXCHANGE & CIRCULATION CHAPTER 42 ( ) MOVEMENT OF GASES Both O 2 and CO 2 move by The movement down a If a gas produced in one location, it diffuses away But diffusion is usually not or Time it takes a substance to diffuse is proportional to the square of the distance o If it takes to diffuse 100µm o It will take to diffuse 1mm o It would take to diffuse 1cm! Therefore 1 mm the maximum distance for simple diffusion to supply cells with oxygen Poses a problem if cells are from an O 2 source They will asphyxiate! So animals are limited to being 2mm thin But most animals are thicker than 2 mm! A mechanism must be involved to ensure no cell is >1 mm from O 2 More later REQUIREMENTS FOR GAS EXCHANGE In order to facilitate gas exchange certain requirements must be met: gas dissolves into the water film and diffuses across cell membranes Adequate respiratory to supply internal tissues Larger animals have more More cells equals a

2 Winter 08 2 of 10 GAS EXCHANGE large organisms still use across moist surfaces If the animal is too large for diffusion they add a Sites of gas exchange are highly Capillaries pick-up and carry to the tissues in exchange for OPTIONS FOR GAS EXCHANGE All animals need a way to facilitate exchange There are two major strategies 1. Exchange gases over their 2. Exchange gases at CUTANEOUS RESPIRATION The diffusion of gases across the body surfaces When does this work? Animals dependent on water Animals with thin skin Poriferans sponges Water canals everywhere All cells are directly Choanocytes generate a constant current Immediate for gas exchange Cnidarians Some can get very large how? Only 2 tissue layers (just ) The bulk of big jellyfish is non-living jelly Gastrovascular cavity supplies O 2 to the Flatworms are flat! Not many platyhelminths get thicker than

3 Winter 08 3 of 10 Earthworm gas exchange Live in terrestrial but to help keep the body surface moist (facilitates exchange) Numerous just beneath the integument which Works the same way as our lungs! What about more complex animals? Not just restricted to the simpler animals Largely dependent on the animal s Usually found in Animals that are Animals that still GILL BREATHING Most large aquatic organisms rely on (outgrowths) of the body surface Thin-walled structures ( ) Why not cutaneous respiration? Many are covered with protective Not enough to supply all cells Gills can be outside the body ( ) or protected inside a chamber ( ) Evolutionary trend in gills is towards either An increased Increased Both lead to gas exchange Many annelids (the Polychaetes) have large and elaborate lateral appendages Multitasking structures 1 pair/segment

4 Winter 08 4 of 10 Relatively Rich Other polychaete worms have highly modified appendages - Large feathery structures on the anterior end A massive, highly vascularized Multitasking again! VENTILATION Internal gills pose a problem How do you get water to Ventilation Fish open their mouths & opercula to generate Or they don t Lobsters, crabs, shrimp beat appendages ( ) to create water currents COUNTERCURRENT EXCHANGE The most efficient way to collect O 2 out of water Water moves in the direction as the blood There is always a drawing O 2 into the blood AIR BREATHING Turn your gills inside out Rather than outpocketings, use or infoldings Forming a lung an internal chamber Still has to be with a large But there are problems with this system Every breath you take, More surface area equals more water loss Lungs vary in their efficiency Frogs have small lungs Smaller surface area for gas exchange

5 Winter 08 5 of 10 Why? (skin) is their major gas exchange structure Therefore they need to keep moist Stay near water Mucus (helps for sunburn too) OTHER VERTEBRATE LUNGS Thousands of alveoli The site of Associated with blood vessels Incredibly large surface area in humans Ciliated & mucus lining AIR BREATHING Insects use an entirely different system the Open to the environment through multiple The network of tracheae and tracheoles (small airways) reaches nearly Based on simple with each cell having a CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS So you ve exchanged your gases, now what? You need a way to get the O 2 to the tissues and cells You need a circulatory system Circulatory systems come in three different flavours: cavity system system

6 Winter 08 6 of 10 Think of who has a GVC? What are their body shapes? GASTROVASCULAR CAVITY, but some are quite large >>2mm Diffusion cannot get into the deeper layers Does it need to?, thin & flat Diffusion is an efficient mechanism to get to all tissues The GVC works to move gasses and nutrients Open Circulatory System Closed Circulatory System CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS The pumps the circulatory fluid throughout the system Vessels usually leave the heart and are Fluid spills out into cavities called Fluid then the cells providing nutrients, O 2 Fluid re-enters the heart through ( ) or separate vessels The body fluid that bathes the tissues is the as that inside the vessels No Just CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS The pumps the circulatory fluid throughout the entire system The circuit is enclosed in a series of blood vessels Two types of fluid in the body are required The within the vessels And which bathes the cells in the tissues Seen in: Some annelids (earthworms) Active molluscs squid & octopi The vertebrates

7 Winter 08 7 of 10 EARTHWORM CIRCULATION Advantages of a closed system Higher Greater More efficient carries blood towards the heart anteriorly carry blood towards the tissues posteriorly 5 pairs of auxiliary hearts (pseudohearts) come off the main dorsal heart and connect the vessels VERTEBRATE CIRCULATORY VESSELS (arterioles) Carry blood away from the heart (venules) Carry blood towards the heart Link arterioles with venules Carry blood between capillary beds All are modifications of a similar structure depending blood pressure Arteries (arterioles) Usually very made mostly of muscle and connective tissue Necessary to resist the enormous Veins (venules) Relatively -walled vessels containing Blood pressure is relatively Capillaries Very thin walled vessels One cell thick Site of

8 Winter 08 8 of 10 ARTERIES AND VEINS Muscular walls of arteries are Assists blood movement to the Veins have muscle to effectively move blood Rely upon contraction of nearby Valves prevent since the pressure is so low Think about when you sit still for a long time CAPILLARIES Extremely thin-walled with only one cell layer Huge number and total surface area to reduced and What other benefit does this have? More efficient VERTEBRATE CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS Evolution of the vertebrates lead to an increase in complexity of the circulatory system Fish A simple heart One atrium from body One ventricle to body One circulatory loop 1. Heart (Ventricle) 2. Arteries 3. Gill capillaries 4. Portal veins 5. Systemic capillaries 6. Veins 7. Heart (Atrium) Amphibians A 2 nd circulatory loop exists Heart divided into as a result Two atria One ventricle some Ridges in the ventricle wall prevent

9 Winter 08 9 of 10 Pulmocutaneous circuit 1. Right ventricle 2. Arteries 3. Lung and skin capillaries 4. Veins 5. Left atrium Systemic circuit 6. Left ventricle 7. Arteries 8. Systemic capillaries 9. Veins 10. Right atrium Advantage is to the organs because of a heart beat More efficient gas exchange at tissues Reptiles Also have a 3 chamber heart with 2 blood circuits circulation Pulmonary circuit is not used as a respiratory surface Systemic circuit Ventricle has a to minimize mixing of blood Increased efficiency more Birds and Mammals Also have double circulation Pulmonary circuit Systemic circuit A divides the ventricle into two No mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood

10 Winter of 10 TAKEN TOGETHER Gas exchange and circulation Both O 2 and CO 2 move by diffusion Down their concentration (pressure) gradients Inhaled air [O 2 ] = 160 [CO 2 ] = 0.2 Oxygenated blood [O 2 ] = 104 [CO 2 ] = 40 At cells [O 2 ] = <40 [CO 2 ] = >45 Deoxygenated blood [O 2 ] = 40 [CO 2 ] = 45 Exhaled air [O 2 ] = 120 [CO 2 ] = 27 FIGURES USED

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