# An underwater explosion is an explosion where the point of detonation is below the surface of the water.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "An underwater explosion is an explosion where the point of detonation is below the surface of the water."

## Transcription

1 Underwater Explosion 1 Introduction An underwater explosion is an explosion where the point of detonation is below the surface of the water. Underwater explosion are categorized in accordance with their depth beneath the water's surface, because this has a strong influence on their effects. Below is an empirical criterion for shallow/deep underwater explosion (Le Méhauté and Wang, 199): d < 1 shallow W, (1) d > 16 deep W where d is the explosive position relative to the free surface in feet, positive downward, and W is the yield of the explosive in pounds of TNT. Note: TNT equivalent is a method of quantifying the energy released in explosions. The pound (or ton) of TNT is used as a unit of energy, approximately equivalent to the energy released in the detonation of this amount of TNT. 2 Deep underwater explosions Figure 1 shows a typical deep underwater explosion. Compared with shallow underwater explosion, the heights of surface waves generated by deep underwater explosions are greater because more energy is delivered to the water. Deep underwater explosions are thus particularly able to damage coastal areas. Figure 1. An example of a deep underwater explosion (from wikipedia). 1

2 Problem: In Figure 2, explosive of g RDX charge detonates at.m deep. Is this a shallow/deep underwater explosion? Solution: Unit exchanges: 1kg = 2.2 lb 1meter =.28 ft RDX has a TNT equivalent value of 170%. Therefore, The yield of the explosive in the experiment is 170% g = 0.21 lb of TNT. Therefore, W = The explosive is placed about. meter = ft under the water level. Therefore, d = Since d W = =, ( 0.21) this is a deep underwater explosion. Figure 2. Explosion under free-field conditions: experimental results of a g explosive charge (RDX+wax); from left to right the bubble shape at: t =1, 7, 0, 8, 9, 94, 9 and t=96ms (from Klaseboer et al., 200). Experiment observation: free-field expansion Figure 2 shows the observation of a free-field explosion. Free-field means that there is no immediate boundary (structures or surfaces) near to the explosion bubble. The image of the bubble in Figure 2 is the result of reflected light from the light sources in the set-up. The white vertical lines visible in Figure 2 are the supporting wires required to keep the charge in place before the explosion. In Figure 2 the bubble grows to its maximum radius measuring 6cm at about t=0ms. The second minimum volume occurs at t=94ms. Note: 1ms, 1millisecond, is 1 thousandth of a second. 2

3 Two phases behaviour An explosion is a chemical reaction in a substance that converts the original explosive material into a gas at very high temperature and pressure. In underwater explosion, the reacted gas sphere interacts with the surrounding fluid in two different phases. The first is a transient shock wave, which causes a rapid rise in the fluid velocity, and large inertial loading. The peak pressure of this phase is very high, but its duration is extremely short. The second phase in the explosion is a radial pulsation of the gas sphere. The water in the immediate region of the gas bubble has a large outward velocity and the diameter of the bubble increases rapidly. The expansion continues for a relatively long time, the internal gas pressure decreases gradually, but the motion persists because of the inertia of the outward flowing water. The gas pressure at later times falls below the equilibrium value determined by atmospheric plus hydrostatic pressures. The pressure defect brings the outward flow to a stop, and the boundary of the bubble begins to contract at an increasing rate. The inward motion continues until the inside compressed gas acts as a powerful check (stopper) to reverse the motion abruptly. The inertia of the water together with the elastic properties of the gas and water provide the necessary conditions for an oscillating system, and the bubble does in fact undergo repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. In reality, oscillations of a physical bubble can persist for a number of cycles, ten or more such oscillations having been detected in favourable cases. Pressure-time history Figure illustrates the pressure-time history, which is observed in the water at a fixed distance from the point of explosion. Upon arrival of the shock wave, the pressure rises instantaneously to the peak value and decreases at nearly exponential rate. Subsequent to the shock wave, other pressure pulses occur. These pulses arise from a much slower phenomenon, namely the pulsating of the gas bubble, which contains the gaseous products of the explosion. The high pressure of the gas causes an initially rapid expansion of the bubble and the inertia of the outward moving water carries it far beyond the point of pressure equilibrium. The outward motion stops only after the gas pressure has fallen substantially below the ambient pressure. Now the higher surrounding pressure reverses the motion. Again the flow overshoots the equilibrium and when the bubble reaches its minimum size, the gas is recompressed to a pressure of several hundred atmospheres. At this point we have effectively a second explosion and the whole process is repeated. The bubble oscillates in this way several times. The position and the size of the bubble are shown in Figure for a few specific moments, which correspond to the pressure-time curve as indicated above. The pressure-time history reflects the low gas pressure during the phase where the bubble is large and it shows the pressure pulses, which are emitted from the bubble near its minimum.

4 The period of the bubble pulsations is very long when compared with the shock wave portion of the pressure-time history of an explosion. In particular, this duration is long enough for gravity to become effective. Such a bubble has great buoyancy and, therefore, migrates upward. However, it does not float up like a balloon, but shoots up in jumps. Figure. Pressure waves and bubble phenomena. (Snay 196) Bubble radius and oscillation period for the first cycle The maximum bubble radius for the first cycle can be calculated as E = Rmax J P, (2) where P is the hydrostatic pressure at the burst point, E is the energy available for first cycle bubble motion; about half of the total explosion energy. The oscillation period for the first cycle can be calculated as E T = K ρ, () P /6 where ρ is the density of water. For underwater explosions at hydrostatic pressures of order 1~100 atmospheres, J 0.8, K

5 Problem: Estimate the percentage of energy contribute to the bubble expansion for the underwater explosion experiment in Figure 2. Solution: For the experiment in Figure 2, the hydrostatic pressure at the burst point (.m under the water level) is P = ρ gh + 1atm water = Pa Pa = Pa Note: 1atm is the atmospheric pressure, which weights approximately Pa. From Eq. (2), the energy can be estimated from the experimentally measured maximum bubble radius R as max Rmax E = P. J From experimental measured maximum bubble radius for the first cycle R max = 0.6m, the energy contributed to the first cycle bubble motion can be estimated as 0.6 E = J 0.8. = J Explosive charge used is g RDX. RDX has a TNT equivalent value of 170%, and the energy available in the TNT is 119cal/g. The unit exchange is 1cal = 4.184J. Therefore, the total energy from detonation is E total = % J = J The percentage of energy contribute to the bubble expansion is E / Etotal = = 0% In underwater explosion, energy is first transferred from the point of burst to the immediately adjacent water mass. In the underwater explosion shown in Figure 2, a strong shock wave which propagates away from the explosion point, carrying with it about 70% of the explosion energy, and leaving behind it a cavity (carrying with it about 0% of the explosion energy) which contains steam at high pressure. If the explosion is deep enough, this cavity, or "bubble," will grow in size. The internal pressure drops rapidly, to a maximum diameter determined by the explosion energy and the burst depth, and then collapse to a minimum size, re-expand, and continue to oscillate with decreasing amplitude and period.

6 Problem: Estimate the percentage of energy contributes to the bubble expansion for the underwater explosion experiment in Figure 2. Solution: The density of water is ρ = 10 kg/m Using Eq. (), the oscillation period for the first cycle can be estimated as E T = K P /6 = 0.09s ρ ( ) ( ) = s, which agrees with the experimental data (94ms). / 6 6

7 Effects on nearby structure The underwater detonation of an explosive can have serious effects on a nearby structure (such as a ship or submarine). The same amount of explosive can cause greater damage underwater than it would have caused in air, because water is much less compressible than air. First damaging mechanism (high pressure) Just after the detonation, a shock wave and an expanding high-pressure gas bubble will appear. This shock wave moves at a very high speed and will generate a very high pressure. When it hits the structure, it gives rise to the first damaging mechanism. Second damaging mechanism (whipping effect) While the pressure loading due to the shock impact can be very high, the duration is usually very short compared with the dynamics of the bubble. The explosive products form a high-pressure gas bubble and this bubble expands owing to the high pressure. However, inertia causes the bubble to over-expand and the pressure inside the bubble becomes lower than the surrounding reference pressure; it then stops expanding (for example, the maximum bubble diameter in a typical explosion of a torpedo of 00 kg TNT is of the order of 10 to 20m). The hydrostatic pressure is now larger than the pressure inside the bubble and a collapse phase will follow. If the frequency of the bubble matches the eigen-frequency of the structure, it can lead to the so-called whipping effect which can potentially constitute the second damaging mechanism. Third damaging mechanism (jet impact) In most cases, in the collapse phase, the attraction of the bubble towards the structure, the influence of gravity and inertia will cause a high-speed water jet to develop. The jet traverses the bubble and impacts on the other side of the bubble surface. This jet can be directed towards the structure and is then associated with a third damaging mechanism. 7

8 Rebound cycle After jet impact, the bubble will become toroidal in shape and will continue to contract. Not long after the jet impact, the bubble reaches its minimum volume and a high-pressure peak can be observed. The bubble will then rebound again for a second cycle. It will have lost much of its energy and the second cycle is less violent. Problem: Describe the shock experienced by a naval target from an underwater explosion. W is the explosive charge. Figure 4. Underwater explosion scenario. Solution: An explosion close to a ship generates a shock wave that can impart sudden vertical motions to a ship's hull and internal systems. The explosion also generates a gas bubble that undergoes expansion and contraction cycles. These cycles can introduce violent vibrations into a hull, generating structural damage, even to the point of breaking the ship's keel. Many of the internal mechanical systems (e.g. engine coupling to prop) require precise alignment in order to operate. These vibrations upset these critical alignments and render these systems inoperative. The vibrations can also destroy lighting and electrical components, such as relays. References Klaseboer, E., Hung, K.C., Wang, C., Wang, C.W., Khoo, B.C., Boyce, P., Debono, S. and Charlier, H. (200). Experimental and numerical investigation of the dynamics of an underwater explosion bubble near a resilient/rigid structure. J. Fluid Mech. 7: Le Méhauté, B., Wang, S. (199). Water waves generated by underwater explosion. World Scientific Publishing. ISBN Snay, H.G. (196). Hydrodynamics of underwater explosions, in Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.), pp

### An Underwater Explosion-Induced Ship Whipping Analysis Method for use in Early-Stage Ship Design

An Underwater Explosion-Induced Ship Whipping Analysis Method for use in Early-Stage Ship Design Benjamin C. Brainard Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

### Offshore platforms survivability to underwater explosions: part I

Computational Ballistics III 123 Offshore platforms survivability to underwater explosions: part I A. A. Motta 1, E. A. P. Silva 2, N. F. F. Ebecken 2 & T. A. Netto 2 1 Brazilian Navy Research Institute,

### Today: waves. Exam Results. Wave Motion. What is moving? Motion of a piece of the rope. Energy transport

Exam: Exam scores posted on Learn@UW No homework due next week Exam Results D C BC B AB A Today: waves Have studied Newton s laws, motion of particles, momentum, energy, etc. Laws for describing things

### CONTAINING SHOCK WAVES GENERATED IN EXPLOSIONS BY: CHIRAPHA ANANTAPHATHANAWONG

CONTAINING SHOCK WAVES GENERATED IN EXPLOSIONS BY: CHIRAPHA ANANTAPHATHANAWONG BLAST WAVES Adam, Sharon. Blasting. Retrieved from https://legionmagazine.com/en/wpcontent/uploads/2011/10/boominsetillustration.jpg

### Numerical study of water plume behavior under shallow depth explosion

Structures Under Shock and Impact IX 13 Numerical study of water plume behavior under shallow depth explosion C.-C. Liang, T.-H. Liu & W.-M. Tseng Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh

### PHY131H1S - Class 23. Today: Fluids Pressure Pascal s Law Gauge Pressure Buoyancy, Archimedes Principle. A little pre-class reading quiz

PHY131H1S - Class 23 Today: Fluids Pressure Pascal s Law Gauge Pressure Buoyancy, Archimedes Principle Archimedes (287-212 BC) was asked to check the amount of silver alloy in the king s crown. The answer

### MODEL OF IMPACT UNDERWATER DETONATION

Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 19, No. 2 2012 MODEL OF IMPACT UNDERWATER DETONATION Andrzej Grzdziela Polish naval Academy Mechanical Electrical Faculty Smidowicza Street 69, 81-103 Gdynia,

### COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid statics. Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET

COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid statics Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET 1 Fluid statics Fluid statics is the study of fluids in

### Calculating the Effect of Surface or Underwater Explosions on Submerged Equipment and Structures

Calculating the Effect of Surface or Underwater Explosions on Submerged Equipment and Structures C. David Sulfredge, Robert H. Morris, and Robert L. Sanders Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building 5700,

### Sound waves... light waves... water waves...

Sound waves... light waves... water waves... 1S-13 Slinky on Stand Creating longitudinal compression waves in a slinky What happens when you pull back and release one end of the slinky? 4/11/2011 Physics

### MEASUREMENTS OF UNDERWATER EXPLOSION PERFORMANCES BY PRESSURE GAUGE USING FLUOROPOLYMER

MEASUREMENTS OF UNDERWATER EXPLOSION PERFORMANCES BY PRESSURE GAUGE USING FLUOROPOLYMER Kenji MURATA, Katsuhiko TAKAHASHI, Yukio KATO* NOF Corporation 61-1 Kitakomatsudani, Taketoyo-cho, Chita-gun, Aichi

### Student name: + is valid for C =. The vorticity

13.012 Marine Hydrodynamics for Ocean Engineers Fall 2004 Quiz #1 Student name: This is a closed book examination. You are allowed 1 sheet of 8.5 x 11 paper with notes. For the problems in Section A, fill

### The water supply for a hydroelectric plant is a reservoir with a large surface area. An outlet pipe takes the water to a turbine.

Fluids 1a. [1 mark] The water supply for a hydroelectric plant is a reservoir with a large surface area. An outlet pipe takes the water to a turbine. State the difference in terms of the velocity of the

### PHYSICS - CLUTCH CH 16: WAVES & SOUND.

!! www.clutchprep.com CONCEPT: WHAT IS A WAVE? A WAVE is a moving disturbance (oscillation) that carries energy. - A common example is a wave on a string, where the moving string carries energy We re only

### Lecture 19 Fluids: density, pressure, Pascal s principle and Buoyancy.

Lecture 19 Water tower Fluids: density, pressure, Pascal s principle and Buoyancy. Hydraulic press Pascal s vases Barometer What is a fluid? Fluids are substances that flow. substances that take the shape

### Exam Results, HW4 reminder. Wave Motion. Today: waves. What is moving? Motion of a piece of the rope. Exam Results. Average

Exam Results, HW4 reminder Exam: Class average = 14.1/20 ( at B/BC boundary) Exam scores posted this afternoon on Learn@UW Exam solutions will be posted on course web page HW3 (short) assigned at WileyPLUS

### World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Vol:6, No:1, 2012

Perfect Plastic Deformation of a Circular Thin Bronze Plate due to the Growth and Collapse of a Vapour Bubble M.T. Shervani-Tabar, M. Rezaee and E. Madadi Kandjani Abstract Dynamics of a vapour bubble

### Seismic Sources. Seismic sources. Recorders. Requirements; Principles; Onshore, offshore. Digitals recorders; Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converters.

Seismic Sources Seismic sources Requirements; Principles; Onshore, offshore. Recorders Digitals recorders; Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converters. Reading: Reynolds, Section 4.5 Telford et al., Section 4.5

### Waves. harmonic wave wave equation one dimensional wave equation principle of wave fronts plane waves law of reflection

Waves Vocabulary mechanical wave pulse continuous periodic wave amplitude wavelength period frequency wave velocity phase transverse wave longitudinal wave intensity displacement wave number phase velocity

### Exercise 4-2. Centrifugal Pumps EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Pumps

Exercise 4-2 Centrifugal Pumps EXERCISE OBJECTIVE Familiarize yourself with the basics of liquid pumps, specifically with the basics of centrifugal pumps. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion of this exercise

### ACTIVITY 1: Buoyancy Problems. OBJECTIVE: Practice and Reinforce concepts related to Fluid Pressure, primarily Buoyancy

LESSON PLAN: SNAP, CRACKLE, POP: Submarine Buoyancy, Compression, and Rotational Equilibrium DEVELOPED BY: Bill Sanford, Nansemond Suffolk Academy 2012 NAVAL HISTORICAL FOUNDATION TEACHER FELLOWSHIP ACTIVITY

### Irrigation &Hydraulics Department lb / ft to kg/lit.

CAIRO UNIVERSITY FLUID MECHANICS Faculty of Engineering nd Year CIVIL ENG. Irrigation &Hydraulics Department 010-011 1. FLUID PROPERTIES 1. Identify the dimensions and units for the following engineering

### PHYSICS - GIANCOLI CALC 4E CH 15: WAVE MOTION.

!! www.clutchprep.com CONCEPT: WHAT IS A WAVE? A WAVE is a moving disturbance (oscillation) that carries energy. - A common example is a wave on a string, where the moving string carries energy We re only

### Chapter 14 Waves. Apr 30 7:11 AM

Chapter 14 Waves http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/iyearlab/intros/standingwaves/flash/long_wave.html Apr 30 7:11 AM 1 May 5 7:16 AM 2 May 5 7:17 AM 3 May 5 7:17 AM 4 May 5 7:19 AM 5 May 5 7:29 AM 6 May

### The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Pumps Basic operation of a liquid pump Types of liquid pumps The centrifugal pump.

Exercise 2-3 Centrifugal Pumps EXERCISE OBJECTIVE In this exercise, you will become familiar with the operation of a centrifugal pump and read its performance chart. You will also observe the effect that

### UNIT 15 WATER HAMMER AND SURGE TANKS

UNT 15 WATER HAMMER AND SURGE TANKS Structure 15.1 ntroduction Objectives 15.2 Water Hammer 15.2.1 Expression for Rise in Pressure 15.3 Rapid Acceleration of Flow 15.4 Surge Tanks 15.5 Summary 15.6 Keywords

### Chs. 16 and 17 Mechanical Waves

Chs. 16 and 17 Mechanical Waves The nature of waves A wave is a traveling disturbance that carries energy from one place to another, and even though matter may be disturbed as a wave travels through a

Chapter 14 Waves http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/iyearlab/intros/standingwaves/flash/long_wave.html Apr 30 7:11 AM May 5 7:16 AM 1 May 5 7:17 AM May 5 7:17 AM 2 May 5 7:19 AM May 5 7:29 AM 3 May 5 7:30

### PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems

PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems CHAPTER 14 Fluids Fluids at rest pressure vs. depth Pascal s principle Archimedes s principle Buoynat forces Fluids in motion: Continuity & Bernoulli equations 1. How deep

### Preview. Vibrations and Waves Section 1. Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion. Section 2 Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion. Section 3 Properties of Waves

Vibrations and Waves Section 1 Preview Section 1 Simple Harmonic Motion Section 2 Measuring Simple Harmonic Motion Section 3 Properties of Waves Section 4 Wave Interactions Vibrations and Waves Section

### ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN THE NOTES AUTUMN 2018

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN THE NOTES AUTUMN 2018 Section 1.2 Example. The discharge in a channel with bottom width 3 m is 12 m 3 s 1. If Manning s n is 0.013 m -1/3 s and the streamwise slope is 1 in 200,

### saipem Effect of Underwater Explosion on Pipeline Integrity

saipem Effect of Underwater Explosion on Pipeline Integrity Roberto Bruschi roberto.bruschi@saipem.com Lorenzo Marchionni lorenzo.marchionni@saipem.com Antonio Parrella antonio.parrella@saipem.com Lorenzo

### Lecture 20. Static fluids

Lecture 20 Static fluids Today s Topics: Density Pressure, Depth and Pressure Gauges Pascal s Principle Archimedes Principle Solids and Fluids Solids Maintain their shape. Generally don t flow Limited

### Chapter 13. liquids. gases. 1) Fluids exert pressure. a) because they're made up of matter and therefore forces are applied to them

\ Chapter 13 Fluids 1) Fluids exert pressure a) because they're made up of matter and therefore forces are applied to them liquids gases b) they are made of matter in constant motion colliding with other

### Dynamics of the bubble near a triangular prism array

Dynamics of the bubble near a triangular prism array 1,2 Yuning Zhang*; 1,2 Shida Li; 1,2 Yongxue Zhang; 3 Yuning Zhang 1 College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing,

### CONSIDERATION OF DENSITY VARIATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF A VENTILATION SYSTEM FOR ROAD TUNNELS

- 56 - CONSIDERATION OF DENSITY VARIATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF A VENTILATION SYSTEM FOR ROAD TUNNELS Gloth O., Rudolf A. ILF Consulting Engineers Zürich, Switzerland ABSTRACT This article investigates the

### Vacuum P=0. h=76 cm A B C. Barometer

Recap: Pressure Pressure = Force per unit area (P = F /A; units: Pascals) Density of object = mass / volume (ρ = m /V; units: kg / m 3 ) Pascal s Law:Pressure is transmitted equally in all directions throughout

### 1. What are the differences and similarities among transverse, longitudinal, and surface waves?

Assignment Waves Reading: Giancoli, Chapters 11, 12, 22, 24 Holt, Chapters 12, 14 Objectives/HW The student will be able to: 1 Define, apply, and give examples of the following concepts: wave, pulse vs.

### UNIT 2 FLUIDS PHYS:1200 LECTURE 12 FLUIDS (1)

1 UNIT 2 FLUIDS PHYS:1200 LECTURE 12 FLUIDS (1) Lecture 12 is the first lecture on the new topic of fluids. Thus far we have been discussing the physics of ideal solid objects that do not change their

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

### Application Worksheet

Application Worksheet All dimensions are nominal. Dimensions in [ ] are in millimeters. Service Conditions Medium Through Valve: Required C v : Temperature Maximum: Minimum: Normal: Flow Maximum: Minimum:

### Fluids. James H Dann, Ph.D. Say Thanks to the Authors Click (No sign in required)

Fluids James H Dann, Ph.D. Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactive content, visit

### The effects of underwater explosion on the fixed base offshore platform at 10 metres distance

Science Arena Publications Specialty journal of Engineering and Applied Science Available online at www.sciarena.com 2017, Vol, 3 (2): 11-18 The effects of underwater explosion on the fixed base offshore

### Static Fluids. **All simulations and videos required for this package can be found on my website, here:

DP Physics HL Static Fluids **All simulations and videos required for this package can be found on my website, here: http://ismackinsey.weebly.com/fluids-hl.html Fluids are substances that can flow, so

### Acoustic signals of underwater explosions near surfaces

Acoustic signals of underwater explosions near surfaces John R. Krieger and Georges L. Chahine Dynaflow, Inc., 10621-J Iron Bridge Road, Jessup, Maryland 20794 Received 12 November 2004; revised 13 July

### Wave Motion. interference destructive interferecne constructive interference in phase. out of phase standing wave antinodes resonant frequencies

Wave Motion Vocabulary mechanical waves pulse continuous periodic wave amplitude period wavelength period wave velocity phase transverse wave longitudinal wave intensity displacement amplitude phase velocity

### mass of container full of air = g mass of container with extra air = g volume of air released = cm 3

1992 Q32 The air pressure inside the passenger cabin of an airliner is 9 x 10 4 Pa when the airliner is at its cruising height. The pressure of the outside atmosphere at this height is 4 x 10 4 Pa. Calculate

### 2 Available: 1390/08/02 Date of returning: 1390/08/17 1. A suction cup is used to support a plate of weight as shown in below Figure. For the conditio

1. A suction cup is used to support a plate of weight as shown in below Figure. For the conditions shown, determine. 2. A tanker truck carries water, and the cross section of the truck s tank is shown

### PRESSURE. 7. Fluids 2

DENSITY Fluids can flow, change shape, split into smaller portions and combine into a larger system One of the best ways to quantify a fluid is in terms of its density The density, ρ, of a material (or

### Chapter 9 Fluids and Buoyant Force

Chapter 9 Fluids and Buoyant Force In Physics, liquids and gases are collectively called fluids. 3/0/018 8:56 AM 1 Fluids and Buoyant Force Formula for Mass Density density mass volume m V water 1000 kg

### TEST REPORT. Solamatrix Inc. GLASS-GARD GGL1200 Multi-ply Window Film and Wetglaze Anchoring System on Single 6mm (1/4 ) Annealed Glass.

TEST REPORT Solamatrix Inc. GLASS-GARD GGL1200 Multi-ply Window Film and Wetglaze Anchoring System on Single 6mm (1/4 ) Annealed Glass. Class 3B US General Services Administration Explosion Resistant Standard

### The Characteristics of Cavitation Bubbles Induced by the Secondary Shock Wave in an HM-3 Lithotripter and Its Effect on Stone Comminution

The Characteristics of Cavitation Bubbles Induced by the Secondary Shock Wave in an HM-3 Lithotripter and Its Effect on Stone Comminution Yufeng Zhou, Jun Qin, and Pei Zhong Department of Mechanical Engineering

### Energy and mass transfer in gas-liquid reactors.

Energy and mass transfer in gas-liquid reactors. John M Smith School of Engineering (D2) University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK j.smith@surrey.ac.uk 1 Energy and mass transfer in gas-liquid reactors.

### Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics

Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics Volume 9, 2010 http://acousticalsociety.org/ 159th Meeting Acoustical Society of America/NOISE-CON 2010 Baltimore, Maryland 19-23 April 2010 Session 1pBB: Biomedical

### 5.0 Neutral Buoyancy Test

5.0 Neutral Buoyancy Test Montgolfier balloons use solar energy to heat the air inside the balloon. The balloon used for this project is made out of a lightweight, black material that absorbs the solar

### ZIN Technologies PHi Engineering Support. PHi-RPT CFD Analysis of Large Bubble Mixing. June 26, 2006

ZIN Technologies PHi Engineering Support PHi-RPT-0002 CFD Analysis of Large Bubble Mixing Proprietary ZIN Technologies, Inc. For nearly five decades, ZIN Technologies has provided integrated products and

### U S F O S B u o y a n c y And Hydrodynamic M a s s

1 U S F O S B u o y a n c y And Hydrodynamic M a s s 2 CONTENTS: 1 INTRODUCTION... 3 2 ACCURACY LEVELS... 3 2.1 LEVEL-0... 3 2.2 LEVEL-1... 3 2.3 PANEL MODEL... 3 3 EX 1. SINGLE PIPE. NON FLOODED... 4

### Chapter 4 Surface Tension

Chapter 4 Surface Tension Contents. Introduction 4.1 Surface tension, Angle of Contact and capillary Rise Method 4.2 Rise of Liquid in a Conical Capillary Tube 4.3 Energy Required to Raise a Liquid in

### Transverse waves cause particles to vibrate perpendicularly to the direction of the wave's motion (e.g. waves on a string, ripples on a pond).

Waves Introduction A vibration must be the source of a wave. Waves in turn also cause vibrations. They are intrinsically connected. Waves transmit energy. There are different ways in which waves can be

### A Computational Assessment of Gas Jets in a Bubbly Co-Flow 1

A Computational Assessment of Gas Jets in a Bubbly Co-Flow 1 Melissa Fronzeo*, 1 Michael Kinzel 1 The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA Abstract In this effort, Computational Fluid

### Numerical Simulations of a Train of Air Bubbles Rising Through Stagnant Water

Numerical Simulations of a Train of Air Bubbles Rising Through Stagnant Water Hong Xu, Chokri Guetari ANSYS INC. Abstract Transient numerical simulations of the rise of a train of gas bubbles in a liquid

### What is a wave? Even here the wave more or less keeps it s shape and travelled at a constant speed. YouTube. mexicanwave.mov

Waves What is a wave? Waves transmit a disturbance / energy from one part of a material to another. The energy is transmitted without substantial movement of the material. Waves occur in lots of places,

### Mechanical waves Electromagnetic waves

Waves Energy can be transported by transfer of matter. For example by a thrown object. Energy can also be transported by wave motion without the transfer of matter. For example by sound waves and electromagnetic

### The Bubble Dynamics and Pressure Field Generated by a Seismic Airgun

The Bubble Dynamics and Pressure Field Generated by a Seismic Airgun Katrina L. de Graaf B.Eng(Naval Architecture)(Hons) National Centre for Maritime Engineering and Hydrodynamics Australian Maritime College

### g L Agenda Chapter 13 Problem 28 Equations of Motion for SHM: What if we have friction or drag? Driven Oscillations; Resonance 4/30/14 k m f = 1 2π

Agenda Today: HW quiz, More simple harmonic motion and waves Thursday: More waves Midterm scores will be posted by Thursday. Chapter 13 Problem 28 Calculate the buoyant force due to the surrounding air

### Traveling Waves vs. Standing Waves

The Physics Classroom» Physics Tutorial» Waves» Traveling Waves vs. Standing Waves Waves - Lesson 4 - Standing Waves Traveling Waves vs. Standing Waves Traveling Waves vs. Standing Waves Formation of Standing

### Waves. Kevin Small or

Waves Opening note: X-rays can penetrate your body. Sound waves can make thinks vibrate; water waves can knock you over in the sea. Infrared waves can warm you up and slinky waves are fun to play with.

### Waves Wave Characteristics

Name: Date: Waves 4.4 Wave Characteristics. A transverse travelling wave has amplitude A 0 and wavelength λ. The distance between a crest and its neighbouring trough, measured in the direction of energy

### EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE HYDRODYNAMIC BEHAVIORS OF TWO CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE HYDRODYNAMIC BEHAVIORS OF TWO CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS *Jeong-Rok Kim 1), Hyeok-Jun Koh ), Won-Sun Ruy 3) and Il-Hyoung Cho ) 1), 3), ) Department of Ocean System Engineering, Jeju

### Slide 5 / What is the difference between the pressure on the bottom of a pool and the pressure on the water surface? A ρgh B ρg/h C ρ/gh D gh/ρ

Slide 1 / 47 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m3 and alcohol with a density 800 kg/m3 are selected for an experiment. If the experiment requires equal masses of each liquid, what is the

### G.C.E (A/L) Examination March In collaboration with

; G.C.E (A/L) Examination March - 2018 Conducted by Field Work Centre, Thondaimanaru In collaboration with FWC Provincial Department of Education Northern Province Grade:- 12 (2019) Physics Part - II Structured

### Define transverse waves and longitudinal waves. Draw a simple diagram of each

AP Physics Study Guide Chapters 11, 12, 24 Waves, Sound, Light & Interference Name Write the equation that defines each quantity, include units for all quantities. wave speed-wavelength equation natural

### Physics 7b Midterm Exam #1 Fall Name: Disc. Section SID

Physics 7b Midterm Exam #1 Fall 2004 Name: Disc. Section SID #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 Total M w of O 2 = 32 g/mol, k b =1.38x10-23 J/K, N A =6x10 23 The weight of a 1kg mass on the Earth s surface is 2.2pounds.

### Sound scattering by hydrodynamic wakes of sea animals

ICES Journal of Marine Science, 53: 377 381. 1996 Sound scattering by hydrodynamic wakes of sea animals Dmitry A. Selivanovsky and Alexander B. Ezersky Selivanovsky, D. A. and Ezersky, A. B. 1996. Sound

### Density. Chapters 12-14: Phases of Matter. Example: Density. Conceptual Check. Springs 2/27/12. Mass Density vs. Weight Density

Chapters 12-14: Phases of Matter Density Sequence of increasing molecule motion (and kinetic energy) Solid Liquid Gas The densities of most liquids and solids vary slightly with changes in temperature

### From and

From http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/fluidpressure.htm and http://www.school-forchampions.com/science/fluidfloating.htm by Ron Kurtus, School for Champions Pressure in Fluids by Ron Kurtus

Hydrostatic pressure Consider a tank of fluid which contains a very thin plate of (neutrally buoyant) material with area A. This situation is shown in Figure below. If the plate is in equilibrium (it does

### . In an elevator accelerating upward (A) both the elevator accelerating upward (B) the first is equations are valid

IIT JEE Achiever 2014 Ist Year Physics-2: Worksheet-1 Date: 2014-06-26 Hydrostatics 1. A liquid can easily change its shape but a solid cannot because (A) the density of a liquid is smaller than that of

### Andrew Carter. Dry Ice: Sublimating underwater, Forming a Cloud of CO 2, and CO 2 gas spilling over an edge.

Flow Visualization MCEN 5151, Spring 2011 Andrew Carter Team Project 3 5/4/11 Dry Ice: Sublimating underwater, Forming a Cloud of CO 2, and CO 2 gas spilling over an edge. Purpose: The objective of this

### Scott Denning CSU CMMAP 1

Thermodynamics, Buoyancy, and Vertical Motion Temperature, Pressure, and Density Buoyancy and Static Stability Adiabatic Lapse Rates Dry and Moist Convective Motions Present Atmospheric Composition What

### Wave phenomena in a ripple tank

Wave phenomena in a ripple tank LEP Related topics Generation of surface waves, propagation of surface waves, reflection of waves, refraction of waves, Doppler Effect. Principle Water waves are generated

### Old-Exam.Questions-Ch-14 T072 T071

Old-Exam.Questions-Ch-14 T072 Q23. Water is pumped out of a swimming pool at a speed of 5.0 m/s through a uniform hose of radius 1.0 cm. Find the mass of water pumped out of the pool in one minute. (Density

### Bubble Dynamics in a Vibrating Liquid. By: James Wymer, Jaggar Henzerling, Aaron Kilgallon, Michael McIntire, Mohammed Ghallab

Bubble Dynamics in a Vibrating Liquid By: James Wymer, Jaggar Henzerling, Aaron Kilgallon, Michael McIntire, Mohammed Ghallab Background In the early 1960 s a series of rocket failures plagued leading

### Study on Intensity of Blast Wave Generated from Vessel Bursting by Gas Explosion

5 th ICDERS August 7, 15 Leeds, UK Study on Intensity of Blast Wave Generated from Vessel Bursting by Gas Explosion Matsunaga, T., Mogi, T., Dobashi, R. Graduated School of Engineering, The University

### Lecture Outline Chapter 15. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 15 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 15 Fluids Density Units of Chapter 15 Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy

### KNOWN: Mass, pressure, temperature, and specific volume of water vapor.

.0 The specific volume of 5 kg of water vapor at.5 MPa, 440 o C is 0.60 m /kg. Determine (a) the volume, in m, occupied by the water vapor, (b) the amount of water vapor present, in gram moles, and (c)

### Friction properties of the face of a hand-held tennis racket

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Engineering 34 (2012 ) 544 549 9 th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA) Friction properties of the face of a hand-held

### Chapter 15 Fluid. Density

Density Chapter 15 Fluid Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy Applications of Archimedes Principle By Dr. Weining man 1 Units of Chapter 15 Fluid

### Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2006 (some of the material in this section came from ZMAG)

Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2006 (some of the material in this section came from ZMAG) 1 Definitions: The sea breeze is a local, thermally direct circulation arising from

### The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to:

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY OFFICE OF COUNSEL NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER DIVISION 1176 HOWELL STREET NEWPORT Rl 02841-1708 IN REPLY REFER TO Attorney Docket No. 300170 20 March 2018 The below identified

### Dynamics of a vapor bubble inside a vertical rigid cylinder with and without a deposit rib

Arch. Mech., 68, 2, pp. 113 132, Warszawa 2016 Dynamics of a vapor bubble inside a vertical rigid cylinder with and without a deposit rib A. NOURBAKHSH 1), F. ROUZBAHANI 2) 1) Department of Mechanical

### Today: waves. Exam Results, HW4 reminder. Chapter 8: Wave Motion. What is moving? Energy transport. Motion of a piece of the rope

Exam Results, HW4 reminder Exam: Class average = 13.6/20 ( at B/BC boundary) Exam scores posted this afternoon on Learn@UW Exam solutions are on course web page March Chap 7: Question A, Exercises 2 Griffith

### Waves & Interference

Waves & Interference I. Definitions and Types II. Parameters and Equations III. Sound IV. Graphs of Waves V. Interference - superposition - standing waves The student will be able to: HW: 1 Define, apply,

### Quiz name: Chapter 13 Test Review - Fluids

Name: Quiz name: Chapter 13 Test Review - Fluids Date: 1. All fluids are A gases B liquids C gasses or liquids D non-metallic E transparent 2. 1 Pa is A 1 N/m B 1 m/n C 1 kg/(m s) D 1 kg/(m s 2 ) E 1 N/m

### This document is downloaded from DR-NTU, Nanyang Technological University Library, Singapore.

This document is downloaded from DR-NTU, Nanyang Technological University Library, Singapore. Title The roles of acoustic cavitations in the ultrasonic cleansing of fouled micro-membranes Author(s) Yang,

### Physics 221, March 1. Key Concepts: Density and pressure Buoyancy Pumps and siphons Surface tension

Physics 221, March 1 Key Concepts: Density and pressure Buoyancy Pumps and siphons Surface tension Fluids: Liquids Incompressible Gases Compressible Definitions Particle density: Density: Pressure: ρ particle