Dive Against Debris. Instructor Guide. Distinctive Specialty Course. Dive Against Debris Instructor Guide Product No (Rev.01/2016) Version 1.

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1 Distinctive Specialty Course Dive Against Debris Product No (Rev.01/2016) Version 1.1 PROJECT AWARE

2 Dive Against Debris Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty Course Acknowledgements Project AWARE Foundation thanks Seba Sheavly for her invaluable input into the creation of the Dive Against Debris program. For over twenty years Seba has been a leading figure in the battle against marine debris having edited or contributed to major marine debris reports from UNEP, UNESCO, GESAMP, US EPA, and the National Academy of Sciences. As principal of Sheavly Consultants, she has provided advisory services to institutions including the European Commission, NOAA Marine Debris program and the Ocean Conservancy. Very sadly Seba passed away in June Project AWARE hopes the Dive Against Debris program is seen as a fitting tribute to Seba who worked tirelessly for a clean ocean. To download a free PDF of this document, learn more about Project AWARE Foundation, and submit comments or suggestions about this, or other Project AWARE products or programs, please visit Project AWARE Foundation 2015 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit: 2 Dive Against Debris

3 Table of Contents Introduction How to Use this 5 Course Philosophy and Goals 5 Course Flow Options 6 Section One: Course Standards Standards at a Glance 7 Prerequisites 8 Student Diver Prerequisites 8 Supervision and Ratios 8 Site, Depths, and Hours 8 Materials and Equipment 9 Assessment Standards 9 Certification Requirements and Procedures 10 Links to Other Courses 10 Dive Against Debris 3

4 Dive Against Debris Section Two: Knowledge Development Conduct 10 Learning Objectives 11 Teaching Outline 12 The Messy Problem of Marine Debris 13 Time to Dive Against Debris 16 Make Your Survey Count 21 Now It s Your Turn! 27 Section Three: Open Water Dive Conduct 29 Open Water Dive Performance Requirements 29 Open Water lines for Dive Against Debris Dive 30 General Open Water Considerations 30 Dive Against Debris Open Water Dive 30 Section Four: Dive Against Debris Knowledge Review Dive Against Debris Knowledge Review 32 Dive Against Debris Knowledge Review Answer Key 37 4 Dive Against Debris

5 Introduction This section includes suggestions on how to use this guide, an overview of course philosophy and goals, a flow chart to show you how course components and materials work together for success, and ways you can organise and integrate student diver learning. How to Use this This guide speaks to you, the Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty. The guide contains three sections - the first contains standards specific to this course, the second contains knowledge development options, the third considers optional confined water and details the open water dive. All required standards, learning objectives, activities, and performance requirements specific to the Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty course appear in boldface print. The boldface assists you in easily identifying those requirements that you must adhere to when you conduct the course for PADI certification. Items not in boldface print are recommendations for your information and consideration. General course standards applicable to all PADI courses are located in the General Standards and Procedures section of your PADI Manual. Course Philosophy and Goals Every year tens of thousands of marine animals and seabirds die from eating or getting tangled up in marine debris - or trash in the ocean. Marine debris also damages habitats, makes coastal areas unattractive to visit and is expensive to remove. As much as seventy percent of the rubbish entering our ocean sinks to the seafloor; only divers have the skills to tackle underwater marine debris. To make long-term improvements individuals, businesses and governments need to make changes that stop rubbish from entering the ocean. For the best results, these changes must be driven by an accurate picture of the extent of the marine debris problem. By completing Dive Against Debris surveys you and your students help build that picture from an underwater perspective. The data you collect through Dive Against Debris helps drive changes that protect marine life and marine environments. The course aims to equip students with the knowledge and skills to complete Dive Against Debris surveys including the removal of marine debris underwater, and reporting the data to Project AWARE. Dive Against Debris surveys and the data submitted are essential to help drive change and inform policy. Completing regular Dive Against Debris surveys at the same location over time is the best way to build a comprehensive database and identify hotspot areas where waste management needs to be prioritised. Use this course to build a team of surveyors who regularly complete Dive Against Debris surveys. Knowledge development can be delivered as a face-to-face presentation or through independent study using the Dive Against Debris Survey. There is one training dive required for PADI certification. The time normally spent delivering a second training dive on most Specialty Courses should be used to involve students in the accurate recording and reporting of data. Aim to create divers who can independently complete the non-dive aspects of a survey to reduce your time commitment to your ongoing Dive Against Debris survey project. Provide additional training dives as required for students to achieve mastery of in-water skills. Dive Against Debris 5

6 Note to : For ease of reading all Dive Against Debris materials refer to marine debris and ocean, however rubbish in lakes, rivers and streams also pose a serious problem and Dive Against Debris surveys are equally valid when conducted in freshwater environments. Course Flow Options Knowledge Development presentations or independent study Review Knowledge Reviews Knowledge Development Confined Water Dive (optional) Scuba Skills Review Practice buoyancy skills, swimming with a cleanup bag and methods to minimise contact with the seafloor while removing debris items Review the Dive Against Debris Marine Debris Identification and Data Card. Dive Against Debris Open Water Dive Open Water Dive Follow the five steps for recording and reporting data Report Data Course Flow Options provide a visual representation of how knowledge development and the optional confined water session support the open water dive. Students complete knowledge development and knowledge reviews before participating in the open water dive and data reporting. A confined water dive is not required for the Dive Against Debris course. However, you may want to consider having a session that allows student divers to practice buoyancy in particular as the skill necessary to master for a careful and safe removal of debris, proper handling of mesh cleanup bags, and an environmentally aware, safe and enjoyable Dive Against Debris survey. You might consider pairing that session with PADI s Peak Performance Buoyancy Specialty Course. There is one open water dive required for PADI certification. The time usually spent delivering a second training dive should be used to demonstrate how to accurately record and report data. It is a certification requirement that students are involved in all aspects of the survey from underwater debris removal, through data recording, to data reporting*. This involvement prepares them to survey independently and reduces your time commitment to your ongoing survey project. *Note to : The guides students, as a group, through the process of data submission. For English speaking students, use the online data submission form. For non- English speaking students, use the Data Card and on completion. Only one data submission is required per Dive Against Debris survey, irrelevant of number of students. If you have multiple students, ensure only one submission is made i.e. duplicate data submissions for the same survey should not be made. Dive Against Debris 6

7 You may rearrange skill sequences within the dive and you may add more dives as necessary to meet student divers needs. Organize your course to incorporate environmentally friendly techniques throughout each dive, to accommodate different student diver learning styles, logistical needs, and your sequencing preferences. Deliver this course using the following outlines depending on student preference. Step Independent Study -Led 1 Independent Study - use the Dive Against Debris Survey Section One: Course Standards This section includes the course standards, recommendations and suggestions for conducting the Dive Against Debris course. Standards at a Glance Knowledge Development Presentation - use the Dive Against Debris Survey Lesson s 2 Review Knowledge Review Review Knowledge Review 3 Confined Water Dive (optional) Confined Water Dive (optional) 4 Open Water Dive Open Water Dive 5 Follow the five steps for recording and reporting data as outlined in the Dive Against Debris Survey Follow the five steps for recording and reporting data as outlined in the Dive Against Debris Survey Topic Minimum Rating Prerequisites Minimum Age Ratios: student to instructor Site, Depth and Hours Materials and Equipment Course Standard Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty PADI (Junior) Open Water Diver or equivalent 12 8:1 instructor; plus 2 students per certified assistant to a maximum of 10 students Depth: maximum 18 metres / 60 feet (30 metres / 100 feet for students certified as PADI Advanced Open Water Divers) Hours Recommended: 12 Minimum Open Water Dives: 1 : Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty Dive Against Debris Survey Dive Against Debris Survey Lesson s Dive Against Debris Data Card Dive Against Debris Marine Debris Identification Dive Against Debris online data submission form Project AWARE s 10 Tips for Divers to Protect the Ocean Planet Student: Dive Against Debris Survey Dive Against Debris Data Card Dive Against Debris Marine Debris Identification Dive Against Debris online data submission form Project AWARE s 10 Tips for Divers to Protect the Ocean Planet Dive Against Debris 7

8 Prerequisites To qualify to teach the Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty course an individual must be a Teaching Status PADI Open Water Scuba or higher. PADI s may apply for the Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty rating after completing a Specialty Training course with a PADI Course Director, or by applying directly to PADI. For further details, reference Specialty in the Professional Membership section of your PADI Manual. Student Diver Prerequisites By the start of the course, a diver must be: 1. Certified as a PADI (Junior) Open Water Diver. Verify student diver prerequisite skills and provide remediation as necessary. 2. At least 12 years. Supervision and Ratios Open Water Dive A Teaching Status Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty must be present and in control of all activities. If a dive is conducted deeper than 18 metres/60 feet, the Specialty must directly supervise. Otherwise, the Specialty may indirectly supervise all dives. The Specialty must ensure that all performance requirements are met. The ratio for open water dives is 8 student divers per instructor (8:1), with 2 additional student divers allowed per certified assistant to a maximum of 10 students. Site, Depth and Hours Site Choose sites with conditions and environments suitable for completing requirements. Refer to the Choose Your Survey Site section of the Dive Against Debris Survey for guidance on choosing suitable survey locations. Practice skills in confined water sessions first to better prepare student divers to apply skills in open water later, in particular, to help them master their buoyancy skills. Depth 18 metres/60 feet maximum for students certified as PADI (Junior) Open Water Divers. (21 metres / 70 feet for students certified as PADI Junior Advanced Open Water Divers and 30 metres / 100 feet for students certified as PADI Advanced Open Water Divers.) Hours The Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty course includes one open water dive followed by recording and reporting of data*, which may be conducted in one day. The recommended minimum number of hours is 12. Dive Against Debris 8

9 *Note to : The guides students, as a group, through the process of data submission. For English speaking students, use the online data submission form. For non- English speaking students, use the Data Card and on completion. Only one data submission is required per Dive Against Debris survey, irrelevant of number of students. If you have multiple students, ensure only one submission is made i.e. duplicate data submissions for the same survey should not be made. Materials and Equipment All Dive Against Debris resources including the, Survey, Survey Lesson s, Data Card and Marine Debris Identification can be downloaded here: The Dive Against Debris online data submission form can be accessed at the same link. Materials Required Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty Dive Against Debris Survey Dive Against Debris Survey Lesson s Dive Against Debris Data Card Dive Against Debris Marine Debris Identification Dive Against Debris online data submission form Recommended Project AWARE s 10 Tips for Divers to Protect the Ocean Planet Student Diver Materials Required Dive Against Debris Survey Dive Against Debris Data Card Dive Against Debris Marine Debris Identification Recommended Project AWARE 10 Tips for Divers to Protect the Ocean Planet Dive Against Debris online data submission form Assessment Standards Students must gain knowledge by attending Knowledge Development presentations or through independent study using the Dive Against Debris Survey. You can assess knowledge by reviewing the student s Knowledge Review. The student diver must demonstrate accurate and adequate knowledge during the open water dive and must perform all skills (procedures and motor skills) fluidly, with little difficulty, in a manner that demonstrates minimal or no stress. Dive Against Debris 9

10 Certification Requirements and Procedures Have divers complete PADI s Continuing Education Administrative Document at the commencement of training. Do not use the Liability Release and Assumption of Risk For Dive Against Debris Event for students completing the Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty course. Only use this form for non-training Dive Against Debris survey activities. Encourage divers to donate to ocean protection by choosing a Project AWARE version of their PADI certification card. Student divers are issued a PADI certification for Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty upon successful completion of the course. To qualify for certification student divers must gain knowledge by attending Knowledge Development presentations or through independent study using the Dive Against Debris Survey, complete the Knowledge Review, complete all boldface performance requirements for Dive Against Debris Open Water Dive, and participate in data recording and reporting*. The instructor certifying the student diver must ensure that all certification requirements have been met. Reference Paperwork and Administrative Procedures of the General Standards and Procedures section of your PADI Manual for detailed information on Referrals. *Note to : The guides students, as a group, through the process of data submission. For English speaking students, use the online data submission form. For non- English speaking students, use the Data Card and on completion. Only one data submission is required per Dive Against Debris survey, irrelevant of number of students. If you have multiple students, ensure only one submission is made i.e. duplicate data submissions for the same survey should not be made. Links to Other Courses Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty certification does not count towards PADI Adventure Diver or PADI Advanced Open Water Diver certification. Divers may credit Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty certification toward PADI Master Scuba Diver rating. Section Two: Knowledge Development Conduct Marine debris, or rubbish in the ocean, kills tens of thousands of marine animals and seabirds every year. It destroys habitats, damages infrastructure, makes beaches unattractive and dangerous to visit and is costly to remove. Underwater cleanups play an important role in making the ocean safe for marine life, but long-term solutions will be achieved through actions that stop rubbish from entering the ocean. To reach this goal, individuals, businesses and governments need to better manage waste through changes to policies, infrastructure, regulations and behaviours. To drive these changes we need a clear picture of the extent of the marine debris problem. Through Dive Against Debris, divers add an important underwater perspective to that picture. Dive Against Debris 10

11 With this in mind, use this course to train divers to complete Dive Against Debris surveys from planning the dive to recording and reporting data. Through this course you will create a team of divers to participate in your regular Dive Against Debris surveys, who can join other surveys, and who, for more experienced divers, can start surveys of their own. Learning Objectives By the end of knowledge development, students will be able to explain: The Messy Problem of Marine Debris Marine debris: the damage done, what it is, where it comes from and how divers are part of the solution. Describe the damage caused by marine debris to wildlife, habitats, and coastal environments Explain and define marine debris Describe the pathways taken by rubbish to the ocean Explain changes needed to stop rubbish from entering the ocean and how divers are driving change through Dive Against Debris Time to Dive Against Debris Establish a Dive Against Debris survey: survey frequency, sites, profiles and equipment. Use of photography and knowing what to leave behind. Describe important attributes of a Dive Against Debris survey Outline considerations for creating a survey dive profile Describe the use of photography in Dive Against Debris surveys Identify criteria for deciding when objects should not be removed from underwater Make Your Survey Count The five easy steps to maximise the benefits to the environment of a Dive Against Debris survey. Describe the five steps to record and report findings from a survey dive Now It s Your Turn! Final thoughts on Dive Against Debris and how to join the global Project AWARE movement of scuba divers protecting our ocean planet. Outline additional Dive Against Debris features Explain how to join the global movement of Project AWARE divers Dive Against Debris 11

12 Knowledge Development Teaching Outline Suggestions to you, the Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty Course, appear in note boxes. Course Introduction 1. Staff and student introductions Note to : Introduce yourself and assistants. Explain your background in underwater cleanups or marine surveys if your students are not familiar with you. Have students introduce themselves and explain why they are interested in this course. Break the ice and encourage a relaxed atmosphere. Give times (if applicable), dates and locations as appropriate for Knowledge Development presentations, confined water, and open water dive. Review with student divers other skills they may want as a Dive Against Debris Diver. Through additional specialty course training, these opportunities may include PADI Peak Performance Buoyancy Diver, PADI Search and Recovery Diver, PADI Digital Underwater Photographer, and/or PADI Underwater Navigator. In addition, you might also discuss with your students other conservation focused specialties you may be teaching such as AWARE Shark Conservation, AWARE Coral Reef Conservation or the Project AWARE Specialty. 2. Course goals this course will: a. Equip you with the skills and knowledge to tackle marine debris, b. Provide information on the marine debris issue, c. Show you how to complete a Dive Against Debris survey from planning a dive to reporting data. d. Show you how divers are driving changes that stop rubbish entering the ocean through Dive Against Debris. 3. Course overview a. Knowledge Development presentations and confined water dive (optional). b. Open water dive. There will be one open water dive. c. Certification Upon successful completion of the course you will receive PADI certification for Dive Against Debris Distinctive Specialty. Dive Against Debris 12

13 Certification means that you will be qualified to: i. Complete Dive Against Debris surveys: choose survey locations, plan, organise, make, and log open water Dive Against Debris survey dives, and record and report data. Dives should be made in conditions generally comparable to, or better than, those of your training. ii. Apply for the Master Scuba Diver rating if you are a PADI Advanced Open Water Diver and a PADI Rescue Diver (or qualifying certification from another training organisation) with certification in four other PADI Specialty ratings, and you have 50-logged dives. Note to : Use the PADI Student Record File or the Continuing Education Administrative Document. Explain all course costs and materials, and what the costs do and do not include, including equipment use, charter boat fees, etc. Explain what equipment student divers must have for the course, and what you will provide. Cover and review points about scheduling and attendance. 4. Class requirements a. Complete paperwork b. Course costs c. Equipment needs d. Schedule and attendance The Messy Problem of Marine Debris The marine debris problem and how divers can help fix the mess. The Damage Done Every year tens of thousands of marine animals and seabirds die from eating or getting tangled up in marine debris or trash in the ocean. Research has shown that marine debris affects 693 marine species. All known sea turtle species, over half marine mammal species and almost two thirds of all seabird species have ingested or become entangled in marine debris. Many wildlife deaths happen when animals and seabirds eat marine debris. A piece of marine debris can choke an animal if it catches in its throat. Once swallowed many marine debris items, especially plastics, cannot be digested. A stomach full of plastic makes the animal feel like it no longer needs to feed and can lead to starvation. In some species of sea turtles, fish, seabirds, mussels and marine mammals, almost all individuals have plastics in their stomachs. A study of northern fulmar seabirds found dead on beaches showed 95 percent had plastic in their stomachs. Each bird had swallowed an average of 35 plastic pieces. Dive Against Debris 13

14 Marine debris also wraps around fins, flippers, wings and throats causing injuries, suffocation and drowning. One study estimated that 50,000 to 90,000 northern fur seals die every year from getting tangled up in marine debris, though researchers warn this study may underestimate the death toll as many animals sink after dying without being observed. Marine debris damages marine environments causing further impact on the animals that live there. Large debris items rub against reefs moved by even a gentle swell, causing great damage. Plastic sheets and bags smother seagrass beds and mangroves, while fishing nets and fishing line wrap around reefs cutting into corals, sponges and anemones. Marine debris also has a direct impact on human health and the economy. Polluted beaches are unattractive to visit and present a health risk if broken glass or personal hygiene items are present. Coastal councils that remove trash from beaches pass the expense of cleanup operations on to the local community, even though the debris may have moved there from sources outside the council area. Marine debris damages recreational and commercial vessels, which sometimes require expensive repairs or the attendance of rescue services. We often see marine debris washed up on beaches, but as much as 70 percent sinks to the seafloor. The need to address the marine debris issue is urgent. What is This Marine Debris Stuff? Marine debris is our waste in the ocean. From everyday litter like plastic bags, food wrappers, drink bottles and cigarette butts, to car batteries, kitchen appliances, enormous fishing nets and industrial waste, the trash we allow in the ocean is turning our beautiful reefs, beaches and seagrass meadows into rubbish dumps. Many of our waste products, including plastics, do not biodegrade - instead they break down into smaller pieces that remain a danger to marine life as they are easily mistaken for food. As much as 250 million metric tons of plastic could make its way into the ocean by The waste products of our growing population are choking our ocean planet. A Marine Debris Definition Marine debris is defined as any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment. Marine debris consists of items that have been made or used by people and deliberately discarded into the sea or rivers or on beaches; brought indirectly to the sea with rivers, sewage, storm water or winds; or accidentally lost, including material lost at sea in bad weather. Where Does it Come From? Rubbish moves to the ocean from both land and sea, but most of the debris in our ocean comes from land-based sources. Regardless of where it comes from, humans are the source of all marine debris - either through accident, carelessness or purposeful dumping. Rubbish enters the ocean due to lack of or poor waste management. Town dumps located next to the sea, untreated sewage discharging directly into the ocean, and poorly managed building or industrial waste all contribute to the marine debris problem. Dive Against Debris 14

15 Public littering is also a major problem. Rubbish dropped even thousands of kilometres/miles inland will move to the ocean, washed into storm water drains and streams by the rain, or blown by the wind. We often shorten the journey by leaving our trash on a beach or next to a river. Although most marine debris starts its journey on land, debris is also lost or purposefully dumped at sea - from boats and ships, oil and gas rigs, and aquaculture farms. Once in the ocean it causes the death of tens of thousands of marine animals and seabirds every year who mistake it for food or get it caught around their bodies. It also damages environments such as coral reefs. Can We Fix This Mess? The marine debris problem seems so big can divers really make a difference? Yes we can, by working together locally, nationally and internationally on the many changes needed to fix this mess: Changes in policies that make individuals, businesses and governments better manage waste. Changes in infrastructure to physically block trash before it reaches the ocean. Changes in regulations to better manage the things we make and how we make them - from manufacturing, to use, recycling and disposal. Changes in attitudes and behaviours so we can rethink, reduce, reuse, and recycle our way out of this mess. Dive Against Debris, Dive For Change When you Dive Against Debris you are diving for change, here s how: You make the ocean safer for marine life The marine debris you remove can no longer hurt marine animals or damage marine environments. The data you collect Helps inform policy to improve waste management by helping convince individuals, governments and businesses to act on marine debris. Expands our understanding of the types and amounts of rubbish in our ocean. Builds knowledge of the impacts on underwater environments caused by marine debris. You support Project AWARE leaders working in their community Project AWARE leaders are working in their communities on changes that prevent rubbish from entering the ocean. Contact Project AWARE if you are keen to lead marine debris actions in your community. You convince others of the need to change Tell everyone about your Dive Against Debris actions and the rubbish you see underwater. Your voice can change public opinion so people demand action on marine debris. You can help change people s behaviour so less trash is dumped in the environment. Dive Against Debris 15

16 Created Just For Divers Dive Against Debris was created by divers, for divers. Only divers have the training, knowledge and skills to remove marine debris from underwater. It is estimated as much as 70 percent of the rubbish entering our ocean sinks to the seafloor, and although much of this is likely to be outside the reach of recreational divers, we still have the power to tackle underwater marine debris head on. The marine debris problem is big, but Project AWARE s global movement of divers is strong. Through Dive Against Debris divers are playing a major role in keeping our ocean clean and healthy. Time to Dive Against Debris Plan Your Dive - Dive Your Plan It s a golden rule of diving: plan your dive and dive your plan! This section tells you how to prepare and complete your Dive Against Debris survey. The following section tells you how to report your data. Plan Your Dive Long-term Surveys Give the Best Results Your surveys will have more value if you repeatedly collect data from the same site over a period of time. Regular surveys will: Build a more convincing argument for change. Help identify local seasonal trends, such as those caused by weather patterns or tourist seasons. There are no requirements for how often you should repeat your survey, all data on underwater marine debris is of value. However to maximise your results consider monthly surveys at the same location, or one survey every two months. As a minimum try to hold a survey at the same time and the same location for each season of the year. Of course, if you find marine debris during any dive you can remove and report it through Dive Against Debris. It doesn t take long to help the marine environment. Choose Your Survey Site Use these considerations to choose your survey site: Choose a site you can return to regularly Your surveys will have more value if you collect data from the same site over a period of time. Choose a site within the dive skills and experience of all participants. Survey fresh water lakes and rivers. Dive Against Debris surveys are equally important in fresh water environments. Dive Against Debris 16

17 If necessary gain permission to dive and remove marine debris from the landowner or other authorities. This includes Dive Against Debris surveys inside marine protected areas such as marine parks where local regulations may prohibit marine debris removal. To join an existing Dive Against Debris survey search the Project AWARE Action Map: or contact your local PADI Dive Centre. Survey Dive Profiles Plan your Dive Against Debris survey to be safe and fun while carefully considering care for the environment and the experience levels of all divers. Safety is your primary consideration Follow all normal safe diving practices. Dive within your and your buddy s skills and experience. Consider a safety diver - either on the boat or on shore. Bottom time and depth Set your own bottom time and depth depending on local conditions and diver experience. Remain well within the no-decompression limits of your dive table or dive computer. Buoyancy Check that you and your buddy are properly weighted to maintain neutral buoyancy throughout your dive. Assure all your gear is streamlined and secured. Survey Area No set area to be surveyed - try to cover the same area each time you survey your site. Consider dive flags to mark your area (follow local protocols on dive flag use). Participants All divers to work in buddy teams. Report all divers findings from the same survey dive on one Data Card. Buddy team strategies All divers in a buddy team are responsible for monitoring the dive. Review communications and buddy separation procedures before the dive. Discuss dive roles, for example: Buddy 1: carries the mesh bag. Buddy 2: removes items / takes photographs. Dive Against Debris 17

18 Underwater or a Land Cleanup? Marine debris is everywhere; underwater, on the beach, in the shallows and, caught up in mangroves. So how do you know what data you should report through Dive Against Debris? The easy answer is if you need to be on scuba to collect your marine debris you can report it through Dive Against Debris. To handle trash collected on land or in the shallows but not on scuba please see What About the Land Cleanup Completed by Our Friends? (page 28) Dive Your Plan During your dive, collect the marine debris you encounter - when back on land, sort and record what you removed from the seafloor only. Work with your buddy to place marine debris in your mesh bag. Do not use your BCD as a lifting device for heavy items. Do not overfill your mesh bag and do not carry more than 4kg/7lb without a lift bag. Items weighing more than 4kg/7lb should only be removed by divers trained in the use of lift bags such as those certified as PADI Search and Recovery Specialists. Do not use lift bags without training/experience. Removing heavy objects requires proper training and use of lift bags. Gear The right gear will help make your dive safe and enjoyable. Required Gear Mesh bags for marine debris collection Mesh to let the water flow out Dive tool/knife Gloves for hand protection Check that use of gloves is permitted at your survey location Kitchen or garden gloves are ok to use if you do not have dive gloves Recommended Gear Scissors See Fishing Nets, Fishing Line and Rope GPS See Survey Site GPS Coordinates Weighing scales See Step 1: Weigh Underwater camera See Take Pictures to Tell the Story Sharps container See Sharp Objects Blank slate and pencil Dive Against Debris 18

19 Buoyancy It s particularly important to pay attention to your buoyancy and trim during a Dive Against Debris survey. Keep your gear and your body, remembering your fins, away from the bottom. Most importantly, remain aware of, and correct as needed, your body s positioning as you remove debris and put it in your mesh bag. Sharp Objects Take care with objects that can cause a puncture wound such as syringes, broken bottles and metal cans. Before removing, carefully consider the safety of all participants. Use a strong container with a secure lid to safely remove sharp objects. Be very careful when choosing to remove medical sharps - includes syringes, needles, scalpels, lancets and suture needles. Take Pictures to Tell the Story Taking photos is not a survey requirement, but photos are great for convincing non-divers and decision makers that marine debris is a real problem. Your photos can illustrate impacts to marine wildlife and environments and help build a library of images that show people the scope and scale of the problem. There are two types of photos to take: 1. Photos that help explain your data: These photos help us understand the debris you saw. Attach this type of photo to your survey data when you submit your data. If possible, provide a reference for scale such as a ruler or snorkel. Examples of this type of photo are: Marine debris damaging the environment. Entangled animals. Items you cannot identify. Marine debris underwater. Items you did not remove. 2. Photos that tell your story: Use this type of photo to raise publicity about your actions, thank participants and recruit volunteers. Be sure to upload these photos to your My Ocean blog about your survey (see page 27). Your images can be used to highlight underwater issues to the general public. You may also consider sharing them on other social media sites such as Facebook or ScubaEarth, or use them to illustrate a story in your local paper: Group shots - all your buddies together with the trash you removed Divers in action Divers counting and recording debris A surface shot of all the rubbish you removed Dive Against Debris 19

20 Tips for taking photos: Do not spend long taking photos to avoid altering the meaning of your Survey Duration. Increase your underwater photography skills and knowledge by seeking additional training through PADI s Digital Underwater Photography Specialty. Follow AWARE s 10 Tips for Divers to Protect the Ocean Planet. Things to Leave Behind Marine life soon grows on marine debris and marine animals often make a home in pieces of marine debris. In these cases, you should decide whether to remove an item or leave it in place. Sometimes it is worth a small short-term disturbance to remove potentially harmful marine debris, other times it may be better to leave the item in the ocean. Following are some points to consider when deciding to remove a marine debris item: If you are unsure, leave it in place. Safety is Your Primary Consideration If you are unsure if it is safe to remove an item, leave it in place. Do not touch or remove weapons or ammunition - mark the location and inform the authorities. Take great care with or leave in place rusty items that may be surprisingly sharp or items that may leak chemicals that could be harmful if they come in contact with your skin or equipment. Material of Construction Items such as glass bottles and steel cans do not cause much harm to the environment so leave them in place if removal will disturb marine life. Consider removing non-natural items that could harm marine animals as they break down into smaller pieces, even if doing so will cause a short-term disturbance. In these cases use your judgement of what action will cause the least harm. Items in this category include hard plastics, fish traps and packaging material. If eggs are attached to a marine debris item, mark the location and return to remove it once the eggs have hatched. Contents of the Item If an item contains chemicals that may leak and cause harm, it should be removed if safe to do so. Examples include car, truck and boat batteries; oil, fuel and chemical containers; paint cans; fuel filters and; electronic equipment. If it is not safe to remove a potentially hazardous item, you could mark its location and report it. Fishing Nets, Fishing Line and Rope Removing fishing nets, fishing line and rope can be dangerous. Do not attempt to remove these items unless you are sure it is safe. Dive Against Debris 20

21 Removing these items can be difficult, especially if they are wrapped around corals, or have corals growing over them. The best approach may be to selectively remove accessible parts and leave the sections that have become overgrown. Strong, sharp scissors cut through fishing line and light nets with less disturbance than a dive knife as they do not require a sawing motion. Make Your Survey Count Your Dive Against Debris survey has led to this moment - reporting your data. There are five easy steps to make your survey count: Step 1: Weigh Step 2: Sort Step 3: Record Step 4: Dispose Step 5: Report Step 1: Weigh Weigh all your marine debris while still in the mesh bags. If the weight of the mesh bags is significant, weigh them separately once they are empty and subtract their weight to arrive at the true weight of your debris. Fishing or kitchen scales work well for weighing debris. You can estimate weight if you do not have scales. Record weight in kilograms or pounds. Step 2: Sort To make it easy to find debris items on the Dive Against Debris Data Card they have been grouped by material of construction. Empty your mesh bags and sort your debris into piles under the nine categories: Plastic Glass & Ceramic Metal Rubber Wood Cloth Paper/Cardboard Mixed Materials Other Debris Items any item that cannot be placed in another category Sort your debris out of the wind to avoid rubbish being blown back into the water. Emptying your mesh bags onto a tarpaulin will help keep your debris items together. Dive Against Debris 21

22 Step 3: Record Work through each pile to record every item you found onto the Dive Against Debris Data Card. Use the Dive Against Debris Marine Debris Identification to help correctly identify debris items. Each debris item counts as one, regardless of size Look for your debris item under the material of construction categories, for example: If you find a plastic fork look under the Plastic Materials category to find cups, plates, forks, knives, spoons Mark this box as I If you find a second plastic fork or another item in this category mark this box as II Continue using a tally system that works for you, for example: IIII IIII II = 12 Miscellaneous pieces of marine debris should be counted as fragments - see the end of each material category on the Data Card To count many small pieces (2.5cm/1in and smaller) see Too Small to Count below. Combine all diver s findings from the same survey dive on one Data Card One buddy pair on your survey dive or ten buddy pairs - record all debris items on one Data Card Too Small to Count? Sometimes you may remove a large amount of similar small pieces of debris, for example a mound of plastic pellets dumped in the ocean or a hard plastic item that has disintegrated into many small pieces. In these cases, there may be too many pieces to count, so how do you record this find? The method for many small pieces (mostly smaller than 2.5cm/1in) is to place them on a tarpaulin out of the wind and sort them into roughly equal sized piles. Then count the number of pieces in one of your piles and multiply this by the number of piles to reach the total. Record these small pieces as fragments under the relevant material of construction. Other Survey Information Complete the remainder of the Data Card to record important information about your survey. Survey Site Location Information to help us verify your survey site is accurately positioned on the map: Nearest road name (if applicable) City/Town State/Province Country Dive Against Debris 22

23 Survey Site GPS Coordinates Accurate GPS information is essential to reporting your data. It puts your data in a geographical context and helps make sure your survey shows up correctly on Project AWARE s Dive Against Debris Map. You can report your Survey Site GPS Coordinates without a GPS unit by using the point-and-click map found on the Dive Against Debris online Data Submission Form: Drag the map to find your country Zoom in on your location Locate your survey site and click on the map Your Survey Site GPS Coordinates are automatically recorded Works best for Survey Sites with adjacent landmarks To use a GPS unit, if your Survey Site is not close enough to land to locate it accurately using the point-and-click map method, note the following: Set your GPS unit to: WGS84 Map Datum Take readings in decimal degrees Boat dives: Take your GPS reading while the boat is moored at, or floating directly over, the Survey Site (look out for divers in the water) Shore dives: Take your reading standing on the foreshore as close to the Survey Site as possible Survey Duration Take care to properly record your Survey Duration, as incorrect entries will devalue your findings. Survey Duration is the average time spent by all buddy teams while underwater removing marine debris. Record Survey Duration in minutes i.e. 45 minutes, 115 minutes Do not include time for surface swims and ascents/descents Do not include time for non-dive participants or for sorting and recording your debris Calculating your Survey Duration Example 1. You and your buddy work together to remove underwater marine debris for 43 minutes. There are no other divers on your survey. Survey Duration = 43 minutes Dive Against Debris 23

24 Example 2. Three buddy teams with two divers in Team A and B and three divers in Team C remove underwater marine debris for the following durations: Buddy Team A Buddy Team B Buddy Team C Combined survey time 42 minutes 48 minutes 51 minutes 141 minutes 141 minutes combined survey time / 3 buddy teams = 47 minutes Survey Duration = 47 minutes Number of Participants Only count divers collecting rubbish underwater: Count individual divers, not buddy teams Do not include surface only participants, for example a safety diver or friends that complete a beach cleanup while you are diving Wave Conditions Report wave conditions on the day of your survey: Calm (glassy to rippled) for waves metres/0-4 inches high Smooth (wavelets) for waves metres/4-19 inches high Slight for waves metres/19 inches- 4 feet high Moderate to rough for waves greater than 1.25 metres/4 feet high Area Surveyed This information helps build an understanding of the density of debris at your site. An easy and accurate way to measure area is to use a point-and-click tool over a Google Map such as the one found here: Report area in square metres or square feet If you cannot use the online tool, remember the following when calculating Survey Site area: For simple square or rectangle shapes calculate area by multiplying length by breadth Make an estimate if it is not possible to measure or you cannot use the tool above Dive Against Debris 24

25 Dominant Substrate Describe the seafloor over which you spent most of your survey: Sand Silt Gravel Rock Coral Seagrass Other (please describe) Ecosystem Describe the marine ecosystem in which your survey took place: Coral reef Rocky reef Kelp Mangroves Seagrass Other (please describe) The difference between Dominant Substrate and Ecosystem: If you survey a coral reef and spend most of your Survey Duration over the sand between coral heads report Dominant Substrate as Sand and Ecosystem as Coral reef. If at the same Survey Site you spend most of your time swimming over the coral then report Dominant Substrate as Coral and Ecosystem as Coral reef. Entangled Animals Report entangled animals and the type of marine debris involved. If possible identify the species name; if unknown use a common name i.e. seal. Take photos of entangled animals to share when reporting your data. Survey Depth Range Report the maximum and minimum depths from which you removed debris. May be less deep than the maximum depth for your dive Do not report 0 metres or feet for your minimum depth - floating debris should not be reported Weather Conditions for Previous Week Report strong winds, storms, heavy rain or any weather event that may have moved debris onto or away from your site. Items of Local Concern List the top three debris items you consider a problem in your location and tell us why. Dive Against Debris 25

26 Most Unusual Item Found Additional Information Briefly describe events that could have contributed to the debris found, provide link to news stories if available: Hurricanes, building demolition, festivals or street celebrations, fireworks display, etc. Step 4: Dispose You removed it and counted it - great job! Now take a moment to dispose of it properly so it cannot return to the ocean. Sort for recycling as available in your area Small amounts can be placed in street bins Some local government authorities will collect your rubbish Make the arrangement before your survey If leaving for collection by local authorities make sure bags are securely tied Take it to the local waste collection site Be familiar with local laws governing debris disposal. Many local governments have special procedures for disposing of items that contain hazardous materials such as fluorescent light tubes, cyalume light sticks, and containers with oil, chemicals, fuel or paint. Contact your local authorities for advice on disposing of these items. Step 5: Report Your Dive Against Debris survey has led to this moment - reporting your data*. *Note to : The guides students, as a group, through the process of data submission. For English speaking students, use the online data submission form. For non- English speaking students, use the Data Card and on completion. Only one data submission is required per Dive Against Debris survey, irrelevant of number of students. If you have multiple students, ensure only one submission is made i.e. duplicate data submissions for the same survey should not be made. English submissions: Use the Online Data Submission Form For all English data submissions, report your data through the online Data Submission Form: To use the form, first log in to your My Ocean profile, or create a new My Ocean profile. (see next page) Follow instructions on the form and refer to Survey if you need clarification. Dive Against Debris 26

27 Before submitting data you will be asked to confirm the Dive Against Debris Surveyor Statement: I have read the Dive Against Debris Survey and the data I am reporting was collected underwater, during one dive and completed by single or multiple buddy teams. I understand I should only include data on trash collected from underwater environments here. Repeat dives should be reported through separate submissions and debris collected on land can be shared with the My Ocean community. I understand that the data I submit will be visualized on the Dive Against Debris Map following a review and provided it satisfies Project AWARE s internal quality review process. Non-English submissions: your completed Data Card For all languages other than English, please a copy of your completed Dive Against Debris Data Card to Ensure you have clearly filled in all data fields. Now It s Your Turn! Now you are ready to join AWARE divers around the world tackling marine debris - together we can fix this mess! Start your regular Dive Against Debris survey: Choose your site and start your Dive Against Debris survey Record your data and tell us what you found Repeat every month or every other month Tell others about the problem of marine debris Take action to prevent, reduce and manage waste in your home or community Some Final Dive Against Debris Thoughts Share Your Actions My Ocean ( is Project AWARE s unique eco-networking site where AWARE leaders act for ocean protection. Create a My Ocean profile to report your Dive Against Debris data, post blog stories on your ocean protection activities and Start an Action to seek participants for your Dive Against Debris surveys. Help change behaviours that are polluting our ocean with rubbish: Tell the story of your Dive Against Debris survey on your My Ocean page Post blogs and upload photos and videos Share your My Ocean page through Facebook, Twitter and other social network sites Share your other ocean protection actions through your My Ocean page Gain media recognition about your Dive Against Debris survey so others learn about the marine debris problem Report Clean Sites Finding no debris on a dive is still important data to submit as it can help identify when new problems arise. Select the Our Survey Site Was Free Of Debris option when you submit your data. Dive Against Debris 27

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