1 Technical Rescue Awareness How First Responding Personnel Can Survive the Technical Rescue
2 Why Technical Rescue Awareness? Program is designed to inform rescue personnel what a technical rescue situation is and the dangers involved. Also teaches you what to do until a technical rescue team arrives and what role the untrained EMS provider plays until victim is rescued.
3 What is a Rescue? Rescue is defined as the act of delivering from danger or imprisonment.
4 Rescue Operations Phase One - arrival and size-up Phase Two - hazard control Phase Three - patient access Phase Four - medical treatment Phase Five - disentanglement
5 What is Technical Rescue? Any operation involving extremely high risk for the rescuer with little probability for victim survivability. Because of the high risk involved, special training, tools and techniques have been developed to accomplish the rescue while minimizing risk.
6 Types of Technical Rescue trench collapse confined space emergencies high-angle (rope) rescues building collapse rescues swift water rescues
7 TRA - History CARS TRT starts up 1993 w/ assessment of capabilities Technical Rescue Awareness taught to all local fire/rescue units Medical Aspects of Technical Rescue developed and taught
8 Trench Collapse Rescue Definition: Any situation where a victim is trapped, buried or experiencing a medical emergency in a trench or excavation whether the trench is protected or not.
9 Trench Collapse Rescue Facts: sheer wall collapse speed = 45 mph 1 cu/ft soil = 100 lbs. 24 soil on chest = 1,000 lbs. victim dies from inability to breath from weight on chest, not because face is covered
10 randywine Drive 1963
12 Confined Space Rescue Definition: Rescue of a victim experiencing a medical emergency or is trapped in a confined space.
13 Confined Space Definition: Any space not intended for continual occupancy and has limited means of entry and exit. 60% of the people who die in confined spaces are rescuers!
16 Look for Warning Signs
17 High Angle Rescue Definition: Any situation where the victim is elevated above or below ground and must be moved and/or rescued by the use of rope and/or mechanical advantage systems and rigging.
19 Building Collapse Rescue Definition: Any incident involving structural collapse or damage where the possibility exists of victims being trapped or buried. This includes vehicles into buildings.
22 Swift Water Rescue 2nd most powerful force on earth kills more people than any other natural phenomenon causes more rescues than anything else natural average 7 rescuer fatalities a year since 83
24 Swift Water Rescue Simply water moving downhill. Yet, when water begins to move, it makes its own rules. The learning curve in swift water is steep and abrupt, and often there is no chance to retake the test.
25 Low Dams are Drowning Machines
26 What Can I Do? recognize the technical rescue perform a situation assessment call for resources set-up an ICS establish incident perimeter stop on-going rescue attempts
27 Situation Assessment what has happened? assess the injury problem find and retain the foreman recognize & control hazards conduct a survival profile clues to locating victims
28 Incident that started the program June 3 rd, 1992
29 Control Hazards Trench Collapse Rescue stop all vehicular traffic within 300 shut down all heavy equipment ventilate the trench using PPV shut down involved utilities DO NOT ENTER THE TRENCH!
30 Control Hazards Confined Space Rescue ventilate the space using PPV open any additional openings shut down all equipment shut down all involved utilities DO NOT ENTER THE SPACE!
32 Control Hazards Building Collapse Rescue shut down all utilities rescue victims that can walk out attempt to locate survivors identify hazards DO NOT ENTER UNTIL SAFE!
33 Control Hazards Swift Water Rescue observe the 10 rule - PFD locate victims, where are they going? reach, throw, row - Do Not Go! proper training and gear is the key DO NOT TIE A ROPE TO YOURSELF AND ENTER THE WATER!
34 Personal Flotation Device
35 Resource Assessment trained manpower specific rescue equipment location of each and response time community resources that you can obtain until rescue team arrives
36 Nearest Tech Rescue Teams CARS Technical Rescue Team (TRT) Harrisonburg Fire Department Greater Richmond Tech Rescue Team Fairfax County Fire & Rescue (FEMA) Virginia Beach Fire Department (FEMA)
37 CARS TRT has 22 members each person has over 1,000 hrs of specialized training team has over $350,000 of specialized rescue equipment state-wide response capability very few calls (rust-out)
38 CARS Apparatus Support 143 and Collapse Trailer Squad 133
39 Arrival of the TRT team members will be coming one at a time, number of personnel responding will be unknown good planning and incident command will result in smooth integration ALL personnel on the scene will be needed for support
40 How to Request the TRT contact ECC or Fire Alarm and request the TRT locally: call 911 and state the exact problem long distance: call (800) do not call CARS directly
41 Incident Command set up a visible command post staging will be very important Safety Officer is a must document everything you do and when you do it
42 Safety Officer probably most important position can override any decision if safety is a concern must maintain constant vigilance and be very mobile
43 What Can I Do? During The On-Going Rescue establish a rehab sector provide hydration & nourishment provide rest perform medical evaluation
44 Establish a Rehab Sector set up in a safe area away from the action should provide suitable protection from the environment should be easily accessible by EMS units should allow for prompt reentry back into the emergency operation
45 Provide Hydration & Food 50/50 water and activity beverage caffeine & carbonated beverages will stop operation provide food if operation is longer than 3 hours soup is digested faster than sandwiches fruits provide energy replacement NO PIZZA or BURGERS!
46 Provide Rest For every 45 minutes of work time, the rescuer should sent to the Rehab Area for rest. Rest shall not be less than ten minutes and may exceed an hour as determined by the Rehab Officer. Fresh crews shall be available in Staging to ensure that fatigued members are adequately rested.
47 Medical Evaluation Evaluate vital signs, examine rescuers, make proper disposition if they can return to the rescue, continue rehab, or Rx and Tx to medical facility. If HR exceeds 110, take oral temp. If temp exceeds F, no protective equipment is to be worn. If < F and HR >110, continue rehab time.
48 Medical Treatment Just what kind of medical problems can I expect? hypothermia / hyperthermia toxic gas inhalation inhalation injuries & complications crush syndrome / crush injury electrical injury compartment syndrome
49 Medical Considerations perform a risk / benefit analysis compassion kills, it starts in the back of the ambulance priority is rapid removal, little regard for Rx while in danger immobilization may not be practical
50 Case Study #1 April 6 th, 1995 child is unconscious inside a confined space
57 Case Study #2 June 13 th, 1989 two victims trapped inside a trench collapse on Riverdale Drive
60 Case Study #3 June 7 th, 1995 victim is struck by construction equipment and is incapacitated inside an excavation
64 Case Study #4 November 8 th, lb. cow falls into a 55 well, attempted rescue by untrained bystanders
66 Case Study #4 The plan was to send a member down the well (with a line and safety), have him secure two large belts around the cow, attach a hook to the wrecker, pull the member up and out, and finally lift the cow up. IC - Well, I guess you'll have to go down there since you are the only one certified i confined space."
68 Case Study #4 IC - "The cow is still breathing and alive...it should be fine." At no time was the quality of the air tested. They sent a firefighter down the well...about 10' from reaching the cow he had to be yanked back up because he couldn't breathe. The methane was too strong."
69 What Can I Do? The Key: Be Proactive! Avoid The Problem
70 Being Proactive if you see a potential problem in the city, contact the on-duty fire battalion chief if you see a problem in the county, contact the CARS duty officer do not approach the work crew!
72 Technical Rescue Awareness The difference between and hero and a fool is training.
73 Tech Rescue Training NFPA Operations and Training for Technical Rescue Incidents Awareness level recognizes that type of incident and activating appropriate resources. Operations level represents a rescue capability in that discipline Technician level team is expected to effectively supervise a technical rescue incident
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