# Vessel Weighing. Load Cells and Weigh Modules VPG TRANSDUCERS. Technical Note VPGT-06. Scope. Accuracy. Mode of Operation. Mechanical Considerations

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5 When one of these situations is likely to be present, it is recommended first to calculate the error and to relate this to the required system's accuracy, before any (expensive) solutions are considered. 1. The Stiffness of Pipes The stiffness of the pipes in relation to the stiffness of the weighing system plays an important role in the error development. The stiffness of the weighing system (C s ) can be calculated by: C s = (n * E max * g) f n = The number of load cells E max = The individual load cell capacity f = The deflection of the load cell g = Gravitation ( approximately 9.8 m/s 2 ) The stiffness of the pipes C t can be calculated by the sum of the stiffness of each individual pipe C a : The influence on span (e) can now be calculated by: e = (C t C s ) * 100% The error which is caused by the stiffness of the pipes is a typical span-error and can be reduced by the calibration procedure. However, stiffness of the pipes are no stable values and can change during operation. Example: A vessel is supported by four load cells, with a capacity of 2 t and a deflection of 0.5 mm. Two pipes are connected to the vessel, one bend in the vertical plane as in the opposite drawing. The pipes are made of steel with an inner diameter of 30 mm and an outer diameter of 40 mm. 4 m 0.8 m C a = (0.05 * K * E * (D 4 d 4 )) l 3 K = Clamping factor K = Outer diameter of pipe d = Inner diameter of pipe L = Length of pipe E = Elasticity modulus, for steel: E = N/mm 2 for copper: E = N/mm 2 for aluminium: E = N/mm 2 The clamping factor K equals K =12 for a pipe clamped rigidly at both ends. The following K-values below are valid for a pipe with constant diameter, with a bend (1) in the vertical plane or (2) in a horizontal plane, and clamped rigidly at both ends. The stiffness C s of the weighing system equals: C s = (4 * 2000 * 9.8) 0.5 = N mm 1.5 m The stiffness C a1 of the pipe, bent in the vertical plane equals: C a1 = (0.05 * 8 * * ( )) =2.30 N mm l A B C a (2) Bent in horizontal plane l b (1) Bent in vertical plane Clamping factor K for a pipe with constant diameter and clamped rigidly at both ends. 5

6 The stiffness C a2 of the straight pipe equals: C a2 = (0.05 * 12 * * ( )) =65.33 N mm The total stiffness C t of the pipes equals C a1 + C a2 = N mm. The influence on span (e) can now be calculated: e = ( ) * 100% = 0.043% 2. Thermal Expansion The height of the clamping point of the pipe can change with any change in ambient tempera ture by expansion of the vessel. Stiff pipes will try to counteract this movement, causing a zero-shift and non-reproduc ibility. ΔL = Lo + ΔT * α The change in height can be calculated by: ΔL = Change in length (mm) Lo = Original length (mm) ΔT = Change in ambient temperature: T To (K) α = Linear expansion (K 1 ), for steel α = 1.2 * 10 5 for copper α = 1.7 * 10 5 for aluminium α = 2.4 * 10 5 The reaction force of the pipe can be calculated by: F = ΔL * C a F = Reaction force of the pipe C a = Stiffness of the pipe The error to the system can be calculated by: e = (F scale capacity * g) * 100% The error which is caused by thermal expansion is a typical zero-error. Weighing systems without connections to the outer world are not affected by temperature effects, provided that a well designed mounting system is used. Load cells are manufactured to operate within a certain temperature range, normally from 40 to +80 C. A load cell is compensated for a part of this temperature range to operate within specifications, normally 10 to +40 C. Shields or insulation paths must be established to keep the load cell within the operating range and for high accuracy systems within the compensated temperature range. Example: A vessel is supported on four load cells, by a supporting struc ture made of steel. The scale capacity equals 10 tons. The vessel is made of aluminium. A pipe with a stiffness C a of 75 N/mm is connected to the vessel. The critical dimensions are indicated in the figure opposite. During the day the ambi ent temperature decreases from 15 to 25 C. The height of the supporting structure will decrease with: ΔL = 3000 * (25 15) * 1.2 * 10 5 = 0.35 mm The height of the vessel will decrease with: ΔL = 3000 * (25 15) * 2.4 * 10 5 = 0.72 mm The height of the clamping point of the pipe will change with = 1.07 mm. This will cause a reaction force of the pipe of: F = 1.07 * 75 = N 3 m 3 m The error to the system, caused by the temperature decrease will be: e = ( * 9.8) * 100% = 0.08% 3. Friction-Effects Friction-effects created in the clamping points are leading to an undefined error, causing nonrepeatability and hysteresis. Pipe supports, especially the first supports away from the vessel should be attached to the same structure as to which the vessel is supported. 6

7 T ΔT 6 = F ΔF Care should be paid to less obvious sources of deflection which are often ignored, such as deflection of the floor or roof and......two weighing vessels with pipe connections. Large horizontal side forces may arise by ther mal linear expansion of rigidly clamped pipes. Compensators When the influence of pipes exceed the allowed error then the following solutions should be considered: Decrease the length of pipe(s). Design the clamping to be less rigid. Introduce compensators in the pipe. All piping tends to sag from its theoretical design position due to its own dead weight. This effect will decrease with the length of the pipe. It is therefore important to check all piping runs between the vessel and the first pipe support for adequate clearance. Flexible piping devices or compensators should be selected based on their flexibility and their process chemistry suitability i.e., high or low pressure systems, temperature, aggressive chemicals. Flexible devices of non-metallic materials offer more flexibility in less space and with less vibration Elbow Stub Flexible piping devices Avoid Avoid if possible Correct installation 7

8 transmission than the metal counterparts. These benefits plus, variously, increased wear, corrosion and fatigue resistance makes non-metallic materials highly attractive when the process pressure and temperature requirements can be met. When large displacements must be accommodated with low force, consider using two compensators in series or a bent U-shape flexible hose. This is particularly important for low capacity systems were even small piping forces will disturb weigh system stability. Do not stretch or compress compensators excessively to compensate for initial piping misalignments at fitup, to prevent their stiffness characteristics from being altered. When multiple pipes are connected to a weighing vessel, then the connections should be made symmetrical if possible. Pressurized Vessels If the content of the vessel is under gas pressure and the pipe connection is made with a vertical compensator (bellow), a vertical disturbance force can arise. The compensators should be located in horizontal piping runs adjacent to the weigh vessel to avoid these vertical thrust forces from varying internal pressures associated with material flow and process chemistry. A temporary over-pressure can also be created by filling a vessel with a dusty material. The disturbing force can be calculated by: F = (ΔP * π * D 2 ) 4 ΔP = Over or under-pressure (N/m 2 ) D = Effective diameter of the bellow (m) Example: A vessel is pressurized with 2 bar over-pressure and the pipe connection is made with a vertical bellow having an effective diameter of 150 mm. The maximum disturbing force can be calculated by: F = (2 * 10 5 * π * (150 * 10 3 ) 2 ) 4 = 3534 N The flexibility of the bellow will cause the indicator to bounce between the actual weight and the actual weight plus the maximum disturbing force. Gas pressure in a vertical pipe gives minor influence if the pipe is connected to the vessel with a stiff part as indicated in the last drawing of the previous page. Restraining Devices Load cells should be protected against side forces by the use of restraining devices. These assem blies are designed to allow ample vertical freedom for weight sensing, while simultaneously eliminating inaccuracies caused by side loading. Accuracy and reliability of systems not protected in this way would be greatly reduced in the presence of extraneous forces, which might even result in damaged to the load cell in extreme cases. Two types of restraining devices are used: D Stay rods Limiting stops Po o + ΔP P Po P o Most mounts offered by VPG Transducers are selfaligning with an in-build limiter. These mounts do not require further restraining devices in most applications. Stay rods must be used when a vibrator or mixer is used in the vessel! Stay rods should not essentially transfer any forces to the container in the vertical direction, but have sufficient strength in the horizontal direction to be able to absorb the maximum horizontal forces arising. The length of the stay rods should be chosen as long as possible, as this has a favorable effect on reducing vertical forces. 8

9 The arrangement of the stay rods depends on the plan view geometry of the structure. In most cases four stay rods give the best results. Figure 3 below represents a basic stay rod arrangement for a vessel under thermal expansion. More information about the arrangement of stay rods for specific applications is available on request. Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Note: Placing stay rods as represented in figure 1 will cause high stresses in the stay rods and should be avoided. The arrangement in figure 2 will cause a rotation of the vessel. This configuration should be avoided if there are stiff connections to the vessel. Stay rods should be placed in a position that will exert no further stress to the vessel structure, as shown in Figure 3. 9

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PGN Sizes 50.. 380 Weight 0.125 kg.. 28.0 kg Gripping force 100 N.. 15100 N Stroke per finger 2 mm.. 45 mm Force-fit gripping 0.5 kg.. 75.0 kg Application example Horizontal turning station with 180 reorientation

### Series Environmental Chambers

3119-600 Series Environmental Chambers Challenges in Non-Ambient Testing Testing at non-ambient temperatures adds another layer of challenges to your testing laboratory. Ensuring you get accurate and stable

### CHEMICAL. Straight cut rod is provided in the materials listed below and includes nuts / washers.

161 STRAIGHT CUT ROD Straight cut rod is provided in the materials listed below and includes nuts / washers. Straight Rod 22-1/2 Bent Rod A 307 THREADED ANCHOR ROD, ZINC PLATED (ASTM B633, CLEAR CHROMATE)

### 9700 Transmitter Submersible hydrostatic level transmitter

Specification sheet IP0078 October 2007 Level 9700 Transmitter Submersible hydrostatic level transmitter Description The 9700 series hydrostatic level transmitter is designed to perform in the most arduous

### Easy to operate even for biginners. Set up the number of test. Possible to select from 1 to times

With a force gauge and attachments, compression/tensile/peeling tests are possible up to 1000N/2500N. It provides consistent testing speed and direction, offering highly accurate test results. MX2-2500N

### Biodec Decanter. Ideal with our CYCLATOR technology

Biodec Decanter B IODEC decanters are employed in SBR/Cyclic wastewater processes to separate the sludge from clear effluent. After careful research and development, UTB have developed their BIODEC decanter,

### CONTROL VALVE TESTING

The optimal functioning of the Control valve not only exists of sufficient body & seat tightness, but more important, the total "performance" of the valve and its controls! For an accurate and reliable

### TRZ 03-K Volumeter. Proven Technology. Superior Performance. TRZ 03-K Volumeter is a Turbine Gas Flowmeter for Secondary Gas Metering.

TRZ 0-K Volumeter TRZ 0-K Volumeter is a Turbine Gas Flowmeter for Secondary Gas Metering. TRZ 0-K Turbine Gas Flowmeter continues the tradition of Honeywell s field-proven turbine meter technology, delivering

### Installation, operating and maintenance Instructions for Seemag bypass level indicator

Issue: S Date: 05-09-14 Type G35 General information The Seetru bypass magnetic level indicator, abbreviate SEEMAG, serves to show the filling level of fluids in tanks, basins, tubes etc. The Seemag operates

### Operating instruction

Operating instruction MV, XV, HG, HP, RKO, D2G, TV, BV, WB & SLV 1 Introduction 2 2 Stafsjö s knife gate valves 2 3 Technical information 2 3.1 Pressure test 2 3.2 Labelling 2 4 Storage 3 5 Transportation

### SPG. Application example. Pneumatic 2-Finger Parallel Gripper Heavy-load Gripper. Weight 35 kg. Stroke per finger 100 mm.

SPG Size 100 Weight 35 kg 10,000 N Stroke per finger 100 mm Workpiece weight 50 kg Application example Gripper unit for heavy V8 engine blocks. SPG 100 2-Finger Heavy-load Gripper 446 www.schunk.com SPG