# OPENINGS AND REINFORCEMENTS 26

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2 ASME BPVC.VIII UG-53 UG-54 Figure UG-53.2 Example of Tube Spacing With Pitch of Holes Unequal in Every Second Row Longitudinal line p 1 = 12 (305 mm) GENERAL NOTE: = 135 mm; = 170 mm. representing the value of p /d. Thenprojectthispoint horizontally to the left, and read the equivalent longitudinal efficiency of the diagonal ligament. This equivalent longitudinal efficiency is used to determine the minimum required thickness and the maximum allowable working pressure. (g) When tube holes in a cylindrical shell are arranged in symmetrical groups which extend a distance greater than the inside diameter of the shell along lines parallel to the axis and the same spacing is used for each group, the efficiency for one of the groups shall be not less than the efficiency on which the maximum allowable working pressure is based. (h) The average ligament efficiency in a cylindrical shell, in which the tube holes are arranged along lines parallel to the axis with either uniform or nonuniform spacing, shall be computed by the following rules and shall satisfy the requirements of both: 33 (1) For a length equal to the inside diameter of the shell for the position which gives the minimum efficiency, the efficiency shall be not less than that on which the maximum allowable working pressure is based. When the inside diameter of the shell exceeds 60 (1 500 mm), the length shall be taken as 60 (1 500 mm) in applying this rule. (2) For a length equal to the inside radius of the shell for the position which gives the minimum efficiency, the efficiency shall be not less than 80% of that on which the maximum allowable working pressure is based. When the inside radius of the shell exceeds 30, the length shall be taken as 30 (760 mm) in applying this rule. (i) When ligaments occur in cylindrical shells made from welded pipe or tubes, and their calculated efficiency is less than 85% (longitudinal) or 50% (circumferential), the efficiency to be used in the equations of UG-27 is the calculated ligament efficiency. In this case, the appropriate stress value in tension (see UG-23) may be multiplied by the factor UG-54 SUPPORTS (a) All vessels shall be so supported and the supporting members shall be arranged and/or attached to the vessel wall in such a way as to provide for the maximum imposed loadings (see UG-22 and UG-82). (b) Nonmandatory Appendix G contains suggested rules for the design of supports. Figure UG-53.3 Example of Tube Spacing With Pitch of Holes Varying in Every Second and Third Row p 1 = 29 1 / 4 (745 mm) Longitudinal line GENERAL NOTE: = 135 mm; = 170 mm. 57

4 1-10 ASME BPVC.VIII (d) Caution to the Designer. Thedesignmethodsof 1-7(b) are particularly applicable to large bolted flanged nozzles in relatively thin (D i / t > 100) vessels when the vessel nozzle flange is located close to the nozzle/ shell intersection. The nozzle/shell intersection in these casesismoreflexibleandtheusualassumptionof axial only strain may not be valid. This flexing results in strain redistribution around the nozzle circumference. Strain redistribution may cause distortion (ovaling) of the nozzle neck and flange such that a proper seal at the bolted flange connection cannot be obtained or maintained. Flanged connections with a minimum projection from flange face to outside surface of shell less than maybeaffectedbyovalingdistortionand should be considered by the designer as permitted by U-2(g) or by the rules in 1-7(b). For radial openings in shell having D i /t greater than 200andthenozzleI.D.(d n )greaterthan40 (1000 mm), consideration should be given in design of reinforcement using the method in 1-7(b) or the rules of U-2(g). 368

5 ASME BPVC.VIII DESIGN RULES FOR LIGAMENTS SCOPE Rules for determining the ligament efficiency for hole patterns in cylindrical shells are covered in this paragraph. The ligament efficiency or weld joint factor (see ) is used in conjunction with the design equations for shells in LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY When a cylindrical shell is drilled for tubes in a line parallel to the axis of the shell for substantially the full length of the shell as shown in Figures through , the efficiency of the ligaments between the tube holes shall be determined as follows. (a) When the pitch of the tube holes on every row is equal (see Figure ), the ligament efficiency is: ð4:10:1þ (b) When the pitch of tube holes on any one row is unequal (as in Figures and ), the ligament efficiency is: ð4:10:2þ (c) When the adjacent longitudinal rows are drilled as described in (b), diagonal and circumferential ligaments shall also be examined. The least equivalent longitudinal efficiency shall be used to determine the minimum required thickness and the maximum allowable working pressure. (d) When a cylindrical shell is drilled for holes so as to form diagonal ligaments, as shown in Figure , the efficiency of these ligaments shall be determined by Figures and Figure is used to determine the efficiency of longitudinal and diagonal ligaments with limiting boundaries where the condition of equal efficiency of diagonal and longitudinal ligaments form one boundary and the condition of equal efficiency of diagonal and circumferential ligaments form the other boundary. Figure is used for determining the equivalent longitudinal efficiency of diagonal ligaments. This efficiency is used in the equations for setting the minimum required thickness. (1) Figure is used when either or both longitudinal and circumferential ligaments exist with diagonal ligaments. To use Figure , compute the value of and also the efficiency of the longitudinal ligament. Next find in the diagram, the vertical line corresponding to the longitudinal efficiency of the ligament and follow this line vertically to the point where it intersects the diagonal line representing the ratio of. Then project this point horizontally to the left, and read the diagonal efficiency of the ligament on the scale at the edge of the diagram. The minimum shell thickness and the maximum allowable working pressure shall be based on the ligament that has the lower efficiency. (2) Figure is used for holes that are not in-iine, or holes that are placed longitudinally along a cylindrical shell. The diagram may be used for pairs of holes for all planes between the longitudinal plane and the circumferential plane. To use Figure , determine the angle θ between the longitudinal shell axis and the line between the centers of the openings and compute the value of. Find in the diagram, the vertical line corresponding to the value of θ and follow this line vertically to the line representing the value of. Then project this point horizontally to the left, and read the equivalent longitudinal efficiency of the diagonal ligament. This equivalent longitudinal efficiency is used to determine the minimum required thickness and the maximum allowable working pressure. (e) When tube holes in a cylindrical shell are arranged in symmetrical groups which extend a distance greater than the inside diameter of the shell along lines parallel to the axis and the same spacing is used for each group, the efficiency for one of the groups shall be not less than the efficiency on which the maximum allowable working pressure is based. (f) The average ligament efficiency in a cylindrical shell, in which the tube holes are arranged along lines parallel to the axis with either uniform or non-uniform spacing, shall be computed by the following rules and shall satisfy the requirements of both. These rules only apply to ligaments between tube holes and not to single openings. They may give lower efficiencies in some cases than those for symmetrical groups which extend a distance greater than the inside diameter of the shell as covered in (e). When this occurs, the efficiencies computed by the rules under (b) shall govern. (1) For a length equal to the inside diameter of the shell for the position which gives the minimum efficiency, the efficiency shall be not less than that on which the maximum allowable working pressure is based. When the inside diameter of the shell exceeds 1520 mm (60 ), the length shall be taken as 1520 mm (60 ), in applying this rule. (2) For a length equal to the inside radius of the shell for the position which gives the minimum efficiency, the efficiency shall be not less than 80% of that on which the maximum allowable working pressure is based. When the inside radius of the shell exceeds 762 mm (30 ), the length shall be taken as 762 mm (30 ), in applying this rule. 295

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