# Pressure Measurement

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Pressure Measurement Manometers Sensors, Transducers Ashish J. Modi Lecturer, Dept. of Mech.Engg., Shri S.V.M. inst. Of Technology, Bharuch

2 Pressure Pressure is a force per unit area exerted by a fluid perpendicular (say normal) to a boundary (as opposed to shear stress, which is exerted parallel to the boundary.) A more precise term is hydrostatic pressure. Since almost all pressure sensors measure a pressure difference, we need to distinguish between absolute and gauge pressures.

3 Units of Measure System Length Force Mass Time Pressure MKS Meter Newton Kg Sec N/M 2 = Pascal CGS CM Dyne Gram Sec D/CM 2 English Inch Pound Slug Sec PSI

4 STANDARDS

5 Terminology Atmospheric Pressure (P at ): This is the pressure exerted by envelope of air surrounding the earth s surface. Usually determined by Mercury column barometer. P at P vp gh But Mercury has a low vapour pressure ( kg/cm 2 at 20ºC ) P gh at P at

6 Absolute Pressure (P abs ): Pressure has been defined as the force per unit area due to interaction of fluid particles amongst themselves. A zero pressure intensity will occur when molecular momentum is zero. Such situation can occur only when there is a perfect vacuum. Pressure intensity measured from this state of vacuum or zero pressure is called absolute pressure.

7 Gauge Pressure (P g ) and Vacuum (P vac ): When the unknown pressure is more than atmospheric pressure, the pressure recorded by the instrument is called gauge pressure. A pressure below the atmospheric pressure is known as vacuum, negative pressure.

8

9

10 How is pressure generated? Collision of molecule with wall Momentum is mass x velocity Change of momentum is double Collision is isothermal = perfectly elastic Sum collisions over area to get force

11 How is pressure measured? Absolute Vs. relative pressure Manometry Bourdon Aneroid Strain gauge

12 The hydrostatic pressure at any point in a fluid is related to the pressure at any other point by the weight of the fluid between the two points.

13 Pascal s Law Two points at the same elevation in a continuous fluid at rest are at the same pressure, called Pascal s law, Pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure throughout by the same amount. In picture, pistons are at same height: F F F A P1 P2 A A F A Ratio A 2 /A 1 is called ideal mechanical advantage

14 Pressure Reference Instruments Reference instruments are those which utilize directly the weight of a column of fluid. Pressure can be calculated from the geometry of the instrument and the specific weight of the fluid. They can be made quite precise but do not generally provide an electrical output. The most common instrument is the manometer, which measures a difference between two pressures

15 Manometers can be used to measure gauge, differential, atmospheric and absolute pressure e.g., Piezometer U-tube manometer (single & Double column) U-tube differential manometer U-tube single reservoir manometer U-tube double reservoir manometer Inclined tube manometer

16 Piezometer Tube 1) The pressure in the container has to be greater than atmospheric pressure. 2) The measurement of pressure must be of a liquid. p o Closed End Container p A (abs) Note: p A = p 1 because they are at the same level Force balance : p A(abs) = p o + 1 h 1 p Rearranging: A o 1 p 1 h Gage Pressure Then in terms of gage pressure, the equation for a Piezometer Tube: Gage Pressure,

17 The Manometer P P 1 2 P P gh 2 atm An elevation change of z in a fluid at rest corresponds to P/ g. A device based on this is called a manometer. A manometer consists of a U-tube containing one or more fluids such as mercury, water, alcohol, or oil. Heavy fluids such as mercury are used if large pressure differences are anticipated.

18 The static sensitivity K can be controlled within limits by selecting the manometer fluid, although the density of most gases at atmospheric pressure is much less than that of any liquid.

19 U-Tube Manometers Examples of U- Tube Manometers are as follows:

20 How can you measure the pressure?

21 Manometer

22 Manometer measures contained gas pressure U-tube Manometer

23 We can also increase the static sensitivity by using a micromanometer, which improves the precision of measuring H.

24 Another technique which increases static sensitivity is inclining the sensing tube.

25 U-tube Manometer Mercury Water Manometer Air Water Manometer Applications: air pressure, pipe pressure, etc.

26 Advantages and Disadvantages of Manometers Advantages: Linear No calibration required Good precision Relatively Inexpensive Disadvantages: No electrical output Poor Sensitivity Poor Dynamic Response.

27 The Barometer P gh P P C atm gh atm Atmospheric pressure is measured by a device called a barometer; thus, atmospheric pressure is often referred to as the barometric pressure. P C can be taken to be zero since there is only Hg vapor above point C, and it is very low relative to P atm. Change in atmospheric pressure due to elevation has many effects: Cooking, nose bleeds, engine performance, aircraft performance.

28 Barometer (a) (b) (c)

29 Barometer It measures the difference between ambient pressure and the vapor pressure of mercury (at 25o C, the vapor pressure is.002 mmhg, which is about 10-4 atm). If ambient temperature is measured, the result can be corrected for the vapor pressure as well as the dependence of specific weight on temperature.

30 Dead Weight Tester They are used to calibrate other pressure transducers. They are null rather than deflection instruments.

31 The primary error in their use comes from friction between the piston and cylinder. This can be minimized by spinning the piston during the measurement (dynamic friction is less than static) and by proper design. The clearance between piston and cylinder must be small enough to prevent leakage but large enough to limit friction. The pressure is therefore,

32 Pressure Transducers Almost all pressure transducers operate on the basis of elastic deflection - the applied pressure causes some component to deform or deflect.

33 Pressure Measuring Devices Bourdon Gage: Principles: change in curvature of the tube is proportional to difference of pressure inside from that outside the tube Applications: tire pressure, pressure at the top or along the walls of tanks or vessels

34 The Bourdon Tube The Bourdon Tube forms the basic element of most dial pressure gauges. Static sensitivity can be controlled by varying the dimensions of the tube. It is possible, though not common, to convert the mechanical output to an electrical signal by bonding strain gages to the tube. Bourdon tube gages can be made quite precise by using large diameter dials.

35 Typical pressure sensing Element

36 The Bourdon Tube

37 The Bourdon Tube

38 Bellow and Capsule Gauge Bellows and capsule elements are frequently used when an electrical output is desired. Bellow type Capsule type

39

40 Bellow Gauge

41 Other Electrical Pressure Transducers What is a pressure transducer? A pressure transducer is a device that converts a pressure signal to an electric signal. What type of devices can be used to create a pressure transducer? Strain gage devices Capacitance devices Piezoelectric devices

42 Pressure Transducer Strain gage device Strain gage is attached to a flexible membrane. When the membrane is deflected the resistance in the strain gage changes.

43 Strained Gauge Sensors A strain gauge measures the strain in a material subjected to applied stress Signal due to deformation of the material is small, on the order of 0.1% of the base resistance. Used a metal diaphragm with strain gauges bonded to it.

44 Semiconductor strain gauges Widely used, both bonded and integrated into a silicon diaphragm, because larger (one order of magnitude) response than metallic strain gauge. Piezoresistive effect: Change of resistance, when the crystal lattice structure of silicon is deformed by applied stress.

45 Electrical readout Cross-coupling with temperature Apply several gauges and use Wheatstone bridge Signal enhanced, Temperature effect strongly reduced compression tension Two more gauges on the other side

46 Diaphragm Gauges Diaphragm elements are the most commonly used transducers with an electrical output.

47 Diaphragm Gauges

48 Diaphragm Gauges

49 Pressure Transducer Capacitance device The capacitance between two plates changes with the distance between the plates.

50 Pressure Transducer Piezoelectric device Piezoelectric device take advantage of the electrical properties of crystals such as quartz. These crystals generate an electrical charge when they are strained.

51

### Pressure Measurement. Introduction. Engr325 Instrumentation. Dr Curtis Nelson 3/12/18

3/12/18 Pressure Measurement Engr325 Instrumentation Dr Curtis Nelson Introduction A cluster of 72 helium-filled balloons over Temecula, California in April of 2003. The helium balloons displace approximately

### Instrumentation & Data Acquisition Systems

Instrumentation & Data Acquisition Systems Section 4 - Pressure Robert W. Harrison, PE Bob@TheHarrisonHouse.com Made in USA 1 Definition of Pressure Pressure is the amount of force applied perpendicular

### Pressure Measurement. Introduction. Engr325 Instrumentation. Dr Curtis Nelson 3/1/17

3/1/17 Pressure Measurement Engr325 Instrumentation Dr Curtis Nelson Introduction A cluster of 72 helium-filled balloons over Temecula, California in April of 2003. The helium balloons displace approximately

### Pressure Measurements

ME 22.302 Mechanical Lab I Pressure Measurements Dr. Peter Avitabile University of Massachusetts Lowell Pressure - 122601-1 Copyright 2001 A transducer is a device that converts some mechanical quantity

### 3 1 PRESSURE. This is illustrated in Fig. 3 3.

P = 3 psi 66 FLUID MECHANICS 150 pounds A feet = 50 in P = 6 psi P = s W 150 lbf n = = 50 in = 3 psi A feet FIGURE 3 1 The normal stress (or pressure ) on the feet of a chubby person is much greater than

### Pressure Measurement

Pressure Measurement Absolute and Gage Pressure P abs = P gage + P atm where P abs = Absolute pressure P abs = Gage pressure P abs = atmospheric pressure A perfect vacuum is the lowest possible pressure.

Hydrostatic pressure Consider a tank of fluid which contains a very thin plate of (neutrally buoyant) material with area A. This situation is shown in Figure below. If the plate is in equilibrium (it does

### Middle East Technical University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Fall 2018 Section 4 (Dr.

Middle East Technical University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Fall 2018 Section 4 (Dr. Sert) Study Set 2 Reading Assignments You can find the answers of some of the following

### Chapter 3: Fluid Statics. 3-1 Pressure 3-2 Fluid Statics 3-3 Buoyancy and Stability 3-4 Rigid-Body Motion

3-1 Pressure 3-2 Fluid Statics 3-3 Buoyancy and Stability 3-4 Rigid-Body Motion Chapter 3 Fluid Statics 3-1 Pressure (1) Pressure is defined as a normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area. Units of

### Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS

Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2010 Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS Lecture slides by Hasan Hacışevki Copyright The McGraw-Hill

### Fluid Mechanics. Chapter Three: Fluid Statics. Dr. Amer Khalil Ababneh

Fluid Mechanics Chapter Three: Fluid Statics Dr. Amer Khalil Ababneh This chapter deals with mechanics of fluids by introducing concepts related to pressure and by describing how to calculate forces associated

### and its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to 4.0 ft/s 2.

1.26. A certain object weighs 300 N at the earth's surface. Determine the mass of the object (in kilograms) and its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to

### Gas Physics Pressure and Flow Topics Covered:

Gas Physics Pressure and Flow Topics Covered: Molecular Theory of Gases Definition of Pressure The Gas Laws Definition of Flow Definition of Pressure Drop Gas Physics Pressure and Flow Topics Covered:

### Applied Thermodynamics. Experiment_01_MT_234. Instructor: Mr. Adnan Qamar. Mechanical Engineering Department

Applied Thermodynamics Experiment_01_MT_234 Instructor: Mr. Adnan Qamar Mechanical Engineering Department 1 Experiment No. 01: To test that Pressure is an intensive property. Apparatus: Nozzle Distribution

### Assumptions 1 At specified conditions, air behaves as an ideal gas. 2 The volume of the tire remains constant.

PTT 04/ Applied Fluid Mechanics Sem, Session015/016 ASSIGNMENT 1 CHAPTER AND CHAPTER 1. The air in an automobile tire with a volume of 0.0740 m is at 0 C and 140 kpa. Determine the amount of air that must

### Comments on Homework. Class 4 - Pressure. Atmospheric Pressure. Gauge vs. Absolute Pressure. 2. Gauge vs. Absolute Pressure. 1.

Class 4 - Pressure 1. Definitions 2. Gauge Pressure 3. Pressure and Height of Liquid Column (Head) 4. Pressure Measurement and Manometers Please don t forget the special problem for the next HW assignment

### Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement

Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement By: OpenStax College Online: This module is copyrig hted by Rice University. It is licensed under the Creative

### DEVIL PHYSICS THE BADDEST CLASS ON CAMPUS PRE-IB PHYSICS

DEVIL HYSICS THE BADDEST CLASS ON CAMUS RE-IB HYSICS GIANCOLI LESSON 10-2 TO 10-5 RESSURE IN FLUIDS ATMOSHERIC RESSURE AND GAUGE RESSURE ASCAL S RINCILE MEASUREMENT OF RESSURE: GAUGES AND BAROMETER Objectives

### Pressure measurement explained

Rev A1, May 25 th, 2018 Sens4Knowledge Sens4 A/S Nordre Strandvej 119 G 3150 Hellebaek Denmark Phone: +45 8844 7044 Email: info@sens4.com www.sens4.com Introduction Pressure is defined as the force per

### Unit 2 Pressure Measurement Techniques 1. State importance of pressure measurement in process industries.

Unit 2 Pressure Measurement Techniques 1. State importance of pressure measurement in process industries. The measurement of pressure is one of the most important measurements, as it is used in almost

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

### Unit A-2: List of Subjects

ES312 Energy Transfer Fundamentals Unit A: Fundamental Concepts ROAD MAP... A-1: Introduction to Thermodynamics A-2: Engineering Properties Unit A-2: List of Subjects Basic Properties and Temperature Pressure

### Fluid Machinery Introduction to the laboratory measurements

Fluid Machinery Introduction to the laboratory measurements Csaba H s (csaba.hos@hds.bme.hu) Ferenc Hegedus (hegedusf@hds.bme.hu) February 21, 2014 1 Requirements related to the measurement part of the

### Comments on Homework. Quiz. Class 3 - Pressure. Atmospheric Pressure. 2. Gauge vs. Absolute Pressure. 1. Definitions. Temperature conversion

Comments on Homework Quiz Temperature conversion T ( R) = T (K) 1.8 T ( C) = T(K) - 273.15 T ( F) = T( R) - 460 However, difference in temperature is: T ( C) = T (K) T ( F) = T ( R) T ( R) = 1.8 T ( C)

### Third measurement MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE

1. Pressure gauges using liquids Third measurement MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE U tube manometers are the simplest instruments to measure pressure with. In Fig.22 there can be seen three kinds of U tube manometers

### The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases based on the idea that particles are always in motion

The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases based on the idea that particles are always in motion Five assumptions: 1. Most of the volume occupied dby a gas is empty space 2. Collisions between gas particles

### Another convenient term is gauge pressure, which is a pressure measured above barometric pressure.

VACUUM Theory and Applications Vacuum may be defined as the complete emptiness of a given volume. It is impossible to obtain a perfect vacuum, but it is possible to obtain a level of vacuum, defined as

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

### Irrigation &Hydraulics Department lb / ft to kg/lit.

CAIRO UNIVERSITY FLUID MECHANICS Faculty of Engineering nd Year CIVIL ENG. Irrigation &Hydraulics Department 010-011 1. FLUID PROPERTIES 1. Identify the dimensions and units for the following engineering

### Introduction to Pressure Measurement

Introduction to Pressure Measurement FG05W5 Version 1.3 2010 Standards Certification Education & Training Publishing Conferences & Exhibits Seminar Logistics Seminar materials Downloadable presentation

### Phys101 Lectures Fluids I. Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle. Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7.

Phys101 Lectures 21-22 Fluids I Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Page 1 10-1 Phases of Matter The three common phases of matter are solid,

### FDE 211 Material & Energy Balances. Instructor: Dr. Ilgin Paker Yikici Fall 2015

FDE 211 Material & Energy Balances Instructor: Dr. Ilgin Paker Yikici Fall 2015 Material& Energy Balances first step in understanding a process leads to a better understanding of a process forces the engineer

### Density and Specific Gravity

Fluids Phases of Matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space (volume). The three common phases of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A solid has a definite shape and size. A liquid has a

### 1Photograph courtesy of A. F. Hasler [Ref. 7].2

7708d_c02_40-99 8/31/01 12:33 PM Page 40 mac106 mac 106:1st_Shift:7708d: n image of hurricane llen viewed via satellite: lthough there is considerable motion and structure to a hurricane, the pressure

### Gases and Pressure SECTION 11.1

SECTION 11.1 Gases and In the chapter States of Matter, you read about the kineticmolecular theory of matter. You were also introduced to how this theory explains some of the properties of ideal gases.

### Unit 8: Gases and States of Matter

Unit 8: Gases and States of Matter Gases Particles that have no definite shape or volume. They adapt to the shape and volume of their container. Ideal gases are imaginary gases that comply with all the

### CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases The word kinetic refers to. Kinetic energy is the an object has because of its motion. Kinetic Molecular

### SPH 4C Unit 4 Hydraulics and Pneumatic Systems

SPH 4C Unit 4 Hydraulics and Pneumatic Systems Properties of Fluids and Pressure Learning Goal: I can explain the properties of fluids and identify associated units. Definitions: Fluid: A substance that

### Pressure measurement. Absolute pressure D Gauge pressure C Atmospheric pressure

Pressure measurement Pressure measurement is a very common requirement for most industrial process control systems and many different types of -sensing and -measurement systems are available. However,

### Lecture 19 Fluids: density, pressure, Pascal s principle and Buoyancy.

Lecture 19 Water tower Fluids: density, pressure, Pascal s principle and Buoyancy. Hydraulic press Pascal s vases Barometer What is a fluid? Fluids are substances that flow. substances that take the shape

### ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 3.1 Air weight 3.2 Torricelli s experience 3.3 Pressure measuring unit 3.1 AIR WEIGHT Solid bodies have their own weight, and gaseous bodies such as air also have their own weight.

### Lecture Handout 5: Gases (Online Text Chapter 6)

Lecture Handout 5: Gases (Online Text Chapter 6) I. The Structure of a Gas A. Gases are composed of particles that are flying around very fast in their container(s). 1. The particles travel in straight

### Chapter 9 Fluids and Buoyant Force

Chapter 9 Fluids and Buoyant Force In Physics, liquids and gases are collectively called fluids. 3/0/018 8:56 AM 1 Fluids and Buoyant Force Formula for Mass Density density mass volume m V water 1000 kg

### Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure. Atmospheric Instrumentation

Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure Outline Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure Review of Atmospheric Pressure Barometers Liquid Aneroid Wind Speed Correction Significant Exposure Error Sea-Level Correction

### Fluid Mechanics. Liquids and gases have the ability to flow They are called fluids There are a variety of LAWS that fluids obey

Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Liquids and gases have the ability to flow They are called fluids There are a variety of LAWS that fluids obey Density Regardless of form (solid, liquid, gas) we can define

### Properties of Fluids SPH4C

Properties of Fluids SPH4C Fluids Liquids and gases are both fluids: a fluid is any substance that flows and takes the shape of its container. Fluids Liquids and gases are both fluids: a fluid is any substance

### Chapter 10: Gases. Characteristics of Gases

Chapter 10: Gases Learning Outcomes: Calculate pressure and convert between pressure units with an emphasis on torr and atmospheres. Calculate P, V, n, or T using the ideal-gas equation. Explain how the

### Hydrostatics. Physics 1425 Lecture 25. Michael Fowler, UVa

Hydrostatics Physics 1425 Lecture 25 Michael Fowler, UVa Basic Concepts Density Pressure: Pascal s Principle The Crown and the Bathtub Around 250 BC, the king of Syracuse commissioned a new crown,and gave

### Lecture Outline Chapter 15. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 15 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 15 Fluids Density Units of Chapter 15 Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy

### Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes:

Name: Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes: Block: In chemistry, the relationships between gas physical properties are described as gas laws. Some of these properties are pressure, volume,

### Pressure of the atmosphere varies with elevation and weather conditions. Barometer- device used to measure atmospheric pressure.

Chapter 12 Section 1 Pressure A gas exerts pressure on its surroundings. Blow up a balloon. The gas we are most familiar with is the atmosphere, a mixture of mostly elemental nitrogen and oxygen. Pressure

### PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems

PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems CHAPTER 14 Fluids Fluids at rest pressure vs. depth Pascal s principle Archimedes s principle Buoynat forces Fluids in motion: Continuity & Bernoulli equations 1. How deep

### INSTRUMENTATION EQUIPMENT

INSTRUMENTATION EQUIPMENT 2.0 INTRODUCTION Instrumentation is the art of measuring the value of some plant parameter, pressure, flow, level or temperature to name a few and supplying a signal that is proportional

### PHYSICS - CLUTCH CH 17: FLUID MECHANICS.

!! www.clutchprep.com INTRO TO DENSITY LIQUIDS and GASES are types of. So we use the term to refer generally to both Liquids AND Gases. The DENSITY of a material is a measure of how tight the molecules

### KNOWN: Mass, pressure, temperature, and specific volume of water vapor.

.0 The specific volume of 5 kg of water vapor at.5 MPa, 440 o C is 0.60 m /kg. Determine (a) the volume, in m, occupied by the water vapor, (b) the amount of water vapor present, in gram moles, and (c)

### Process Control Measurement Pressure, Flow, and Level Courseware Sample

Process Control Measurement Pressure, Flow, and Level Courseware Sample 85981-F0 Order no.: 85981-10 First Edition Revision level: 07/2015 By the staff of Festo Didactic Festo Didactic Ltée/Ltd, Quebec,

### CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases The word kinetic refers to. Kinetic energy is the an object has because of its motion. Kinetic Molecular

### B. As the gas particles move and strike a surface, they push on that surface 1. If we could measure the total amount of force exerted by gas

Chapter 5: Gases I. The Structure of a Gas A. Gases are composed of particles that are flying around very fast in their container(s). 1. The particles travel in straight lines until they encounter either

### Pressure and Depth. In a static, non-moving fluid

Pressure and Depth In a static, non-moving fluid Static Fluids Being on the surface of the earth, you can say that we dwell on the bottom of an ocean of air. The pressure we experience is primarily caused

### Chapter 15 Fluid. Density

Density Chapter 15 Fluid Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy Applications of Archimedes Principle By Dr. Weining man 1 Units of Chapter 15 Fluid

### Lab. Manual. Fluid Mechanics. The Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering

Lab. Manual of Fluid Mechanics The Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering General Safety rules to be followed in Fluid Mechanics Lab: 1. Always wear shoes before entering lab. 2. Do not touch

### Phys101 Lectures Fluids I. Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle. Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7.

Phys101 Lectures 24-25 luids I Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Page 1 10-1 Phases of Matter The three common phases of matter are solid,

### THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER TUTORIAL NO: 1 (SPECIFIC VOLUME, PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE)

THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER TUTORIAL NO: 1 (SPECIFIC VOLUME, PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE) 1. A vacuum gauge mounted on a condenser reads 66 cm Hg. What is the absolute pressure in the condenser

### Gases and Pressure. Main Ideas

Gases and Pressure Key Terms pressure millimeters of mercury partial pressure newton atmosphere of pressure Dalton s law of partial pressures barometer pascal In the chapter States of Matter, you read

### CHEMISTRY - CLUTCH CH.5 - GASES.

!! www.clutchprep.com CONCEPT: UNITS OF PRESSURE Pressure is defined as the force exerted per unit of surface area. Pressure = Force Area The SI unit for Pressure is the, which has the units of. The SI

### Chapter 10 Fluids. Which has a greater density? Ch 10: Problem 5. Ch 10: Problem Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity

Chapter 10 Fluids 10-1 Phases of Matter The three common phases of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A solid has a definite shape and size. A liquid has a fixed volume but can be any shape. A gas can

### Chapter 5: Gases 5.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works.

Chapter 5: Gases 5.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. A Gas Uniformly fills any container. Easily compressed. Mixes completely

### Old-Exam.Questions-Ch-14 T072 T071

Old-Exam.Questions-Ch-14 T072 Q23. Water is pumped out of a swimming pool at a speed of 5.0 m/s through a uniform hose of radius 1.0 cm. Find the mass of water pumped out of the pool in one minute. (Density

### Instrumentation & Data Acquisition Systems

Instrumentation & Data Acquisition Systems Section 3 -Level Robert W. Harrison, PE Bob@TheHarrisonHouse.com Made in USA 1 Level Section Question Which level measuring technology is the best solution when

### WHITEPAPER. The flowplus 16 Pressure Sensor. Physical Principles and Function

The flowplus 16 Pressure Sensor Physical Principles and Function Sensors (from the Latin "Sensire") are devices by means of which it is possible to detect physical or chemical properties of materials.

### Lecture Presentation. Chapter 10. Gases. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Presentation Chapter 10 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Characteristics of Unlike liquids and solids, gases Expand to fill their containers. Are highly compressible.

### 1. All fluids are: A. gases B. liquids C. gases or liquids D. non-metallic E. transparent ans: C

Chapter 14: FLUIDS 1 All fluids are: A gases B liquids C gases or liquids D non-metallic E transparent 2 Gases may be distinguished from other forms of matter by their: A lack of color B small atomic weights

### 8. Now plot on the following grid the values of T (K) and V from the table above, and connect the points.

Charles s Law According to Charles s law, the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies directly with its Kelvin temperature if its pressure is constant. The following table contains Celsius temperature and

### Chapter 5. Pressure. Atmospheric Pressure. Gases. Force Pressure = Area

Chapter 5 Gases Water for many homes is supplied by a well The pump removes air from the pipe, decreasing the air pressure in the pipe The pressure then pushes the water up the pipe Pressure Atmospheric

### Gas Pressure. Pressure is the force exerted per unit area by gas molecules as they strike the surfaces around them.

Chapter 5 Gases Gas Gases are composed of particles that are moving around very fast in their container(s). These particles moves in straight lines until they collides with either the container wall or

Pressure Variation with Depth Pressure in a static fluid does not change in the horizontal direction as the horizontal forces balance each other out. However, pressure in a static fluid does change with

### Lab 1c Isentropic Blow-down Process and Discharge Coefficient

058:080 Experimental Engineering Lab 1c Isentropic Blow-down Process and Discharge Coefficient OBJECTIVES - To study the transient discharge of a rigid pressurized tank; To determine the discharge coefficients

### . In an elevator accelerating upward (A) both the elevator accelerating upward (B) the first is equations are valid

IIT JEE Achiever 2014 Ist Year Physics-2: Worksheet-1 Date: 2014-06-26 Hydrostatics 1. A liquid can easily change its shape but a solid cannot because (A) the density of a liquid is smaller than that of

### Kinetic-Molecular Theory

GASES Chapter Eleven Kinetic-Molecular Theory! Recall that our only previous description of gases stated that gases completely fill and take the shape of their containers.! The Kinetic-Molecular Theory

### When a uniform pressure acts on a flat plate of area A and a force F pushes the plate, then the pressure p is : p = F/A

Chapter 2. Fluid Statics Fluid statics is concerned with the balance of forces which stabilize fluids at rest. In the case of a liquid, as the pressure largely changes according to its height, it is necessary

### ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Chapter 2 Fluid Statics

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Chapter 2 Fluid Statics These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Department of Mechanical Engineering Middle East Technical University nkara, Turkey csert@metu.edu.tr

### COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid statics. Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET

COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid statics Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET 1 Fluid statics Fluid statics is the study of fluids in

### Concept of Fluid. Density. Pressure: Pressure in a Fluid. Pascal s principle. Buoyancy. Archimede s Principle. Forces on submerged surfaces

FLUID MECHANICS The fluid essential to all life has a beauty of its own. It also helps support the weight of this swimmer. (credit: Terren, Wikimedia Commons) Concept of Fluid Density Pressure: Pressure

### Chapter 12. Properties of Gases

Properties of Gases Each state of matter has its own properties. Gases have unique properties because the distance between the particles of a gas is much greater than the distance between the particles

### Chapter 10. Physical Characteristics of Gases

Chapter 10 Physical Characteristics of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory An understanding of the behavior of atoms that make up matter Ideal gas: an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all assumptions of the

### This educational seminar discusses creating, measuring, and troubleshooting Rough Vacuum.

This educational seminar discusses creating, measuring, and troubleshooting Rough Vacuum. Specifically, today s talk will cover: Brief review of Vacuum Fundamentals Applications Using Rough Vacuum Rough

### Name Chemistry Pre-AP

Name Chemistry Pre-AP Notes: Gas Laws and Gas Stoichiometry Period Part 1: The Nature of Gases and The Gas Laws I. Nature of Gases A. Kinetic-Molecular Theory The - theory was developed to account for

### Objectives deals with forces applied by fluids at rest or in rigid-body motion.

Objectives deals with forces applied by fluids at rest or in rigid-body motion. The fluid property responsible for those forces is pressure, which is a normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area. discussion

### This chapter deals with forces applied by fluids at rest or in rigid-body

cen72367_ch03.qxd 10/29/04 2:21 PM Page 65 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS CHAPTER 3 This chapter deals with forces applied by fluids at rest or in rigid-body motion. The fluid property responsible for those

### Kinetic Molecular Theory imaginary Assumptions of Kinetic Molecular Theory: Problems with KMT:

AP Chemistry Ms. Ye Name Date Block Kinetic Molecular Theory Explains properties of gases, liquids, and solids in terms of energy using an ideal gas, an imaginary which fits all the assumptions of kinetic

### Chapter 5. Nov 6 1:02 PM

Chapter 5 Nov 6 1:02 PM Expand to fill their containers Fluid motion (they flow) Have low densities (1/1000 the density of equivalent liquids or solids) Compressible Can Effuse and Diffuse Effuse: The

### Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy

Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy Announcements: CAPA due Friday at 10pm. Comment on the hint in Problem 5. CAPA solutions from previous sets can be found by logging onto CAPA and selecting View Previous Set

### Precision level sensing with low-pressure module MS

The task on hand Level sensing as it is understood in modern process automation is much more than simply "tank half full" or "tank a quarter full". Using suitable sensors, levels, inlets and outlets can

### Module 2, Add on Lesson Depth Sensor. Teacher. 90 minutes

Module 2, Add on Lesson Depth Sensor 90 minutes Teacher Purpose of this lesson Investigate the relationship between pressure and depth Construct a sensor to measure the depth of water Graph data and reason

### Chapter 10 Gases. Characteristics of Gases. Pressure. The Gas Laws. The Ideal-Gas Equation. Applications of the Ideal-Gas Equation

Characteristics of Gases Chapter 10 Gases Pressure The Gas Laws The Ideal-Gas Equation Applications of the Ideal-Gas Equation Gas mixtures and partial pressures Kinetic-Molecular Theory Real Gases: Deviations

### Gases. Edward Wen, PhD

Gases Edward Wen, PhD Properties of Gases expand to completely fill their container take the shape of their container low density much less than solid or liquid state compressible when pressure is changed.

### You should be able to: Describe Equipment Barometer Manometer. 5.1 Pressure Read and outline 5.1 Define Barometer

A P CHEMISTRY - Unit 5: Gases Unit 5: Gases Gases are distinguished from other forms of matter, not only by their power of indefinite expansion so as to fill any vessel, however large, and by the great

### Pressure is defined as force per unit area. Any fluid can exert a force

Physics Notes Chapter 9 Fluid Mechanics Fluids Fluids are materials that flow, which include both liquids and gases. Liquids have a definite volume but gases do not. In our analysis of fluids it is necessary