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2 Introduction Aim of the project: This project is aimed to figure out if smoking, sport, gender or height influences lung capacity. In order to figure out what influences the lung capacity, data will be collected and analyzed. Comparisons between chosen smokers and non-smokers will be carried out in order to see whether smoking influences the lung capacity. It is expected that general lung capacity is going to be bigger for non-smokers and smaller for smokers, male and female, thus it is the aim of the project and will be investigated through analysis of data. 1 To check if this hypothesis is true, measuring lung capacity procedure will take place. I wanted to test 40 individuals, divided into female and male groups, smokers and non smoker. ( male smokers, male non-smokers, female smokers, female non-smokers). So I picked students at random from the IB diploma programme in my school and asked if they were smokers or non smokers. Once I had of each gender that were smokers and that were non smokers I asked them to complete the questionnaire and then started the test that would measure their lung capacity. 3 Age from 16 till 1 years old because 16 is the legal age for smoking in the Netherlands. 4 Every person gets 3 tries to blow in the lung capacity meter so the average value can be picked. The type of questions asked: In order to investigate as it was mentioned before we need to collect and analyze the data. In order to do that, questionaires and forms are going to be composed for the 40 individuals that are tested for the lung capacity. Questionaires are going to contain these types of questions: 1 Gender? Male Female Age?... 3 Are you an athlete? yes no The data taken from individuals that perform the lung capacity test. 1 Height Lung capacity Hypotheses 1 Smoking decreases lung capacity Lung volume depends on height, gender and also if the individual is an athlete. People who do sports have a higher lung volume which can be independent of height. Oxford University Press 01: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser s institute Sample project

3 3 Larger lung capacity expected to be: Smaller lung capacity expected to be: Males Females Non-smokers Smokers Athletes Non-athletes I will find the mean lung capacity for each of the 40 participants and set up a table with the information collected. Each individual blows into the lung capacity meter three times and I will find the mean of these three blows to use in my analysis. This gives me a more reliable reading than if the participant only blew once into the meter. I will compare the means of the lung capacities for each of the groups in order to find out which group has the largest lung capacity and which one the smallest. I will also find the standard deviation as this may be useful when deciding on the groupings for the chi-squared test to see if lung capacity is independent of gender or of smoking. I will also compare the mean lung capacity of athletes and non-athletes to find out if athletes have larger lung capacities than non-athletes and I will draw a scatter diagram to find out if there is any correlation between height and lung capacity. If it appears that there is a correlation then I will find the correlation coefficient and possibly the equation of the regression line if the correlation coefficient is moderate to strong. Data See Appendix for raw data. The project has a title, a task and a fairly detailed plan that is followed. The raw data is relevant, suffi cient in quality but not in quantity and is set up for use. Lung capacity data was collected with a Spirometer. Smoker females Age: Height: 166 cm 170 cm 165 cm 161 cm 171 cm 164 cm 175 cm 165 cm 170 cm 165 cm Lung capacity: 500 cc 500 cc 00 cc 600 cc 800 cc 00 cc 500 cc 600 cc 800 cc 800 cc Athlete: No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Non smoker females Age: Height: 170 cm 160 cm 178 cm 156 cm 171 cm 163 cm 164 cm 175 cm 170 cm 163 cm Lung capacity: 3000 cc 000 cc 3000 cc 500 cc 30 cc 900 cc 000 cc 600 cc 900 cc 700 cc Athlete: No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes Oxford University Press 01: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser s institute Sample project 3

4 Smoker males Age: Height: 185 cm 173 cm 183 cm 18 cm 175 cm 189 cm 187 cm 186 cm 177 cm 185 cm Lung capacity: 3300 cc 3300 cc 4000 cc 3900 cc 4000 cc 4000 cc 3500 cc 4600 cc 3500 cc 40 cc Athlete: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Non smoker males Age: Height: 179 cm 17 cm 171 cm 175 cm 176 cm 178 cm 175 cm 179 cm 180 cm 176 cm Lung capacity: 400 cc 30 cc 3500 cc 40 cc 30 cc 3800 cc 4400 cc 3500 cc 600 cc 4000 cc Athlete: Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Hypothesis: Female Non-smokers should have less lung capacity than Male Non-smokers while Female Smokers should also have less lung capacity compared to Male Smokers. Generaly it is expected that lung capacity differs in gender, because females generally have smaller lungs. Calculating the means Non Smoker Females Lung capacity: ( 000, 000, 500, 600, (700, 900), 900, 3000, 3000, 30) Mean: ( ) 6700 = = 670cc Smoker females Lung capacity: (00, 00, 500, 500, (500, 600), 600, 800, 800, 800) Mean: ( ) 0 = = 550cc Non- smoker males Lung capacity: (600, 30, 30, 3500, (3500, 3800), 4000, 40, 400, 4400) Mean: ( ) = = 3630 cc Smoker males Lung capacity: (3300, 3300, 3500, 3500, 3900, 4000, 4000, 4000, 40, 4600) Mean: ( ) 3800 = = 380 cc These values confirm that males have larger lung capacity than females and female non-smokers have larger lung capacity than female smokers. However, male smokers have larger lung capacity than male non-smokers. This was an unexpected result but could be explained by the fact that there were more males who played sport and were smokers than non-smokers. Simple process Oxford University Press 01: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser s institute Sample project 4

5 Standard deviation The standard deviation is going to be calculated to find out how close the data is to the mean in each case. I will take the standard deviation into account when deciding on the groupings for the lung capacity in the chi-squared test. Process: Find the deviation of each entry from the mean, then square these values. Next find the mean of the squared values and take the square root of this answer. Non smoker females lung capacity Mean: 670 Simple process Standard deviation x i x i mean (x i mean) 000 ( 670) ( 670) ( 170) ( 70 ) Total: SD: = 380 Non smoker males lung capacity: Mean: 3630 cc Standard deviation X i X i mean (X i mean) 600 ( 30) ( 530) ( 530) ( 130) ( 130) Total: 9600 SD: 9600 =544 Oxford University Press 01: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser s institute Sample project 5

6 Smoker females lung capacity: Mean: 550 cc Standard deviation X i X i mean (X i mean) 00 ( 350) ( 350) ( 50) ( 50) ( 50) Total: SD: = 11 Smoker male lung capacity: Mean: 380 cc Standard deviation X i X i mean (X i mean) Total: SD: = 39 Female Non-smoker Female Smoker Male Non-smoker Male Smoker Mean lung capacity Standard deviation of lung capacity The standard deviations shows that male non-smokers have the largest spread of data from the mean and female smoker s lung capacities are the least widespread. Oxford University Press 01: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser s institute Sample project 6

7 The average lung capacity of athletes and non athletes: Are you an athlete? Yes: 0 people Average of lung capacity of athletes = = No: 0 people Average of lung capacity of non-athletes = = (335 > 3085) To conclude these results by looking at athlete lung capacity and non-athlete statistics, it is generally expected that athletes have bigger lungs. This may not be completely accurate due to some reasons for example; if a person was biking or skating to school every day and they are a non-athlete then their lungs would expand due to continuous inhale exhale motion which means that he/she gained more lung capacity than other non-athlete people who came to school by car etc. Now I will plot a scatter graph of height and lung capacity, and calculate the correlation coefficient to see if there is a relationship between the two. Height vs Lung capacity Lung volume (cc) Height (cm) Method on calculator: L 1 height L Lung volume r = Oxford University Press 01: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser s institute Sample project 7

8 This is moderately strong so I can find the equation of the regression line. From the GDC the equation of the regression line is: y = 63.3x 7784 e.g. if x = 170 cm then y = = 977 which is a reasonable answer. With this I can conclude that there is a correlation between height and lung capacity. χ Test I will use the chi-squared test at the 5% level of significance to find out whether or not certain sets of data are independent or not. I will test to see if lung capacity is independent of gender and if lung capacity is independent of smoking. In order for my expected values to be greater than 5 I had to group my lung capacity as shown in the table. I took into consideration the means and standard deviations of the lung capacities of all four groups to help me decide on the range of values to take for the lung capacity groups. H 0 : Lung capacity is independent of gender. H 1 : Lung capacity is dependent of gender. This is also a simple process because everything has been done using technology. < 3000 cc 3000 cc 3500 cc > 3500 cc Male Female Total Expected values: = 9, = 5.5, =5.5 < 3000 cc 3000 cc 3500 cc > 3500 cc Male Female Total Male (1 9) = = 7.11 (8 5.5) = = (11 5.5) 5.5 Female (17 9) 9 = =5.5 = = 7.11 (3 5.5) = = 1.14 (0 5.5) = = 5.5 Oxford University Press 01: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser s institute Sample project 8

9 Chi squared test statistic = 7.5 Degrees of freedom = ( 1) (3 1) = Critical value = At 5% significance level, 7.5 > 5.991, therefore we reject the null hypothesis. That implies that lung capacity is dependent on gender. H 0 : Lung capacity is independent of smoking. H 1 : Lung capacity is dependent on smoking. This is a further process < 3000 cc 3000cc 3500 cc > 3500 cc Smoker Non-smoker Total Expected values: = 9, = 5.5, =5.5 < 3000 cc 3000 cc 3500 cc > 3500 cc Smoker Non-smoker Total Smoker ( 9) (8-5.5) 5.5 (6-5.5) 5.5 = 1 9 = = = = = 0.11 Non-smoker ( 8 9) 9 (7-5.5) = = = = (5 5.5) = = Chi squared test statistic = 1.1 Degrees of freedom = ( 1) (3 1) = Critical value = At 5% value 1.1 < 5.991, therefore we accept the null hypothesis that lung capacity is independent of smoking. Oxford University Press 01: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser s institute Sample project 9

10 Validity: I relied on the honesty of my school friends regarding their height and whether they smoked or played sports. The results would have been more valid if I had measured the people myself and double checked if they played sports or smoked. At the start of the data collection every individual was instructed on how to perform the lung capacity task, but some of the individuals did not take it seriously and unsuspected underperformance distorted the data recordings which could have impacted the answer. The end result was positive for the hypothesis that lung capacity is dependent on gender. The negative result for the hypotheses that lung capacity is independent of smoking was unexpected but could have been caused by reasons given above and also the fact that more smokers played sports than non-smokers. As was previously mentioned, students who cycled regularly to school but indicated that they were non-athletes, may have built up a larger lung capacity than those who came to school by car. When using the chi-squared test I made sure that my expected values were more than five otherwise the test would have been invalid. Only when I saw from the scatter graph that there appeared to be a relationship between height and lung capacity did I find the correlation coefficient. Because this was moderately strong then it was relevant for me to find the equation of the regression line. Obviously, if I had tested more students then my results would have been more reliable. Conclusion To conclude, comparisons between smokers and non-smokers were carried out in order to see whether smoking influences the lung capacity. It was expected that general lung capacity was going to be bigger for non-smokers and smaller for smokers, both male and female. However, although this was true for the females, the male smokers had a larger lung capacity than the non-smokers. The hypothesis that smoking decreases lung capacity wasn', t valid, because calculations that were carried out showed independence between smoking and lung capacity. Gender hypothesis was carried out and the results proved that lung capacity is dependant on gender, which proves a theory that males have a bigger lung capacity than females. Another hypothesis was stated that athletes have bigger lung capacities than non-athletes and this proved to be valid. The correlation coefficient on height v lung capacity proved that there is a relation between the two of them and it is moderately strong. The equation of the regression line was also found and this could be used for prediction purposes. Validity has been discussed. Bibliography IB Course Companion: Mathematical Studies; Bedding, Coad, Forrest, Fussey and Waldman; 08/03/007 Oxford University Press 01: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser s institute Sample project

11 Appendix raw data To find the average lung capacity I added up the three trials and divided by 3 ( ) For example: = 7500 = Female smokers Age Height Lung Capacity 1 Lung Capacity Lung Capacity 3 Average Lung Capacity Female non-smokers Age Height Lung Capacity 1 Lung Capacity Lung Capacity 3 Average Lung Capacity Male smokers Age Height Lung Capacity 1 Lung Capacity Lung Capacity 3 Average Lung Capacity Oxford University Press 01: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser s institute Sample project 11

12 Male non-smokers Age Height Lung Capacity 1 Lung Capacity Lung Capacity 3 Average Lung Capacity Summary of moderator s comments Criterion Grade Comment A 3 The project does have a title, a statement of the task and a description of the plan which is quite detailed. (3 out of 3 marks awarded.) B Relevant data has been collected. The data is suffi cient in quality but not in quantity. However, it has been set up for use in the chi-squared test. The student should have tested more than people in each category. ( marks awarded, out of a possible 3.) C 5 All the mathematical processes used are accurate and relevant. (5 out of 5 marks awarded.) D The interpretations are consistent with the processes used but there is no meaningful discussion. ( marks awarded, out of a possible 3.) E 1 There is an attempt made to discuss the validity of the processes used and the data collection process. (1 out of 1 mark awarded.) F The project is structured but does not always fl ow well. ( marks awarded, out of a possible 3.) G Notation and terminology are correct throughout the project. ( out of marks awarded.) Total grade 16 Oxford University Press 01: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser s institute Sample project 1

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