# JAR-23 Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter Category Aeroplanes \ Issued 11 March 1994 \ Section 1- Requirements \ Subpart C - Structure \ General

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3 (b) Certain parts of the structure must be tested as specified in Subpart D of JAR-23. March 1994 \ Section 1- Requirements \ Subpart C - Structure Flight Loads JAR General \ JAR General (a) Flight load factors represent the ratio of the aerodynamic force component (acting normal to the assumed longitudinal axis of the aeroplane) to the weight of the aeroplane. A positive flight load factor is one in which the aerodynamic force acts upward, with respect to the aeroplane. (b) Compliance with the flight load requirements of this subpart must be shown - (1) At each critical altitude within the range in which the aeroplane may be expected to operate; (2) At each weight from the design minimum weight to the design maximum weight; and (3) For each required altitude and weight, for any practicable distribution of disposable load within the operating limitations specified in JAR to (c) When significant the effects of compressibility must be taken into account. JAR Symmetrical flight conditions \ JAR

5 and ft. The gust velocity may be reduced linearly from 25 fps at ft to 12 5 fps at ft. (iii) In addition, for commuter category aeroplanes, positive (up) and negative (down) rough air gusts of 66 fps at VB must be considered at altitudes between sea level and ft. The gust velocity may be reduced linearly from 66 fps at ft to 38 fps at ft. (2) The following assumptions must be made: (i) The shape of the gust is - U = Ude 2 2πs 1 cos 25C where - s = Distance penetrated into gust (ft.); C = Mean geometric chord of wing (ft.); and Ude = Derived gust velocity referred to in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph linearly with speed between VC and VD. Gust load factors vary linearly with speed between VC and VD.

6 JAR Design airspeeds \ JAR Design airspeeds Except as provided in sub-paragraph (a) (4) of this paragraph, the selected design airspeeds are equivalent air-speeds (EAS). (a) Design cruising speed, VC. For VC the following apply: (1) VC (in knots) may not be less than - (i) 33 W / S (for normal, utility and commuter category aeroplanes); and 36 W / S (for aerobatic category aeroplanes). where W/S = wing loading at design maximum take-off weight lb/ft2. (2) For values of W/S more than 20, the multiplying factors may be decreased linearly with W/S to a value of 28 6 where W/S = 100. (3) VC need not be more than 0 9 VH at sea level. (4) At altitudes where an MD is established, a cruising speed MC limited by compressibility may be selected. (b) Design dive speed VD. For VD, the following apply: (1) VD/MD may not be less than 1 25 VC/MC; and (2) With VC min, the required minimum design cruising speed, VD (in knots) may not be less than - (i) 1 40 VC min (for normal and commuter category aeroplanes); 1 50 VC min (for utility category aeroplanes); and (iii) 1 55 VC min (for aerobatic category aeroplanes). (3) For values of W/S more than 20, the multiplying factors in sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph may be decreased linearly with W/S to a value of 1 35 where W/S = 100. (4) Compliance with sub-paragraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph need not be shown if VD/MD is

7 selected so that the minimum speed margin between VC/MC and VD/MD is the greater of the following: (i) The speed increase resulting when, from the initial condition of stabilised flight at VC/MC, the aeroplane is assumed to be upset, flown for 20 seconds along a flight path 7 5 below the initial path and then pulled up with a load factor of 1 5 (0 5 g. acceleration increment). At least 75% maximum continuous power for reciprocating engines and maximum cruising power for turbines, or, if less, the power required for VC/MC for both kinds of engines, must be assumed until the pull-up is initiated, at which point power reduction and pilot-controlled drag devices may be used; and established). Mach 0 05 for normal, utility, and aerobatic category aeroplanes (at altitudes where MD is (iii) Mach 0 07 for commuter category aeroplanes (at altitudes where MD is established) unless a rational analysis, including the effects of automatic systems, is used to determine a lower margin. If a rational analysis is used, the minimum speed margin must be enough to provide for atmospheric variations (such as horizontal gusts, and the penetration of jet streams or cold fronts), instrument errors, airframe production variations, and must not be less than Mach (c) Design manoeuvring speed VA. For VA, the following applies: (1) VA may not be less than VS n where - (i) VS is a computed stalling speed with flaps retracted at the design weight, normally based on the maximum aeroplane normal force coefficients, CNA; and n is the limit manoeuvring load factor used in design. (2) The value of VA need not exceed the value of VC used in design. (d) Design speed for maximum gust intensity, VB. For VB, the following apply: (1) VB may not be less than the speed determined by the intersection of the line representing the maximum positive lift CN MAX and the line representing the rough air gust velocity on the gust V-n diagram, or VS1 n g, whichever is less, where - (i) n g the positive aeroplane gust load factor due to gust, at speed VC (in accordance with JAR ), and at the particular weight under consideration; and VS1 is the stalling speed with the flaps retracted at the particular weight under consideration. (2) VB need not be greater than VC.

9 (c) In the absence of a more rational analysis the gust load factors must be computed as follows: Kg ρo Ude Va n = 1 ± 2 (W / S) where - Kg = 0.88 µ g µ g = gust alleviation factor; µg = 2(W / S) pcag = aeroplane mass ratio; Ude = Derived gust velocities referred to in JAR (c) (m/s); ρo = Density of air at sea-level (Kg/m 2 ) ρ = Density of air (Kg/m 3 ) at the altitude considered; W/S = Wing loading due to the applicable weight of the aeroplane in the particular load case (N/m 2 ); C = Mean geometric chord (m); g = Acceleration due to gravity (m/sec 2 ); V a = Aeroplane equivalent speed (m/s); and = Slope of the aeroplane normal force coefficient curve CNA per radian if the gust loads are applied to the wings and horizontal tail surfaces simultaneously by a rational method. The wing lift curve slope CL per radian may be used when the gust load is applied to the wings only and the horizontal tail gust loads are treated as a separate condition.

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