GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY"

Transcription

1 GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY Atmospheric Pressure Intra-Alveolar Pressure Inspiration 760 mm HG at Sea Level (= 1 atm) Pressure due to gases (N2, O2, CO2, Misc.) Pressure inside the alveolus (air sac) Phrenic nerve impulse causes diaphragm to contract(moves downward) Inspiratory intercostals muscles lift up and out Pulls the pleural sac outward Expands the alveolar sacs / alveolar pressure drops 3-6mm below atmospheric As air moves in the alveolar pressure goes towards atmospheric pressure Diaphragm/intercostals relaxes Expiration Puts pressure on the pleural sac Lungs naturally (elastically) recoil Expiration (w/ exertion) Bulk Flow Alveoli get smaller (increased alveolar p.) Normal movements, PLUS we use expiratory intercostals muscles Also abdominals and back muscles Movement of gas from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. Like Diffusion

2 Conduction Zone Warms & moistens, Cilia/mucous protects, Sound production, etc. Respiratory Zone mouth/nose pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles where gas exchange occurs respiratory bronchioles alveoli Remember, the lung is made up of lots of little air sacs and each small sac is surrounded by small capillaries. The inner surface of the alveoli is very moist. This causes surface tension and works against expanding the lungs. To counteract this surface tension certain alveolar cells (Type II Cells) secrete surfactant, which help increase compliance. Compliance is the degree & ease of expansion of the lung during inspiration. It depends on the trans-pulmonary pressure. In a healthy person a small change in pressure difference can cause great increases in volume of the lung spaces. Factors involved include: 1. Lung elasticity (Big problem when you have fibritic -type diseases) 2. Elastic forces due to surface tension of fluid in lung (Respiratory distress in newborns is due to malfunctioning type II cells) 3. Airway resistance: length of airway, radius of airway, neuro-endocrine and chemical factors. 4. Radius of airways depends on cartilage, lateral traction, smooth muscle, and pressure differences between outside and inside. 5. Carbon Dioxide Levels: Increased CO 2 causes dilation of airways (usually concurrent with a decrease in oxygen levels) 6. Nervous System Innervation: a. parasympathetic innervation causes constriction of airways(so does histamine allergic reaction) b. sympathetic innervation causes dilation of airways (epi reduces resistance and increases radius)

3 FLOW COMMON RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS ASTHMA Airways are constricted, Secretion of a thick mucous, Need to take bronchodilators ( albuterol ), & steroids ( pulmocort ) Trouble exhaling RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE Problem with muscles, forced to take short shallow breaths CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE (COPD) Chronic Bronchitis (excess fluid/mucous secretion) and Emphysema (breakdown of alveolar walls, decreased surface area, decreased gas exchange, pressure decreases as you exhale) Normal exhaling Damaged lung TIME

4 Partial Pressure: The total air pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of each gas in that solution/mixture. Sea-Level Atmospheric Partial Pressures ( Average Humidity ) Nitrogen: 78% of atmosphere = 593mm Oxygen: 21% of atmosphere = 152mm Carbon Dioxide: 0.04% of atm = 0.3mm *measure pco2 exhaled at the mouth & nose and it will be about 32mm before it diffuses away. Sea-Level Alveolar Partial Pressures ( Wet ) The air in the lung is wet and water vapor can take up to 47mm of the partial pressure. Oxygen: = 105mm Carbon Dioxide: = 40mm Color the numbers of the diagram. Red for p0 2 and Blue for pco 2 Question: Is Venous blood Deoxygenated or Lessoxygenated?

5 FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSPORT OF GAS IN LUNG AND TISSUE 1. Pressure Gradients 2. Surface Area Larger Gradient = More/ Faster Diffusion 3. Diffusion Distance Less Surface Area = Less Diffusion Larger Distance = Slower/ Less Diffusion

6 The oxygen has reached the alveolus and diffused down its gradient into the capillary now, how does this GAS enter the liquid? Gases are soluble in liquids! Remember chemistry class? Hemoglobin (HB) is specially designed to carry oxygen (and other gases like CO 2 and CO too) 100ml of plasma can dissolve 0.3ml oxygen 100ml of plasma with normal amounts of HB can hold 20ml of oxygen combined with HB + the 0.3 ml dissolved in solution. Each HB can hold 4 oxygen molecules Heme has an Iron group and globin refers to the protein which is made up of four polypeptide chains Cooperative Binding Hemoglobin has two states (Tense and Relaxed) It gets easier to add an O2 after another O2 is already there, and easier still with 3 rd & 4 th O2

7 Color the image of HB A) Iron B) Protein making up the second polypeptide subunit C) Heme Myoglobin This special oxygen-storing molecule found in skeletal muscle has only one subunit and no cooperative binding. It holds onto oxygen until the partial pressure of O2 is VERY low, then it dumps its store of Oxygen.

8 Hemoglobin Saturation The relative amount of oxygen in the blood compared to the carrying capacity of the hemoglobin is called the oxygen saturation, and is expressed as a percentage. It s directly proportional to the po2 the partial pressure of oxygen. The hemoglobin in arterial blood is only about 97% saturated with oxygen and the venous blood is about 75% saturated. Hemoglobin / Oxygen Dissociation Curve Because of cooperative binding, the O2/ HB dissociation curve looks like an S. At low po2 HB easily dumps its oxygen At high po2 HB likes to hang onto its oxygen Perfect! Dump O2 at the tissues and hold onto it at the lungs and in the blood!

9 po 2 Put your finger on a po 2 follow, it up to the chart and over to the left. po2 in exercising body tissues is VERy low, po2 in the lungs is about 105. HB is still 75% saturated with O2 after is passes through normal tissues.

10 The O2/HB curve can change in a few situations Increased CO2 Probably due to exercise Shifts the curve to the RIGHT Drops off O2 easier at higher po2 levels Increased H+ (Acidity) Increased DPG Shifts the curve to the RIGHT Drops off O2 easier at higher po2 levels Can be released from RBCs during times of Anemia (Not enough oxygen) High Altitude acclimatization Shifts the curve to the RIGHT Drops off O2 easier at higher po2 levels *Draw your finger from the po2 up to the curve and then over to the percent saturation for 40 and 105 for each of the three curves and make marks on the left axis as to where the percent saturation is for each curve. Fetal HB Has a curve that lies to the left of normal/mom Holds onto (steals) oxygen from mommy at all po2 levels

11 Transport of Oxygen 99% on HB Oxyhemoglobin 1% Dissolved in Plasma Transport of Carbon Dioxide 24% on HB Carboxyamino- Hemoglobin 9% Dissolved in Plasma 67% as Bicarbonate in the Plasma Bicarb Buffer System Buffer Review: CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H + + HCO3 -

12

13 Hypoxia Not enough Oxygen Getting to where it needs to go! Normal Color: A) CO2 B) Hemoglobin C) Blood D) Oxygen E) Lungs F) Cells Hypoxic Hypoxia Anemic Hypoxia Primary Oxygen Supply Deficient (Suffocation/ High Altitude / Blocked Airway / Inhibited Respiratory Center in Brain / Paralysis of Respiratory Muscles / Pneumonia) Stagnant Hypoxia Hemoglobin or RBC Deficiencey (Anemia) Histotoxic Hypoxia Blood is not flowing. (Ischemia / Shock / Bleeding) Normal Circulation, but Cells can t use the Oxygen (Poisoning with Cyanide!)

14 High Altitude Acclimatization Short Term Increased Ventilation (When skiing for a week) Increased Excretion of Bicarbonate Increased RBC Release of DPG Long Term (Move to Colorado) Increased RBC Production in Kidney (Stimulated by hormone Erythropoietin) Increased Capillary Growth Control of Ventilation by CO 2 Respiratory Center Ventral Surface of Medulla Oblongata Respiratory Center of the brain Cerebrospinal Fluid Increases in metabolism makes pco2 rise Increased pco2 makes the [H+] rise H+ diffuses into the CSF Brain (respiratory center) sends signals on Phrenic nerve to respiratory muscles to increase ventilation More CO2 is breathed out pco2 drops Control of Ventilation by O 2 Aortic & Carotid Bodies po2 drops Glossopharyngeal nerve (from carotid bodies) and Phrenic nerve (from aortic bodies) send signals to respiratory center Phrenic nerve to respiratory muscles to increase ventilation po2 rises *may require high altitude-type acclimatization also

Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY

Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY In Physiology Today Respiration External respiration ventilation gas exchange Internal respiration cellular respiration gas exchange Respiratory Cycle Inspiration

More information

Respiratory System Physiology. Dr. Vedat Evren

Respiratory System Physiology. Dr. Vedat Evren Respiratory System Physiology Dr. Vedat Evren Respiration Processes involved in oxygen transport from the atmosphere to the body tissues and the release and transportation of carbon dioxide produced in

More information

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System Chapter 13 The Respiratory System by Dr. Jay M. Templin Brooks/Cole - Thomson Learning Atmosphere Tissue cell External respiration Alveoli of lungs 1 Ventilation or gas exchange between the atmosphere

More information

Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing

Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing Overview of Pulmonary Circulation o Diffusion of Gases o Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide o Transport of Gases in the Blood

More information

Breathing: The normal rate is about 14 to 20 times a minute. Taking in of air is called Inspiration and the forcing out of air is called Expiration.

Breathing: The normal rate is about 14 to 20 times a minute. Taking in of air is called Inspiration and the forcing out of air is called Expiration. Biology 12 Respiration Divisions of Respiration Breathing: entrance and exit of air into and out of the lungs External Respiration: exchange of gases(o2 and CO2) between air (in alveoli) and blood Internal

More information

Question 1: Define vital capacity. What is its significance? Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration. It is about 3.5 4.5 litres in the human body. It

More information

Respiration - Human 1

Respiration - Human 1 Respiration - Human 1 At the end of the lectures on respiration you should be able to, 1. Describe events in the respiratory processes 2. Discuss the mechanism of lung ventilation in human 3. Discuss the

More information

Chapter 16 Respiratory System

Chapter 16 Respiratory System Introduction Chapter 16 Respiratory System The respiratory system consists of tubes that filter incoming air and transport it to alveoli where gases are exchanged. Think pair share: what organs are associated

More information

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System VI edit Pag 451-499 Chapter 13 The Respiratory System V edit. Pag 459-509 Tissue cell Alveoli of lungs Atmosphere 1 External respiration Ventilation or gas exchange between the atmosphere and air sacs

More information

Respiratory Lecture Test Questions Set 3

Respiratory Lecture Test Questions Set 3 Respiratory Lecture Test Questions Set 3 1. The pressure of a gas: a. is inversely proportional to its volume b. is unaffected by temperature changes c. is directly proportional to its volume d. does not

More information

Respiration. The resspiratory system

Respiration. The resspiratory system Respiration The resspiratory system The Alveoli The lungs have about 300 million alveoli, with a total crosssec onal area of 50 70 m2.. Each alveolar sac is surrounded by blood capillaries. The walls of

More information

NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals

NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals Functions of the Respiratory System: 1) Air distribution / gaseous exchange; 2) Filter, warm & humidify air we breathe; 3) Influence speech; 4) Help maintain

More information

HCO - 3 H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H H H + Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02. CO2 and Bicarbonate act as a ph Buffer in the blood

HCO - 3 H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H H H + Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02. CO2 and Bicarbonate act as a ph Buffer in the blood Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02 breathing reduces plasma [CO2]; plasma [CO2] increases breathing. When C02 levels are high, breating rate increases to blow off C02 In low C02 conditions,

More information

Gas exchange. Tissue cells CO2 CO 2 O 2. Pulmonary capillary. Tissue capillaries

Gas exchange. Tissue cells CO2 CO 2 O 2. Pulmonary capillary. Tissue capillaries Gas exchange Pulmonary gas exchange Tissue gas exchange CO 2 O 2 O 2 Tissue cells CO2 CO 2 Pulmonary capillary O 2 O 2 CO 2 Tissue capillaries Physical principles of gas exchange Diffusion: continuous

More information

Structures of the Respiratory System include:

Structures of the Respiratory System include: Respiratory System Structures of the Respiratory System include: ü Oral Cavity ü Nasal Cavity ü Pharynx ü Epiglottis ü Larynx ü Trachea ü Diaphragm ü Lung ü Bronchus ü Bronchioles ü Alveolus ü Pulmonary

More information

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation Chapter 23 Gas Exchange and Transportation What is air? Mixture of gasses 78.6 % nitrogen 20.9% oxygen 0.04% carbon dioxide 0 4% water vapor depending on temperature and humidity and minor gases argon,

More information

Lesson 9.1: The Importance of an Organ Delivery System

Lesson 9.1: The Importance of an Organ Delivery System Lesson 9.1: The Importance of an Organ Delivery System Animals require a continuous supply of oxygen (O 2 ) for cellular respiration, and they must expel carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), the waste product of this

More information

Section Three Gas transport

Section Three Gas transport Section Three Gas transport Lecture 6: Oxygen transport in blood. Carbon dioxide in blood. Objectives: i. To describe the carriage of O2 in blood. ii. iii. iv. To explain the oxyhemoglobin dissociation

More information

Physiology of Respiration

Physiology of Respiration Physiology of Respiration External Respiration = pulmonary ventilation breathing involves 2 processes: inspiration expiration Inspiration an active process involves contraction of diaphragm innervated

More information

82 Respiratory Tract NOTES

82 Respiratory Tract NOTES 82 Respiratory Tract NOTES RESPIRATORY TRACT The respiratory tract conducts air to the lungs where gaseous exchange occurs. It is separated into air-conducting and respiratory (where gas exchange occurs)

More information

P215 Respiratory System, Part 2

P215 Respiratory System, Part 2 P15 Respiratory System, Part Gas Exchange Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide constant need for oxygen constant production of carbon dioxide exchange (and movement) lung alveoli pulmonary arteries pulmonary capillaries

More information

Human Biology Respiratory System

Human Biology Respiratory System Human Biology Respiratory System Respiratory System Responsible for process of breathing Works in cooperation with Circulatory system Three types: 1. Internal Respiration 2. External Respiration 3. Cellular

More information

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation Chapter 23 Gas Exchange and Transportation What is air? Mixture of gasses 78.6 % nitrogen 20.9% oxygen 0.04% carbon dioxide 0 4% water vapor depending on temperature and humidity other minor gases argon,

More information

Respiratory System. Part 2

Respiratory System. Part 2 Respiratory System Part 2 Respiration Exchange of gases between air and body cells Three steps 1. Ventilation 2. External respiration 3. Internal respiration Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation consists

More information

Outline - Respiratory System. Function of the respiratory system Parts of the respiratory system Mechanics of breathing Regulation of breathing

Outline - Respiratory System. Function of the respiratory system Parts of the respiratory system Mechanics of breathing Regulation of breathing Respiratory system Function Outline - Respiratory System I. II. III. IV. Respiratory System The function of the respiratory system is to bring in oxygen to the body and remove carbon dioxide. Function

More information

(Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System

(Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System (Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System I. (Slide 2) The Respiratory Tract A) Major structures and regions of the respiratory Tract/Route INTO body 1) nose 2) nasal cavity 3) pharynx 4) glottis 5)

More information

CHAPTER 6. Oxygen Transport. Copyright 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning

CHAPTER 6. Oxygen Transport. Copyright 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning CHAPTER 6 Oxygen Transport Normal Blood Gas Value Ranges Table 6-1 OXYGEN TRANSPORT Oxygen Dissolved in the Blood Plasma Dissolve means that the gas maintains its precise molecular structure About.003

More information

2.1.1 List the principal structures of the

2.1.1 List the principal structures of the physiology 2.1.1 List the principal structures of the The principle structures of the respiratory are: Nose/Mouth used for inhalation of oxygen-rich air and expelling carbon dioxide rich air Pharynx -

More information

Chapter 11: Respiratory System Review Assignment

Chapter 11: Respiratory System Review Assignment Name: Date: Mark: / 45 Chapter 11: Respiratory System Review Assignment Multiple Choice = 45 Marks Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following

More information

alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange elephant seals gills AP Biology

alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange elephant seals gills AP Biology alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange gills elephant seals Gas exchange O 2 & CO 2 exchange exchange between environment & cells provides O 2 for aerobic cellular respiration need moist membrane need high

More information

I. Gas Exchange Respiratory Surfaces Respiratory Surface:

I. Gas Exchange Respiratory Surfaces Respiratory Surface: I. Gas Exchange Respiratory Surfaces Respiratory Surface: Common characteristics of respiratory surfaces: a) Moist: allows for the RAPID diffusion of dissolved gasses across its surface. Whereas the respiratory

More information

respiratory cycle. point in the volumes: 500 milliliters. for men. expiration, up to 1200 milliliters extra makes breathing Respiratory

respiratory cycle. point in the volumes: 500 milliliters. for men. expiration, up to 1200 milliliters extra makes breathing Respiratory 10 II. RESPIRATORY VOLUMES, CAPACITIES & PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS Respiratory volume is the term used for various volumes of air moved by or associated with the lungs at a given point in the respiratory

More information

Gas Exchange Respiratory Systems

Gas Exchange Respiratory Systems alveoli gills Gas Exchange Respiratory Systems elephant seals 2008-2009 Why do we need a respiratory system? respiration for respiration Need O 2 in for aerobic cellular respiration make ATP Need CO 2

More information

Collin County Community College. Lung Physiology

Collin County Community College. Lung Physiology Collin County Community College BIOL. 2402 Anatomy & Physiology WEEK 9 Respiratory System 1 Lung Physiology Factors affecting Ventillation 1. Airway resistance Flow = Δ P / R Most resistance is encountered

More information

2. State the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal breathing.

2. State the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal breathing. CLASS XI BIOLOGY Breathing And Exchange of Gases 1. Define vital capacity. What is its significance? Answer: Vital Capacity (VC): The maximum volume of air a person can breathe in after a forced expiration.

More information

AP Biology. Gas Exchange Respiratory Systems. Gas exchange. Why do we need a respiratory system? Optimizing gas exchange. Gas exchange in many forms

AP Biology. Gas Exchange Respiratory Systems. Gas exchange. Why do we need a respiratory system? Optimizing gas exchange. Gas exchange in many forms alveoli Gas Exchange Respiratory Systems gills elephant seals 2008-2009 Why do we need a respiratory system? Need O 2 in food respiration for respiration for aerobic cellular respiration make ATP Need

More information

AIIMS, New Delhi. Dr. K. K. Deepak, Prof. & HOD, Physiology AIIMS, New Delhi Dr. Geetanjali Bade, Asst. Professor AIIMS, New Delhi

AIIMS, New Delhi. Dr. K. K. Deepak, Prof. & HOD, Physiology AIIMS, New Delhi Dr. Geetanjali Bade, Asst. Professor AIIMS, New Delhi Course : PG Pathshala-Biophysics Paper 13 : Physiological Biophysics Module 17 : Gas transport and pulmonary circulation Principal Investigator: Co-Principal Investigator: Paper Coordinator: Content Writer:

More information

AP Biology. Chapter 42. Gas Exchange. Optimizing gas exchange. Gas exchange. Gas exchange in many forms. Evolution of gas exchange structures

AP Biology. Chapter 42. Gas Exchange. Optimizing gas exchange. Gas exchange. Gas exchange in many forms. Evolution of gas exchange structures alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange gills elephant seals Gas exchange & C exchange exchange between environment & cells provides for aerobic cellular respiration need moist membrane need high surface area

More information

Chapter 16 Respiration. Respiration. Steps in Respiration. Functions of the respiratory system

Chapter 16 Respiration. Respiration. Steps in Respiration. Functions of the respiratory system Chapter 16 Respiration Functions of the respiratory system Respiration The term respiration includes 3 separate functions: Ventilation: Breathing. Gas exchange: Occurs between air and blood in the lungs.

More information

The Respiratory System. Medical Terminology

The Respiratory System. Medical Terminology The Respiratory System Medical Terminology The respiratory system is where gas exchange occurs via respiration; inhalation/exhalation. pick up oxygen from inhaled air expels carbon dioxide and water sinus

More information

Then the partial pressure of oxygen is x 760 = 160 mm Hg

Then the partial pressure of oxygen is x 760 = 160 mm Hg 1 AP Biology March 2008 Respiration Chapter 42 Gas exchange occurs across specialized respiratory surfaces. 1) Gas exchange: the uptake of molecular oxygen (O2) from the environment and the discharge of

More information

Respiration. Chapter 39

Respiration. Chapter 39 Respiration Chapter 39 Impacts, Issues Up in Smoke Smoking immobilizes ciliated cells and kills white blood cells that defend the respiratory system; highly addictive nicotine discourages quitting 39.1

More information

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport. Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport. Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi Objectives 1. Understand the forms of oxygen transport in the blood, the importance of each. 2. Differentiate between O2 capacity, O2 content and

More information

GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS 06 AUGUST 2014

GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS 06 AUGUST 2014 GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS 06 AUGUST 2014 In this lesson we: Lesson Description Look at gaseous exchange in humans in terms of o Ventilation o Inspiration o Expiration o Transport of gases o Homeostatic

More information

IV. FROM AQUATIC TO ATMOSPHERIC BREATHING: THE TRACHEA & THE LUNG

IV. FROM AQUATIC TO ATMOSPHERIC BREATHING: THE TRACHEA & THE LUNG GAS EXCHANGE AND TRANSPORT I. INTRODUCTION: Heterotrophs oxidize carbon cmpds using O 2 to generate CO 2 & H 2 O. This is cellular respiration II. HOW GAS ENTERS A CELL A. The composition of air: 79% N

More information

Respiratory Physiology. Adeyomoye O.I

Respiratory Physiology. Adeyomoye O.I Respiratory Physiology By Adeyomoye O.I Outline Introduction Hypoxia Dyspnea Control of breathing Ventilation/perfusion ratios Respiratory/barometric changes in exercise Intra-pulmonary & intra-pleural

More information

Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane

Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane thin membrane where gas exchange occurs in the lungs, simple squamous epithelium (Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates. They fit closely together in

More information

- How do the carotid bodies sense arterial blood gases? o The carotid bodies weigh 25mg, yet they have their own artery. This means that they have

- How do the carotid bodies sense arterial blood gases? o The carotid bodies weigh 25mg, yet they have their own artery. This means that they have - How do the carotid bodies sense arterial blood gases? o The carotid bodies weigh 25mg, yet they have their own artery. This means that they have the highest blood flow of all organs, which makes them

More information

CHAPTER 3: The respiratory system

CHAPTER 3: The respiratory system CHAPTER 3: The respiratory system Practice questions - text book pages 56-58 1) When the inspiratory muscles contract, which one of the following statements is true? a. the size of the thoracic cavity

More information

Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation

Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation is the act of breathing and the first step in the respiratory process. Pulmonary ventilation brings in air with a new supply

More information

I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange

I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange Respiratory Gases Exchange Dr Badri Paudel, M.D. 2 I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange 3 Partial pressure The pressure exerted by each type of gas in a mixture Diffusion of gases through liquids Concentration

More information

BIOLOGY 12: UNIT J - CHAPTER 15 - REVIEW WORKSHEET RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

BIOLOGY 12: UNIT J - CHAPTER 15 - REVIEW WORKSHEET RESPIRATORY SYSTEM BIOLOGY 12: UNIT J - CHAPTER 15 - REVIEW WORKSHEET RESPIRATORY SYSTEM A. CHAPTER REVIEW 1. Define the four components of respiration. 2. What happens to the air as it moves along the air passages? What

More information

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview II Gas Laws Equation of State: PV = nrt Same volumes of different gases have same # of molecules BTPS: body temp, atmospheric pressure, saturated ATPS: ambient

More information

RESPIRATION III SEMESTER BOTANY MODULE II

RESPIRATION III SEMESTER BOTANY MODULE II III SEMESTER BOTANY MODULE II RESPIRATION Lung Capacities and Volumes Tidal volume (TV) air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath (approximately 500 ml) Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

More information

Respiratory System. Prepared by: Dorota Marczuk-Krynicka, MD, PhD

Respiratory System. Prepared by: Dorota Marczuk-Krynicka, MD, PhD Respiratory System Prepared by: Dorota Marczuk-Krynicka, MD, PhD Lungs: Ventilation Perfusion Gas Exchange - Diffusion 1. Airways and Airway Resistance (AWR) 2. Mechanics of Breathing and Lung (Elastic)

More information

Chapter 15. Lecture and Animation Outline

Chapter 15. Lecture and Animation Outline Chapter 15 Lecture and Animation Outline To run the animations you must be in Slideshow View. Use the buttons on the animation to play, pause, and turn audio/text on or off. Please Note: Once you have

More information

Unit II Problem 4 Physiology: Diffusion of Gases and Pulmonary Circulation

Unit II Problem 4 Physiology: Diffusion of Gases and Pulmonary Circulation Unit II Problem 4 Physiology: Diffusion of Gases and Pulmonary Circulation - Physical principles of gases: Pressure of a gas is caused by the movement of its molecules against a surface (more concentration

More information

Respiratory System Review

Respiratory System Review KEY THIS TEST WILL BE COMPLETED IN ONE CLASS PERIOD MONDAY, MARCH 10. 2014 Respiratory System Review Name A. Directions: Fill in the blank with the appropriate vocabulary word or words (several examples

More information

REVISION: GASEOUS EXCHANGE 24 SEPTEMBER 2014 Lesson Description

REVISION: GASEOUS EXCHANGE 24 SEPTEMBER 2014 Lesson Description REVISION: GASEOUS EXCHANGE 24 SEPTEMBER 2014 Lesson Description In this lesson, we revise: Gaseous Exchange in Plants & Animals Gaseous Exchange in Humans Excretion in Humans Focus on the Kidney Gaseous

More information

CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES

CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES 268 BIOLOGY CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES 17.1 Respiratory Organs 17.2 Mechanism of Breathing 17.3 Exchange of Gases 17.4 Transport of Gases 17.5 Regulation of Respiration 17.6 Disorders of

More information

Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology. Respiratory Anatomy. Function of the Respiratory System

Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology. Respiratory Anatomy. Function of the Respiratory System Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology Michaela Dixon Clinical Development Nurse PICU BRHFC Respiratory Anatomy Function of the Respiratory System - In conjunction with the cardiovascular system, to supply

More information

BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES

BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES 96 BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Respiration in insects is called direct because a. The tissues exchange O 2 directly with the air in

More information

Ch 16: Respiratory System

Ch 16: Respiratory System Ch 16: Respiratory System SLOs: Explain how intrapulmonary pressures change during breathing Explain surface tension and the role of surfactant in respiratory physiology. Compare and contrast compliance

More information

BIOH122 Human Biological Science 2

BIOH122 Human Biological Science 2 BIOH122 Human Biological Science 2 Session 11 Respiratory System 2 Pulmonary Ventilation Bioscience Department Endeavour College of Natural Health endeavour.edu.au Session plan o Pulmonary Ventilation

More information

Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16

Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16 Part I. Clinical Applications Name: Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16 Lab Day/Time: 1. A person with ketoacidosis may hyperventilate. Explain why this occurs, and explain why this hyperventilation

More information

1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/

1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/ 1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/ CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES Oxygen (O2) is utilised by the organisms to indirectly break down nutrient molecules like

More information

Control of Respiration. Central Control of Ventilation

Control of Respiration. Central Control of Ventilation Central Control of Goal: maintain sufficient ventilation with minimal energy Process steps: mechanics + aerodynamics Points of Regulation Breathing rate and depth, coughing, swallowing, breath holding

More information

Regulation of Ventilation, Ventilation/ Perfusion Ratio, and Transport of Gases

Regulation of Ventilation, Ventilation/ Perfusion Ratio, and Transport of Gases M07_LIMM3516_01_SE_C07.indd Page 37 1/28/11 4:38 PM user-s146 Standard Pathophysiology TOPIC Competency Applies fundamental knowledge of the pathophysiology of respiration and perfusion to patient assessment

More information

(A) The partial pressure in the lungs is higher than in the blood, and oxygen diffuses out of the lungs passively.

(A) The partial pressure in the lungs is higher than in the blood, and oxygen diffuses out of the lungs passively. DAT Biology - Problem Drill 12: The Respiratory System Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which statement about the partial pressure of oxygen inside the lungs is correct? Question #01 (A) The partial pressure in

More information

Respiration (revised 2006) Pulmonary Mechanics

Respiration (revised 2006) Pulmonary Mechanics Respiration (revised 2006) Pulmonary Mechanics PUL 1. Diagram how pleural pressure, alveolar pressure, airflow, and lung volume change during a normal quiet breathing cycle. Identify on the figure the

More information

Section Two Diffusion of gases

Section Two Diffusion of gases Section Two Diffusion of gases Lecture 5: Partial pressure and the composition of gasses in air. Factors affecting diffusion of gases. Ventilation perfusion ratio effect on alveolar gas concentration.

More information

Respiratory physiology II.

Respiratory physiology II. Respiratory physiology II. Learning objectives: 29. Pulmonary gas exchange. 30. Oxygen transport in the blood. 31. Carbon-dioxide transport in the blood. 1 Pulmonary gas exchange The transport mechanism

More information

Pco2 *20times = 0.6, 2.4, so the co2 carried in the arterial blood in dissolved form is more than the o2 because of its solubility.

Pco2 *20times = 0.6, 2.4, so the co2 carried in the arterial blood in dissolved form is more than the o2 because of its solubility. Physiology, sheet #9 Oxygen, is first dissolved in the plasma and the cytosol of the rbc, we have around blood constitutes 7% of our body weight, oxygen, in the capillaries is present in the rbc s and

More information

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System Chapter 22 The Respiratory System 1 Respiration Pulmonary ventilation (breathing): movement of air into and out of the lungs External respiration: O 2 and CO 2 exchange between the lungs and the blood

More information

Respiratory system & exercise. Dr. Rehab F Gwada

Respiratory system & exercise. Dr. Rehab F Gwada Respiratory system & exercise Dr. Rehab F Gwada Objectives of lecture Outline the major anatomical components & important functions of the respiratory system. Describe the mechanics of ventilation. List

More information

BIOLOGY 12 - RESPIRATION - CHAPTER NOTES

BIOLOGY 12 - RESPIRATION - CHAPTER NOTES BIOLOGY 12 - RESPIRATION - CHAPTER NOTES We often think of respiration as just breathing. In fact, breathing is just one part of this physiological process. As biologists, we divide respiration up into

More information

RESPIRATORY REGULATION DURING EXERCISE

RESPIRATORY REGULATION DURING EXERCISE RESPIRATORY REGULATION DURING EXERCISE Respiration Respiration delivery of oxygen to and removal of carbon dioxide from the tissue External respiration ventilation and exchange of gases in the lung Internal

More information

1. Label a diagram of the respiratory system. Objective sheet 3 Notes

1. Label a diagram of the respiratory system. Objective sheet 3 Notes 1. Label a diagram of the respiratory system Objective sheet 3 Notes 2. Functions of the respiratory structures Name Description Function Nasal Cavity Trachea Bronchi (Singular Bronchus) Bronchioles Lungs

More information

Respiration. The ins and outs

Respiration. The ins and outs Respiration The ins and outs Functions 1. To bring O 2 into the body and transfer it to the blood stream 2. To remove CO 2 Circulation and respiration work together to achieve these functions Why Do We

More information

4/18/12 MECHANISM OF RESPIRATION. Every Breath You Take. Fun Facts

4/18/12 MECHANISM OF RESPIRATION. Every Breath You Take. Fun Facts Objectives MECHANISM OF RESPIRATION Dr Badri Paudel Explain how the intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressures vary during ventilation and relate these pressure changes to Boyle s law. Define the terms

More information

Introduction. Respiration. Chapter 10. Objectives. Objectives. The Respiratory System

Introduction. Respiration. Chapter 10. Objectives. Objectives. The Respiratory System Introduction Respiration Chapter 10 The Respiratory System Provides a means of gas exchange between the environment and the body Plays a role in the regulation of acidbase balance during exercise Objectives

More information

Essential Skills Course Acute Care Module. Respiratory Day 2 (Arterial Blood Gases) Pre course Workbook

Essential Skills Course Acute Care Module. Respiratory Day 2 (Arterial Blood Gases) Pre course Workbook Essential Skills Course Acute Care Module Respiratory Day 2 (Arterial Blood Gases) Pre course Workbook Acknowledgements This pre course workbook has been complied and updated with reference to the original

More information

The physiological functions of respiration and circulation. Mechanics. exercise 7. Respiratory Volumes. Objectives

The physiological functions of respiration and circulation. Mechanics. exercise 7. Respiratory Volumes. Objectives exercise 7 Respiratory System Mechanics Objectives 1. To explain how the respiratory and circulatory systems work together to enable gas exchange among the lungs, blood, and body tissues 2. To define respiration,

More information

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide Respiration Gas Transport Chapter 21-23

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide Respiration Gas Transport Chapter 21-23 nd Lecture Fri 06 Mar 009 Vertebrate Physiology ECOL 437 (MCB/VetSci 437) Univ. of Arizona, spring 009 Kevin Bonine & Kevin Oh Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide Respiration Gas Transport Chapter 1-3 1 Housekeeping,

More information

Monday, ! Today: Respiratory system! 5/20/14! Transport of Blood! What we ve been covering! Circulatory system! Parts of blood! Heart! tubing!

Monday, ! Today: Respiratory system! 5/20/14! Transport of Blood! What we ve been covering! Circulatory system! Parts of blood! Heart! tubing! Monday, 5.19.14! What we ve been covering! Circulatory system! Parts of blood! Heart! tubing! Transport of Blood! What is transported! Nutrients! Oxygen! Carbon Dioxide! Hormones! Antibodies! What it is/does!

More information

CHAPTER 3: The cardio-respiratory system

CHAPTER 3: The cardio-respiratory system : The cardio-respiratory system Exam style questions - text book pages 44-45 1) Describe the structures involved in gaseous exchange in the lungs and explain how gaseous exchange occurs within this tissue.

More information

Chapter 17 Mechanics of Breathing

Chapter 17 Mechanics of Breathing 1 Chapter 17 Mechanics of Breathing Running Problem COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (impaired air exchanged) - Chronic Bronchitis: (Blue Bloaters) Bluish tinge of skin and tendency to be overweight

More information

Ebtihal Al-Remawi. Afnan Ali. Yanal. 1 P a g e

Ebtihal Al-Remawi. Afnan Ali. Yanal. 1 P a g e #1 Ebtihal Al-Remawi Afnan Ali Yanal 1 P a g e 1/15 *before we start: if you are watching the video and have no time for some laughs go to minute (5:28 to 7:02) then go to minute (10:14). I will be adding

More information

Gas Exchange in Animals. Uptake of O2 from environment and discharge of CO2. Respiratory medium! water for aquatic animals, air for terrestial

Gas Exchange in Animals. Uptake of O2 from environment and discharge of CO2. Respiratory medium! water for aquatic animals, air for terrestial Gas Exchange in Animals Uptake of O2 from environment and discharge of CO2 Respiratory medium! water for aquatic animals, air for terrestial Respiratory surface! skin, gills, lungs Circulatory System O2/CO2

More information

Module Two. Objectives: Objectives cont. Objectives cont. Objectives cont.

Module Two. Objectives: Objectives cont. Objectives cont. Objectives cont. Transition to the New National EMS Education Standards: EMT-B B to EMT Module Two Objectives: Upon completion, each participant will do the following to a degree of accuracy that meets the Ntl EMS Education

More information

Respiratory System 1

Respiratory System 1 Respiratory System 1 Outline Respiratory structures Gills Air-Breathing Animals Amphibians and Reptiles Mammals Birds Structures and Mechanisms of Breathing 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

More information

Human gas exchange. Question Paper. Save My Exams! The Home of Revision. Cambridge International Examinations. 56 minutes. Time Allowed: Score: /46

Human gas exchange. Question Paper. Save My Exams! The Home of Revision. Cambridge International Examinations. 56 minutes. Time Allowed: Score: /46 Human gas exchange Question Paper Level Subject Exam oard Topic Sub Topic ooklet O Level iology ambridge International Examinations Respiration Human gas exchange Question Paper Time llowed: 56 minutes

More information

BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES

BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES 96 BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Respiration in insects is called direct because a. The cell exchange O 2 directly with the air in the

More information

Chapter 42 Part III The Respiratory System

Chapter 42 Part III The Respiratory System Biology 120 J. Greg Doheny Chapter 42 Part III The Respiratory System Notes: In this section we will discuss the breathing system, also known as the respiratory system. This should not be confused with

More information

GASEOUS EXCHANGE 17 JULY 2013

GASEOUS EXCHANGE 17 JULY 2013 GASEOUS EXCHANGE 17 JULY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we: Discuss what is gaseous exchange? Consider requirements of an efficient gaseous exchange surface. Look at diversity in gas exchange systems.

More information

Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange

Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange Session Objectives. What you will cover Basic anatomy of the lung including airways Breathing movements Lung volumes and capacities Compliance and Resistance in

More information