1 JEFFERSON COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE SAFETY MANUAL SECTION VIII: LABORATORY SAFETY EFFECTIVE: JULY 1, 2009 TOPIC VIII 0050: LABORATORY ATTIRE AND REVISED: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT PROPER ATTIRE FOR INDIVIDUALS IN LABORATORIES All employees, faculty, students, and visitors must wear appropriate attire in all laboratory areas to eliminate or minimize contact with chemicals, biological hazards, and other hazards. Shorts, miniskirts, or any apparel that does not cover the skin above the knee when seated should NOT be worn in the laboratory without appropriate over protection (e.g. a buttoned laboratory coat or closed front gown). Open toed shoes, sandals, or shoes made of loosely woven material should not be worn in the laboratory. Loose clothing and jewelry that can be caught in equipment or dipped into hazardous solutions should not be worn in the laboratory. Gloves should be worn whenever there is a potential exposure of the hands. The gloves should have the necessary resistance to the chemical or hazardous material being used. Liquid barrier gloves should be used when handling biological agents or potentially infectious materials. See the guidelines for personal protective equipment for more information. Eye protection should be worn during any task where there is potential exposure of the eyes via splashing of material or generation of flying objects. Eye protection may be required for laboratory entry at the discretion of the investigator or department. Specialized protective clothing shall be worn when using materials that are extremely hazardous upon contact. Hazardous materials are covered in Section VII of this Safety Manual. Chemical safety is covered in Section IV of this Manual. Gloves and all other personal protective equipment must never be worn outside of laboratory areas and are forbidden in public corridors, elevators, stairwells, and break rooms. Gloves should be removed prior to use of the telephone, keyboard, equipment controls or doors, if these surfaces are considered "clean" or common.
2 LABORATORY PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT The new final standard on personal protective equipment published by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration in 29 CFR , Subpart I imposes several new and important requirements relating to basic safety and health programs. The standard adds new general requirements for the selection and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Included in these requirements are the following: Employers must conduct a hazard assessment to determine if hazards present necessitate the use of PPE. Employers must certify in writing that the hazard assessment was conducted. PPE selection must be made on the basis of hazard assessment and affected workers properly trained. Defective or damaged PPE must not be used. Training requirements for employees using PPE must be established. This should include requirements for employees to demonstrate an understanding of the training. Employer must certify in writing that training programs were provided and understood. At the end of this Topic VIII 0050 is a copy of the OSHA Fact Sheet pertaining to Personal Protective Equipment. At Jefferson Community and Technical College, the office of the Director of Facilities and Business Operations or the KCTCS Office of Environmental Health and Safety may be contacted to assist departments and programs with their hazard assessment and the required PPE training. A variety of laboratory personal protective equipment is commercially available and commonly used in laboratories. However, for the equipment to perform the desired function, it must be used and managed properly. Laboratory supervisors and/or departmental chemical hygiene officers and/or principal investigators shall determine the need for such equipment, monitor its effectiveness, train the employees, and monitor and enforce the proper use of such equipment. Training is discussed more fully in Section VIII, Section XIV, and elsewhere in this Safety Manual. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Jefferson Community and Technical College strongly recommends that, until such time as the College develops its own policy and procedures relative to personal protective equipment in the laboratories, all laboratory supervisors, principal investigators, and instructional faculty working in laboratories follow the requirements and recommendations promulgated by Bowling Green State University in the following chart:
3 Hazardous Material Handled in the Laboratory Acids Small containers < 1 liter Large containers >= 1 liter Caustic liquids Small containers < 1 liter Large containers >= 1 liter Flammable liquids Dispensing from 5 gal containers Highly reactive liquid chemicals and high energy oxidizers Liquids with high acute toxicity (poisons) Liquids with high chronic toxicity (carcinogens and reproductive toxins) Other hazardous liquid chemicals (not included in the above categories) Caustic solids (lime, etc.) Flammable solids (alkali metals, red phosphorous, etc.) High reactive solids and high Personal Protective Equipment Required and Recommended Safety goggles, appropriate gloves, closed toe shoes, and a rubber apron required. If a potential for a splash is high, it is advised to use both face shield and goggles. Safety goggles, appropriate gloves, closed toe shoes, and a rubber apron required. If a potential for a splash is high, it is advised to use both face shield and goggles If the potential for a splash is high, it is advisable to use a face shield in addition to goggles. Face shield or body shield must be used in addition to protective eyewear during the reaction based on the scale of the reaction. Safety goggles, appropriate gloves, appropriate impermeable apron, closed toe shoes required. Long sleeve lab coat recommended. If the potential for a splash is high, use impermeable coveralls and a face shield in addition to goggles. If the potential of getting a chemical into the face is high, use a face shield in addition to goggles.
4 energy oxidizers Solids of high acute toxicity (poisons) Solids of high chronic toxicity (carcinogens and reproductive toxins) Other hazardous solid chemicals (not included in the above categories) Compressed toxic gas Work with pressurized glass/ plastic vessels (potential for creating flying fragments) Light radiation Class IIIb Lasers Class IV Lasers Sources of UV light Temperature extremes Heat (hot surfaces, hot solutions, etc.) Cold (cold rooms) Cryogenic gases (N2, He2, etc.) Autoclave operation Face shield or body shield should be worn during reactions based on the scale of the reaction in addition to protective eyewear. If work is done on an open bench and the potential for disseminating powder is high, appropriate respiratory protection must be used. If work is done on an open bench and the potential for disseminating powder is high, appropriate respiratory protection must be used. Face shield, safety goggles, appropriate gloves, closed toe shoes required. Protective eyewear of the appropriate optical density. Protective eyewear of the appropriate optical density. Appropriate protective eyewear and appropriate gloves required. Based on the duration of exposure and the source, it is advisable to use a face shield instead of glasses. Face shield, appropriate thermal gloves, closed toe shoes required. Appropriate thermal gloves, closed toe shoes required. Long sleeve lab coat recommended. Face shield, appropriate thermal gloves, closed toe shoes required. Face shield, rubber apron, appropriate thermal gloves, closed toe shoes required.
5 OSHA FACT SHEET ON PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (Published 2002) What is personal protective equipment? Personal protective equipment, or PPE, is designed to protect employees from serious workplace injuries or illnesses resulting from contact with chemical, radiological, physical, electrical, mechanical, or other workplace hazards. Besides face shields, safety glasses, hard hats, and safety shoes, PPE includes a variety of devices and garments such as goggles, coveralls, gloves, vests, earplugs, and respirators. What are your responsibilities as an employer? OSHA s primary PPE standards are in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 910 Subpart I, and equivalent regulations in states with OSHA approved state plans, but you can find PPE requirements elsewhere in the General Industry Standards. For example, 29 CFR , OSHA s Fire Brigades Standard, has requirements for firefighting gear. In addition, 29 CFR covers the construction industry. OSHA s general PPE requirements mandate that employers conduct a hazard assessment of their workplaces to determine what hazards are present that require the use of PPE, provide workers with appropriate PPE, and require them to use and maintain it in sanitary and reliable condition. Using PPE is often essential, but it is generally the last line of defense after engineering controls, work practices, and administrative controls. Engineering controls involve physically changing a machine or work environment. Administrative controls involve changing how or when employees do their jobs, such as scheduling work and rotating employees to reduce exposures. Work practices involve training workers how to perform tasks in ways that reduce their exposure to workplace hazards. As an employer, you must assess your workplace to determine if hazards are present that require the use of PPE. If such hazards are present, you must select PPE and require employees to use it, communicate your PPE selection decisions to your employees, and select PPE that properly fits your workers. You must also train employees who are required to wear PPE on how do the following: Use PPE properly, Be aware of when PPE is necessary, Know what kind of PPE is necessary, Understand the limitations of PPE in protecting employees from injury, Don, adjust, wear, and doff PPE, and Maintain PPE properly. Can PPE protect workers from head injuries?
6 Yes. Hard hats can protect your employees from head impact, penetration injuries, and electrical injuries such as those caused by falling or flying objects, fixed objects, or contact with electrical conductors. Also, OSHA regulations require employers to ensure that workers cover and protect long hair to prevent it from getting caught in machine parts such as belts and chains. How can PPE protect workers from foot and leg injuries? In addition to foot guards and safety shoes, leggings (e.g., leather, aluminized rayon, or other appropriate material) can help prevent injuries by protecting employees from hazards such as falling or rolling objects, sharp objects, wet and slippery surfaces, molten metals, hot surfaces, and electrical hazards. Does PPE help protect workers from eye and face injuries? Yes. Besides spectacles and goggles, PPE such as special helmets or shields, spectacles with side shields, and face shields can protect employees from the hazards of flying fragments, large chips, hot sparks, optical radiation, splashes from molten metals, as well as objects, particles, sand, dirt, mists, dusts, and glare. What can PPE do to protect workers from hearing loss? Wearing earplugs or earmuffs can help prevent damage to hearing. Exposure to high noise levels can cause irreversible hearing loss or impairment as well as physical and psychological stress. Earplugs made from foam, waxed cotton, or fiberglass wool are self forming and usually fit well. A professional should fit your employees individually for molded or preformed earplugs. Clean earplugs regularly, and replace those you cannot clean. Should workers wear PPE to help prevent hand injuries? Yes. Workers exposed to harmful substances through skin absorption, severe cuts or lacerations, severe abrasions, chemical burns, thermal burns, and harmful temperature extremes will benefit from hand protection. Why should workers wear PPE to protect the whole body? In some cases workers must shield most or all of their bodies against hazards in the workplace, such as exposure to heat and radiation as well as hot metals, scalding liquids, body fluids, hazardous materials or waste, and other hazards. In addition to fire retardant wool and fire retardant cotton, materials used in whole body PPE include rubber, leather, synthetics, and plastic. When should workers wear PPE for respiratory protection? When engineering controls are not feasible, workers must use appropriate respirators to protect against adverse health effects caused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors. Respirators generally cover the nose and mouth or the entire face or
7 head and help prevent illness and injury. A proper fit is essential, however, for respirators to be effective. All employees required to wear respirators must first undergo medical evaluation. How can I get more information? You can find more information about PPE, including the full text of OSHA s standards, on OSHA s website at