COPYRIGHT. Reservoir Rock Properties Fundamentals. Saturation and Contacts. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "COPYRIGHT. Reservoir Rock Properties Fundamentals. Saturation and Contacts. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:"

Transcription

1 Learning Objectives Reservoir Rock Properties Fundamentals Saturation and Contacts By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the concept of fluid contacts Describe how saturations change when crossing contacts 1

2 Oil-Water Contact Oil Water Contact Gas-Oil Contact Gas Oil Contact DATUM DEPTH OIL Oil Zone Aquifer Gas Cap DATUM DEPTH OIL 2

3 Gas-Water Contact Gas Water Contact No Contact DATUM DEPTH GAS Gas Zone GAS DATUM DEPTH OIL 3

4 Super-Critical Fluid LIQUID CRITICAL POINT Pressure Oil Reservoir Temperature VAPOR DATUM DEPTH OIL 4

5 Oil Zone Sand Grains Oil Connate Water Aquifer Sand Grains Connate Water 5

6 Gas-Cap Gas Cap Reservoir Sand Grains DATUM DEPTH OIL Gas Connate Water 6

7 Summary Gas Cap Oil Leg Oil Zone Water Leg Aquifer Gas Zone Please PAUSE pause the video. Learning Objectives Gas-Oil Contact Oil-Water Contact Gas-Water Contact Near Critical Fluids Geologic Time Describe the concept of fluid contacts Describe how saturations change when crossing contacts 7

8 Learning Objectives Reservoir Rock Properties Fundamentals Wettability By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Describe wettability Describe interfacial tension Describe how residual oil saturation is controlled by the interplay of different forces 8

9 Water Wet Sand Grains Oil Connate Water Oil Wet Sand Grains Connate Water Oil 9

10 Rock Types Disappearing Trail Sandstone Limestone Potential Wettability Changes Diffusion of Mud Components Oxidation Storage Drying Pollution Handling Pollution Temperature and Pressure Drop Drilling Mud Invasion 10

11 Fatty Acids O HO trans-oleic acid HO O By Edgar181 Own work, Public Domain, Wettability Air cis-oleic acid Water Glass Plate Please PAUSE pause the video. 11

12 Non-Wetting Air Non-Wetting Please PAUSE pause the video. Mercury Glass Plate 12

13 Neutral Wet Air Surface Tension Surface film Meniscus Molecules Oil Glass Plate Surface molecules pulled toward liquid causes tension in surface Oil Internal molecules pulled in all directions 13

14 Surface Tension Interfacial Tension Water Oil 14

15 Effect of Gravity Water Effect of Rock Rock Oil Water Oil 15

16 Residual Oil Oil Wet Sand Grains Residual Oil Connate Water Residual Oil 16

17 Summary Oil wet with respect to water Water wet with respect to oil Sandstone wettability at room conditions Limestone wettability at room conditions Residual oil saturation Please PAUSE pause the video. Learning Objectives Fatty acids Naphthenic acids Surface tension Interfacial tension Adhesive forces Buoyancy forces Describe wettability Describe interfacial tension Describe how residual oil saturation is controlled by the interplay of different forces 17

18 Learning Objectives Reservoir Rock Properties Fundamentals Capillary Pressure By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Define capillary pressure Explain how capillary pressure is a combination of several related phenomena Describe how capillary pressure can be used to explain macroscopic reservoir phenomena Show how collecting capillary pressure data can actually save money 18

19 Different Pressures Sand Grains Oil Connate Water Resolution of Forces Water Oil 19

20 Resisting Movement Water Adhesive Forces Water Oil Oil 20

21 Meniscus Surface Film Meniscus Molecules Oil Meniscus Surface Film Meniscus Molecules Surface Molecules pulled toward liquid causes tension in surface Internal molecules pulled in all directions Surface Molecules pulled toward liquid causes tension in surface Oil Internal molecules pulled in all directions 21

22 Unbalanced Forces Water Counter-Balance Water Oil Water 22

23 Counter-Balance Water Counter-Balance Capillary Pressure Water The pressure in the OIL blob is higher than the pressure in the water on either side. Water = The difference in pressure between two fluids sharing the same pore in equilibrium. Water 23

24 Counter-Balance The capillary force is a function of the interfacial tension between the oil and the water and the differences in adhesive forces between the oil-rock interface and waterrock interface. Gravity Water Water 24

25 Capillary Forces Surface tension Angle between interface and pore walls Buoyancy Forces Difference in density between oil and water Distance to the elevation 2 cos 2 cos Radius of the pore Acceleration due to gravity Engineering Oil Water Contact 25

26 Oil Wet Engineering Oil Water Contact Has to be negative Interfacial Tension Greater than 90 2 cos 2 cos 26

27 Interfacial Tension Curvature 2 cos 2 cos 27

28 Curvature Bundle-of-Tubes X Y OIL 2 cos WATER 28

29 Measurement Bundle-of-Tubes X OIL P C OIL Y 100% S W FREE WATER LEVEL WATER WATER SATURATION 0 100% OIL SATURATION 100% 0 SMALL PORE RADIUS BIG 29

30 Capillary Pressure Curves Oil Pressure Capillary Pressure Curves Capillary Pressure Water Saturation Water Saturation 30

31 Threshold Pressure P e Capillary Pressure Threshold Pressure Sand Grains Water Saturation P e Connate Water 31

32 Irreducible Water Saturation S wi S wi Capillary Pressure Irreducible Water Saturation Sand Grains Water Saturation Oil Connate Water Please PAUSE pause the video. 32

33 Hysteresis Imbibition Capillary Pressure Residual Oil Saturation S orw Capillary Pressure Drainage Water Saturation S orw Water Saturation 33

34 Residual Oil Saturation Applications Residual Oil 34

35 Saturation-Height Capillary Pressure Capillary Pressure How High? Water Saturation Depth Depth Water Saturation OWC (G) Water Saturation OWC (E) Water Saturation 35

36 Capillary Pressure Curves Please PAUSE pause the video. How Low? P C Kg f /cm h m % S W m HIGHEST ELEVATION 100% WATER WATER SATURATION 0 100% 36

37 Capillary Pressure Curves Sample Number Porosity (%) Perm. (md) A B C D E Please PAUSE pause the video. Tilted Contacts OWC (G) LOW PERMEABILITY WELL NO. 1 MEDIUM PERMEABILITY WELL NO. 2 HIGH PERMEABILITY WELL NO. 3 P C OR H S W P C OR H S W P C OR H S W OWC (E) 37

38 Active Aquifers Active Aquifers (A) WATER (B) (C) GAS OIL (A) WATER (B) (C) 38

39 Summary Active aquifers Tilted oil-water contacts Saturation-height functions Capillary pressure curves Free water level Engineering oil-water contact Geological oil-water contact Buoyancy forces Meniscus Please PAUSE pause the video. Learning Objectives Capillary forces Adhesive forces Interfacial tension Hysteresis Drainage Imbibition Threshold pressure Irreducible water saturation Residual oil saturation Bundle-of-Tubes Define capillary pressure Explain how capillary pressure is a combination of several related phenomena Describe how capillary pressure can be used to explain macroscopic reservoir phenomena Show how collecting capillary pressure data can actually save money 39

40 Learning Objectives Reservoir Rock Properties Fundamentals Relative Permeability By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Describe how oil saturation affects the flow of water in the reservoir Describe how water saturation affects the flow of oil in the reservoir Describe how liquid saturation affects the flow of gas in the reservoir Describe how rock properties affect the flow of multiple phases through the reservoir 40

41 Water not Moving Sand Grains Oil Connate Water Absolute Permeability Sand Grains Oil Connate Water 41

42 Absolute Permeability Sand Grains Oil Relative Permeability to Oil Oil effective permeability Absolute permeability 42

43 Increasing Water Saturation Rock Rock Irreducible Water Oil Irreducible Water Rock Residual Oil Saturation Rock Irreducible Water Oil Irreducible Water Moveable Water Oil Moveable Water Irreducible Water Rock Rock Rock Irreducible Water Water Moveable Water Oil Oil Irreducible Water Rock Moveable Water Irreducible Water Rock 43

44 Oil Behavior Relative Permeability [dimensionless] Relative Permeability to Water Water Saturation [no units] kro Water effective permeability Absolute permeability 44

45 Increasing Water Saturation Rock Irreducible Water Moveable Water Oil Moveable Water Irreducible Water Rock Increasing Water Saturation Rock Irreducible Water Oil Rock Irreducible Water Moveable Water Oil Irreducible Water Rock Moveable Water Irreducible Water Rock 45

46 Residual Oil Saturation WATER IN Residual Oil Saturation WATER IN Residual Oil WATER OUT WATER OUT Residual Oil 46

47 Water Behavior 1.0 Relative Permeability [dimensionless] 0.9 k ro Water Behavior Relative Permeability [dimensionless] k ro Water Saturation [no units] krw kro k rw k rw Water Saturation [no units] krw kro 47

48 Water Behavior 1.0 Relative Permeability [dimensionless] Aquifer 0.9 k ro Sand Grains Water Saturation [no units] krw Practical Maximum Water Relative Permeability kro k rw Connate Water 48

49 Aquifer Correction 1.0 Relative Permeability [dimensionless] k ro Measurement Water Saturation [no units] krw kro k rw 49

50 Pressures vs. Pressure Drops Presentation Relative Permeability [dimensionless] Where: k ro = Oil relative permeability Δp = Pressure drop in flow direction k rw = Water relative permeability ΔL = Length in flow direction k = Absolute permeability μ o = Oil viscosity A = Cross sectional area perpendicular to flow μ w = Water viscosity Please PAUSE pause the video. Water Saturation [no units] k rw k ro 50

51 Moderate Permeability RELATIVE PERMEABILITY Low Permeability RELATIVE PERMEABILITY k ro WATER SATURATION (%) k ro k air : 440 md k air : 175 md k air : 132 md k rw k air : 440 md k air : 175 md k air : 132 md 0.1 k rw WATER SATURATION (%) 51

52 Low Permeability k ro k air : 440 md k air : 175 md k air : 132 md k ro k air : 440 md k air : 175 md k air : 132 md RELATIVE PERMEABILITY Relative Permeability [dimensionless] 0.2 k rw WATER SATURATION (%) Please PAUSE pause the video. Water-Wet k ro k rw RELATIVE PERMEABILITY k rw WATER SATURATION (%) Water Saturation [no units] 52

53 Water-Wet vs. Oil-Wet k ro k rw Relative Permeability [dimensionless] Hysteresis k rw Water Saturation [no units] Relative Permeability [dimensionless] k ro Oil Saturation [no units] k ro imbibition k ro drainage k rw Relative Permeability [dimensionless] Water Saturation [no units] 53

54 Hysteresis Hysteresis Relative Permeability [dimensionless] Relative Permeability [dimensionless] k ro drainage Water Saturation [no units] k ro imbibition k ro drainage Water Saturation [no units] 54

55 Hysteresis k rw Gas k ro & k rg Relative Permeability [dimensionless] k ro imbibition k ro drainage Water Saturation [no units] k rg k ro S Wirr TOTAL LIQUID SATURATION = (s o + s w ) (%) 55

56 Three-Phase Relative Permeability Ternary Diagram 56

57 Vertices 100% Gas 100% Water Sides 100% Gas 0% Oil 0% Water 100% Oil 100% Water 0% Gas 100% Oil 57

58 Contours k ro 100% Gas 100% Water Three-Phase 0% Oil 0% Water % Gas % Oil 58

59 Three-Phase Applications 59

60 Relative Permeability Ratios k ro / k rw CURVES FOR WATER-WET ROCKS CEMENTED SANDSTONES, OGLITE LIMESTONES, OR ROCKS WITH REGULAR POROSITY POORLY SORTED UNCONSOLIDATED SANDS WELL SORTED SANDS Water-Oil Ratios k ro /k rw k ro /k rw Where: q w = Oil rate q o = Water rate k ro = Oil relative permeability k rw = Water relative permeability μ o = Oil viscosity μ w = Water viscosity B o = Oil formation volume factor = Water formation volume factor B w WATER SATURATION, % WATER SATURATION, % 60

61 Saturation-Height Depth [length units] Depth [length units] Water Saturation [no units] WOR-Height k ro /k rw k ro / k rw CURVES FOR WATER-WET ROCKS CEMENTED SANDSTONES, OGLITE LIMESTONES, OR ROCKS WITH REGULAR POROSITY POORLY SORTED UNCONSOLIDATED SANDS WELL SORTED SANDS Water Saturation [no units] WATER SATURATION, % 61

62 Summary Water-oil ratios Transition zones Rel. perm. ratios Ternary diagrams Gas dominance 3-phase rel. perm. Oil-water rel. perm. Gas-oil rel. perm. Gas-water rel. perm. Irreducible water saturation Please PAUSE pause the video. Learning Objectives Residual oil saturation Hysteresis Oil-wet rel. perm. Water-wet rel. perm. Aquifer adjustments Effect of texture Effect of sorting Effective vs. absolute permeability Describe how oil saturation affects the flow of water in the reservoir Describe how water saturation affects the flow of oil in the reservoir Describe how liquid saturation affects the flow of gas in the reservoir Describe how rock properties affect the flow of multiple phases through the reservoir 62

63 Learning Objectives Reservoir Rock Properties Fundamentals Laboratory Procedures Relative Permeability By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Discuss the various choices available for measuring relative permeability in the laboratory 63

64 Permeability Core Sample Permeability d Diameter x Length 64

65 Permeability Gas in Darcy s Law δp Gas Out Pressure drop Where: q g = Gas rate k g = Gas effective permeability d = Diameter of core sample = Circle constant (~3.14) p = Pressure drop in flow direction x = Length in flow direction g = Gas viscosity 65

66 Relative Permeability Relative Permeability Relative Permeability Relative Permeability Steady State Unsteady State Centrifuge Steady State Unsteady State Centrifuge 66

67 Relative Permeability Core Sample Relative Permeability d Diameter x Length 67

68 Relative Permeability (Steady State) Oil in Water in Oil in Water in Water in Relative Permeability (Steady State) Oil out Water out δp Pressure drop 68

69 Relative Permeability (Steady State) Relative Permeability (Steady State) Oil in Water in 1. Wait for steady state 2. Measure the pressure drop 3. Measure the mass 4. Repeat workflow 69

70 Apparatus STEADY STATE FLOW TECHNIQUE Darcy s Law P OIL IN WATER IN OIL OUT WATER OUT PORCELAIN PLATE Where: q o = Oil rate k o = Oil effective permeability d = Diameter of core sample = Circle constant (~3.14) p = Pressure drop in flow direction x = Length in flow direction o = Oil viscosity 70

71 Darcy s Law (2 Phase) OIL rate and OIL viscosity WATER rate and WATER viscosity 2 Where: k o = Oil effective permeability k w = Water effective permeability d = Diameter of core sample = Circle constant (~3.14) p = Pressure drop in flow direction x = Length in flow direction o = Oil viscosity w = Water viscosity Effective Permeabilities Run k o K w No. [md] [md] Please PAUSE pause the video. 71

72 Relative Permeability to Oil Relative Permeabilities Run k o K w No. [md] [md]

73 Relative Permeability to Water Relative Permeabilities Run k o K w K ro k rw No. [md] [md] [ ] [] Please PAUSE pause the video. 73

74 Saturations Saturations Mass of saturated core sample Mass of oil in saturated core sample 74

75 Saturations Saturations Mass of water in saturated core sample Mass of rock (solid material) in saturated core sample 75

76 Saturations Where: m s = Mass of saturated core sample m o = Mass of oil in saturated core sample m w = Mass of water in saturated core sample m r = Mass of rock (solid material) in saturated core sample o = Oil density = Water density w 1 2 Please PAUSE pause the video. Saturations 1 2 r s w = Rock (solid material) density = Core sample water saturation φ = Core sample porosity d = Diameter of core sample x = Length in flow direction π = Circle constant (~3.14) 1 2 Please PAUSE pause the video. 76

77 Saturations Please PAUSE pause the video. Saturations 1 2 Run k o K w K rw m s No. [md] [md] [ ] [g]

78 Saturations Run k o K w K ro k rw m s o [g/cc] No. [md] [md] [ ] [] [g] w [g/cc] r [g/cc] [ ] d [cm] x [cm] Complete Table Run k o K w K ro k rw m s o [g/cc] s w No. [md] [md] [ ] [ ] [g] w [g/cc] [ ] r [g/cc] [ ] d [cm] x [cm]

79 Normalization Normalized Run k o K w K ro k rw m s o [g/cc] s w k ro k rw No. [md] [md] [ ] [] [g] w [g/cc] [ ] [] [ ] r [g/cc] [ ] d [cm] x [cm] Plot Please PAUSE pause the video. Relative Permeability [ ] k ro k rw Water Saturation [ ] 79

80 Relative Permeability Relative Permeability Relative Permeability (Steady State) Oil in Steady State Unsteady State Centrifuge Oil in Water in δp Pressure drop 80

81 Relative Permeability Relative Permeability Relative Permeability (Centrifuge) HEAVIER FLUID GRADUATED TUBE CENTRIFUGE SYSTEM CORE SAMPLE Steady State Unsteady State Centrifuge LIGHTER FLUID AXIS OF ROTATION 81

82 Relative Permeability Relative Permeability Measures capillary pressure concurrently with relative permeability Relative Permeability Relative Permeability More math 1 fluid injecteded Steady State Unsteady State Centrifuge Steady State Unsteady State Centrifuge 82

83 Summary Absolute permeability measurement Steady state relative permeability measurement Unsteady state relative permeability measurement using a permeameter Unsteady state relative permeability measurement using a centrifuge Please PAUSE pause the video. Back to Work Suggestion Search for as many relative permeability tests as you can find in your well files that apply to your reservoir Compare them to the capillary pressure tests Are they consistent? 83

84 Learning Objectives Discuss the various choices available for measuring relative permeability in the laboratory 84

85 Learning Objectives Reservoir Rock Properties Fundamentals Laboratory Procedures Capillary Pressure By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Discuss the various choices available for measuring capillary pressure in the laboratory 85

86 Capillary Pressure Capillary Pressure Mercury Injection Porous Plate Centrifuge Mercury Injection Porous Plate Centrifuge 86

87 Mercury Injection Apparatus N 2 Bottle 250kg Hg In Pc Hg mano Hg Windows Sample Volumetric mercury pump 87

88 Air Injection Capillary Pressure Air In Mercury Injection Porous Plate Centrifuge H 2 O Out 88

89 Apparatus Capillary Pressure Mercury Injection Porous Plate Centrifuge 89

90 Water Expulsion Water Out Apparatus CENTRIFUGE SYSTEM LIGHTER FLUID HEAVIER FLUID GRADUATED TUBE CORE SAMPLE Oil In AXIS OF ROTATION 90

91 Comparison Comparison Capillary Pressure Mercury Injection Porous Plate Centrifuge Method Wetting Phase Non-Wetting Phase Mercury Injection Air Mercury Porous Plate Water Air Centrifuge Water Oil 91

92 Conversion Conversion Where: Pc res = Capillary pressure reservoir conditions Pc lab = Capillary pressure laboratory conditions Where: Pc res = Pc lab = res = lab = res = lab = Capillary pressure reservoir conditions Capillary pressure laboratory conditions Interfacial tension reservoir conditions Interfacial tension laboratory conditions Contact angle reservoir conditions Contact angle laboratory conditions 92

93 Summary Mercury Injection Porous Plate Centrifuge Corrections Back to Work Suggestion Search for as many capillary pressure tests as you can find in your well files Compare them against each other Compare them to the relative permeability data Are they consistent? 93

94 Learning Objectives Discuss the various choices available for measuring capillary pressure in the laboratory 94

95 Learning Objectives Reservoir Rock Properties Fundamentals Laboratory Procedures Wettability By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Discuss the various choices available for measuring wettability in the laboratory 95

96 Wettability Wettability Contact Angle Amott Contact Angle Amott USBM USBM 96

97 Step 1 Water Step 2 Solid Rock Water Solid Rock 97

98 Step 2 Water Step 3 Solid Rock Water Oil Oil Solid Rock 98

99 Contact Angle Water Solid Rock Interpretation Old School Oil Contact Angle <90 Contact Angle >90 Water Wet Oil Wet 99

100 Wikipedia Please PAUSE the video. Wikipedia Please PAUSE the video. 100

101 Interpretation Contact Angle < 60 Water Wet New School 60 < Contact Angle < 120 Old School Contact Angle < 90 o Contact Angle >90 o Interpretation Water Wet Oil Wet New School Contact Angle > 120 Contact Angle < 60 Neutral Wet Oil Wet Water Wet 60 < Contact Neutral Neutral Wet Angle < 120 Wet Contact Angle < 90 o Water Wet Old School Contact Angle >90 o Oil Mixed Wet? Contact Angle > 120 Oil Wet 101

102 1. Cloudy Water 2. Porous Rock Wikipedia 1. If produced water is cloudy: Change wavelength of the light to one not scattered by suspended solids in the water Filter the water 2. If rock sample is porous and permeable Non-porous rock samples are used Wikipedia 102

103 Contact Angle Wettability Amott USBM Step 1 103

104 Step 2 Oil Step 3 Displaced Water (Spontaneous) V 2 Displaced Water (Forced) V 3 104

105 Step 4 Displaced Oil (Spontaneous) V 4 Step 5 Displaced Oil (Forced) V 5 105

106 Calculations Oil Index Calculations Where: I o = Oil Index V 2 = Oil spontaneously entering core V 3 = Oil entering core under force 106

107 Calculations Oil Index Calculations Oil Index Water Index Where: I o = Oil Index V 2 = Oil spontaneously entering core V 3 = Oil entering core under force I w = Water Index V 4 = Water spontaneously entering core V 5 = Water entering core under force 107

108 Calculations Oil Index Variations Water Index Amott-Harvey Index Step 1 Where: I A = Amott Index I w = Water Index I o = Oil Index Start Step 2 Step 3 Step 1 Step 3 Start Step 4 Step 4 Step 5 Step 5 Step 2 End Step 3 End 108

109 Example Jadhunandan and Morrow, 1991 Owolabi and Watson, 1993 Chen et al, 2004 S or From Anderson, I A w Totally Oil Wet Totally Water Wet Water Wet (left) vs. Oil Wet (right) 109

110 Summary Contact Angle Neutral Wet Mixed Wet Amott Spontaneous vs. Forced Oil vs. Water Index Amott-Harvey Residual Oil Saturation Relative Permeability Please PAUSE pause the video. Back to Work Suggestion Search for as many wettability tests on your reservoir as you can find Is the data consistent? If not, how do you explain the inconsistencies? How are you going to resolve the inconsistencies? 110

111 Learning Objectives Discuss the various choices available for measuring wettability in the laboratory 111

112 Learning Objectives Reservoir Rock Properties Fundamentals Modeling By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Show how reservoir engineers model relative permeability Show how reservoir engineers model capillary pressure 112

113 Relative Permeability Water Relative Permeability Modified-Corey Equation 113

114 Water Relative Permeability 2-phase water relative permeability end-point 2-phase water saturation exponent Relative Permeability [ ] Water Relative Permeability Relative Permeability [ ] k rw Water Saturation [ ] k rw Water Saturation [ ] 114

115 Water Relative Permeability Relative Permeability [ ] Normalized water saturation Critical water saturation Oil Relative Permeability k ro Relative Permeability [ ] k rw Water Saturation [ ] Water Saturation [ ] 115

116 Oil & Water k ro Relative Permeability [ ] End Point Changes Water Saturation [ ] Relative Permeability [ ] k rw k ro k rw Water Saturation [ ] 116

117 End Point Changes k ro End Point Changes Relative Permeability [ ] Relative Permeability [ ] Water Saturation [ ] k rw k ro k rw Water Saturation [ ] 117

118 Exponent Changes k ro Exponent Changes Relative Permeability [ ] Relative Permeability [ ] k rw Water Saturation [ ] k ro k rw Water Saturation [ ] 118

119 Exponent Changes k ro Relative Permeability [ ] 3-Phase Relative Permeability Oil Water Water Saturation [ ] Gas Oil k rw 119

120 3-Phase Relative Permeability Stone Where: k ro = 2-phase oil relative permeability k rw = 2-phase water relative permeability k row = 2-phase oil relative permeability from oil-water table k rog = 2-phase oil relative permeability from gas-oil table k rg = 2-phase gas relative permeability Please PAUSE pause the video. 3-Phase Relative Permeability S S S S g Where: k ro = 2-phase oil relative permeability k rw = 2-phase water relative permeability k row = 2-phase oil relative permeability from oil-water table k rog = 2-phase oil relative permeability from gas-oil table k rg = 2-phase gas relative permeability 120

121 Thomeer Capillary Pressure Water Saturation Interporosity Coefficient Capillary Pressure Threshold Pressure Where: P c = Capillary pressure S w = Water saturation G = Interporosity coefficient P d = Threshold pressure 121

122 Thomeer P c Fit The original version of this equation used bulk volumes instead of saturations. The results are equivalent, so we ll keep things simple by using saturations. Thomeer (68,948) (6,895) (689) Fit to Data Where: P c = Capillary pressure S w = Water saturation G = Interporosity coefficient P d = Threshold pressure P c Fit Capillary Pressure [psi] (kpa) (69) Oil Saturation [ ] 122

123 Thomeer (68,948) Threshold Pressure Where: P c = Capillary pressure S w = Water saturation G = Interporosity coefficient P d = Threshold pressure Thomeer Where: P c = Capillary pressure S w = Water saturation G = Interporosity coefficient P d = Threshold pressure (6,895) (689) (69) (68,948) P c Fit P d P c Fit Oil Saturation [ ] Infinite Pressure (6,895) (689) Capillary Pressure [psi] (kpa) Capillary Pressure [psi] (kpa) (69) Oil Saturation [ ] 123

124 Thomeer (68,948) Raw Data P c Fit Where: P c = Capillary pressure S w = Water saturation G = Interporosity coefficient P d = Threshold pressure Thomeer Where: P c = Capillary pressure S w = Water saturation G = Interporosity coefficient P d = Threshold pressure (6,895) (689) (69) (68,948) Oil Saturation [ ] P c Raw Increase Threshold Pressure P c Fit (6,895) (689) Capillary Pressure [psi] (kpa) Capillary Pressure [psi] (kpa) (69) Oil Saturation [ ] P c Raw 124

125 Thomeer (68,948) Restore Threshold Pressure P c Fit Where: P c = Capillary pressure S w = Water saturation G = Interporosity coefficient P d = Threshold pressure Thomeer Where: P c = Capillary pressure S w = Water saturation G = Interporosity coefficient P d = Threshold pressure (6,895) (689) (69) (68,948) P c Fit Oil Saturation [ ] Increase G-Factor (6,895) (689) P c Raw Capillary Pressure [psi] (kpa) Capillary Pressure [psi] (kpa) (69) Oil Saturation [ ] P c Raw 125

126 Thomeer (68,948) Restore G-Factor P c Fit Where: P c = Capillary pressure S w = Water saturation G = Interporosity coefficient P d = Threshold pressure (6,895) (689) (69) Please PAUSE pause the video. Summary Threshold pressure Interporosity coefficient Saturation exponent Relative permeability endpoint Normalized saturation Thomeer Corey Oil Saturation [ ] P c Raw Capillary Pressure [psi] (kpa) Please PAUSE pause the video. 126

127 Back to Work Suggestion Learning Objectives Build a relative permeability and capillary pressure model for your reservoir using correlations How does it compare with the laboratory data? If you have no laboratory data for your reservoir, how do you decide what parameters to use? Show how reservoir engineers model relative permeability Show how reservoir engineers model capillary pressure 127

128 Learning Objectives Reservoir Rock Properties Fundamentals Saturations By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Describe how reservoir engineers define saturations 128

129 Water Saturation Relative Permeability [dimensionless] Irreducible water saturation Initial water saturation Critical Connate water saturation Critical water saturation Water Saturation [no units] krw kro 129

130 1.0 Relative Permeability [dimensionless] Sand Grains Water Saturation [no units] krw Oil kro Irreducible Connate Water 130

131 Sand Grains Connate Water Water Saturation Initial water saturation Connate water saturation Irreducible water saturation Critical water saturation 131

132 Oil Saturation Oil Saturation Where: S o = Oil saturation = Residual oil saturation 132

133 Oil Saturation Residual oil saturation to water Water Displacing Oil Water In Residual oil saturation to gas Water Out Residual Oil 133

134 Gas Displacing Oil Sand Grains Residual Oil Connate Water Gas Out Gas In Gas Saturation 134

135 Gas Saturation Where: = Gas saturation S g Gas Saturations Residual gas saturation Critical Critical gas saturation Where: S g = Gas saturation Residual 135

136 Summary S w S wi S or S orw S wc S wirr S wcr S o Please PAUSE pause the video as needed. Learning Objectives S org S g S gc S gr Describe how reservoir engineers define saturations 136

137 PetroAcademy TM Applied Reservoir Engineering Skill Modules Properties Analysis Management This is Reservoir Engineering Core Reservoir Rock Properties Core Reservoir Rock Rock Properties Fundamentals Reservoir Fluid Core Reservoir Fluid Fundamentals Reservoir Flow Properties Core Reservoir Flow Properties Fundamentals Reservoir Fluid Displacement Core Reservoir Fluid Displacement Fundamentals Reservoir Material Balance Core Reservoir Material Balance Fundamentals Decline Curve Analysis and Empirical Approaches Core Decline Curve Analysis and Empirical Approaches Fundamentals Pressure Transient Analysis Core Rate Transient Analysis Core Enhanced Oil Recovery Core Enhanced Oil Recovery Fundamentals Reservoir Simulation Core Reserves and Resources Core Reservoir Surveillance Core Reservoir Surveillance Fundamentals Reservoir Management Core Reservoir Management Fundamentals 137

Introduction to Relative Permeability AFES Meeting Aberdeen 28 th March Dave Mogford ResLab UK Limited

Introduction to Relative Permeability AFES Meeting Aberdeen 28 th March Dave Mogford ResLab UK Limited Introduction to Relative Permeability AFES Meeting Aberdeen 28 th March 2007 Dave Mogford ResLab UK Limited Outline 1. Introduction 2. Basic Concepts 3. Overview of Test Methods 4. Interpretation Introduction

More information

Reservoir Engineering 3 (Flow through Porous Media and Applied Reservoir Engineering)

Reservoir Engineering 3 (Flow through Porous Media and Applied Reservoir Engineering) Sudan University of Science and Technology College of Petroleum Engineering and Technology Reservoir Engineering 3 (Flow through Porous Media and Applied Reservoir Engineering) Dr. Tagwa Ahmed Musa Last

More information

Flow in Porous Media. Module 1.c Fundamental Properties of Porous Media Shahab Gerami

Flow in Porous Media. Module 1.c Fundamental Properties of Porous Media Shahab Gerami Flow in Porous Media Module 1.c Fundamental Properties of Porous Media Shahab Gerami Forces acting on a fluid in a reservoir Capillary forces Viscous forces Gravitational forces Surface Tension Interfacial

More information

Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties

Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties second edition Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties Abhijit Y. Dandekar CRC Press Taylor & Francis Croup Boca Raton London NewYork CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis an Croup, informa

More information

Oil Mobility in Transition Zones

Oil Mobility in Transition Zones Oil Mobility in Transition Zones hehadeh Masalmeh and jaam Oedai hell International Exploration and Production B.V. Rijswijk The Netherlands 1. Abstract Oil-water transition zones may contain a sizable

More information

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF IRREDUCIBLE WATER SATURATION ESTABILISHMENT

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF IRREDUCIBLE WATER SATURATION ESTABILISHMENT SCA2014-070 1/6 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF IRREDUCIBLE WATER SATURATION ESTABILISHMENT Zhang Zubo, Luo Manli, ChenXu, Lv Weifeng Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, Petrochina This

More information

Accurate Measurement of Steam Flow Properties

Accurate Measurement of Steam Flow Properties Accurate Measurement of Steam Flow Properties Kewen Li and Roland N. Horne Stanford Geothermal Program, Stanford University (Proceedings of 1999 GRC Annual Meeting on October 17-20, Reno, California, USA)

More information

Chapter 5 Multiphase Pore Fluid Distribution

Chapter 5 Multiphase Pore Fluid Distribution Chapter 5 Multiphase Pore Fluid Distribution Reading assignment: Chapter 3 in L. W. Lake, Enhanced Oil Recovery. So far we have discussed rock properties without regard to the fluid other than that it

More information

THREE-PHASE UNSTEADY-STATE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS IN CONSOLIDATED CORES USING THREE IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS

THREE-PHASE UNSTEADY-STATE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS IN CONSOLIDATED CORES USING THREE IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS SCA2-43 /6 THREE-PHASE UNSTEADY-STATE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS IN CONSOLIDATED CORES USING THREE IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS Peilin Cao, Shameem Siddiqui 2 Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA This

More information

COMPARISON OF FOUR NUMERICAL SIMULATORS FOR SCAL EXPERIMENTS

COMPARISON OF FOUR NUMERICAL SIMULATORS FOR SCAL EXPERIMENTS SCA2016-006 1/12 COMPARISON OF FOUR NUMERICAL SIMULATORS FOR SCAL EXPERIMENTS Roland Lenormand 1), Kjetil Lorentzen 2), Jos G. Maas 3) and Douglas Ruth 4) 1) Cydarex, France; 2) PRORES AS, Norway; 3) Consultant,

More information

Literature Review on Methods to Obtain Relative Permeability Data

Literature Review on Methods to Obtain Relative Permeability Data 5th Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Hyderabad-24, India PP 597-64 Literature Review on Methods to Obtain Relative Permeability Data Du Yuqi 1, Oloyede B Bolaji 1 & Li Dacun 2 1 Chevrontexaco

More information

Determination of Capillary pressure & relative permeability curves

Determination of Capillary pressure & relative permeability curves Determination of Capillary pressure & relative permeability curves With Refrigerated Centrifuge Multi speed centrifuge experiments Introduction As the porous diaphragm method (see Vinci s CAPRI), the centrifuge

More information

Two-Phase Semi-Dynamic Method with Electrical Measurements: Determination of Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure from a Single Experiment

Two-Phase Semi-Dynamic Method with Electrical Measurements: Determination of Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure from a Single Experiment SCA2014-005 1/12 Two-Phase Semi-Dynamic Method with Electrical Measurements: Determination of Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure from a Single Experiment F. Pairoys Schlumberger This paper was

More information

NEW LABORATORY DATA BASED MODELING OF MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT IN COMPOSITIONAL SIMULATION

NEW LABORATORY DATA BASED MODELING OF MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT IN COMPOSITIONAL SIMULATION SCA2005-55 1/12 NEW LABORATORY DATA BASED MODELING OF MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT IN COMPOSITIONAL SIMULATION E. Shtepani, F. B. Thomas, D. B. Bennion, Hycal Energy Research Labs Ltd. This paper was prepared

More information

A VALID APPROACH TO CORRECT CAPILLARY PRESSURE CURVES- A CASE STUDY OF BEREA AND TIGHT GAS SANDS

A VALID APPROACH TO CORRECT CAPILLARY PRESSURE CURVES- A CASE STUDY OF BEREA AND TIGHT GAS SANDS SCA2009-4 /6 A VALID APPROACH TO CORRECT CAPILLARY PRESSURE CURVES- A CASE STUDY OF BEREA AND TIGHT GAS SANDS Gbenga M. Funmilayo, Shameem Siddiqui: Texas Tech University, Lubbock USA This paper was prepared

More information

Simposium Nasional dan Kongres X Jakarta, November 2008 Makalah Profesional IATMI

Simposium Nasional dan Kongres X Jakarta, November 2008 Makalah Profesional IATMI Simposium Nasional dan Kongres X Jakarta, 12 14 November 2008 Makalah Profesional IATMI 08 018 Experimental Treatments for Fluid-Blocked Gas Wells By Melvin Devadass, Technical Manager, 3M Oil & Gas Markets,

More information

Positive imbibition capillary pressure curves using the centrifuge technique.

Positive imbibition capillary pressure curves using the centrifuge technique. Positive imbibition capillary pressure curves using the centrifuge technique. M. FLEURY, G. RINGOT and P. POULAIN Institut Français du Pétrole Abstract The standard centrifuge technique allows the determination

More information

Effect of Implementing Three-Phase Flow Characteristics and Capillary Pressure in Simulation of Immiscible WAG

Effect of Implementing Three-Phase Flow Characteristics and Capillary Pressure in Simulation of Immiscible WAG Effect of Implementing Three-Phase Flow Characteristics and Capillary Pressure in Simulation of Immiscible WAG Elisabeth Iren Dale 1,2 and Arne Skauge 1 1 Centre for Integrated Petroleum Research - University

More information

ACCURACY OF GAS - OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FROM TWO-PHASE FLOW EXPERIMENTS

ACCURACY OF GAS - OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FROM TWO-PHASE FLOW EXPERIMENTS ACCURACY OF GAS - OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FROM TWO-PHASE FLOW EXPERIMENTS A.Skauge, G.Håskjold, T.Thorsen and M. Aarra Norsk Hydro, N-5020 Bergen, Norway Abstract Gas - oil relative permeability of sandstone

More information

Permeability. Darcy's Law

Permeability. Darcy's Law Permeability Permeability is a property of the porous medium that measures the capacity and ability of the formation to transmit fluids. The rock permeability, k, is a very important rock property because

More information

Gas injection in a water saturated porous medium: effect of capillarity, buoyancy, and viscosity ratio

Gas injection in a water saturated porous medium: effect of capillarity, buoyancy, and viscosity ratio Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 37 (213 ) 5545 5552 GHGT-11 Gas injection in a water saturated porous medium: effect of capillarity, buoyancy, and viscosity ratio Tetsuya Suekane

More information

LOW PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS USING STEADY-STATE AND TRANSIENT METHODS

LOW PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS USING STEADY-STATE AND TRANSIENT METHODS SCA2007-07 1/12 LOW PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS USING STEADY-STATE AND TRANSIENT METHODS P. Carles, P. Egermann*, R. Lenormand, JM. Lombard Institut Français du Pétrole (* now with GDF) This paper was prepared

More information

EVALUATION OF WATER SATURATION FROM RESISTIVITY IN A CARBONATE FIELD. FROM LABORATORY TO LOGS.

EVALUATION OF WATER SATURATION FROM RESISTIVITY IN A CARBONATE FIELD. FROM LABORATORY TO LOGS. SCA2004-22 1/12 EVALUATION OF WATER SATURATION FROM RESISTIVITY IN A CARBONATE FIELD. FROM LABORATORY TO LOGS. M. Fleury 1, M. Efnik 2, M.Z. Kalam 2 (1) Institut Français du Pétrole, Rueil-Malmaison, France

More information

MEASUREMENTS OF RESIDUAL GAS SATURATION UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

MEASUREMENTS OF RESIDUAL GAS SATURATION UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS MEASUREMENTS OF RESIDUAL GAS SATURATION UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS Minghua Ding and Apostolos Kantzas, 2 : TIPM Laboratory, Calgary, Alberta Canada 2: Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University

More information

A Visual Study of CO 2 Injection at the Pore Scale using Micromodels

A Visual Study of CO 2 Injection at the Pore Scale using Micromodels Master Thesis in Reservoir Physics A Visual Study of CO 2 Injection at the Pore Scale using Micromodels Nicolai-Ivar Majlaton University of Bergen Department of Physics and Technology December 2012 2 Acknowledgment

More information

REVIEW OF THE INTERCEPT METHOD FOR RELATIVE PERMEABILITY CORRECTION USING A VARIETY OF CASE STUDY DATA

REVIEW OF THE INTERCEPT METHOD FOR RELATIVE PERMEABILITY CORRECTION USING A VARIETY OF CASE STUDY DATA SCA2018-030 1/14 REVIEW OF THE INTERCEPT METHOD FOR RELATIVE PERMEABILITY CORRECTION USING A VARIETY OF CASE STUDY DATA Jules Reed 1, Jos Maas 2 (1) Lloyd s Register, Aberdeen, UK (2) Independent Consultant

More information

TRANSITION ZONE CHARACTERIZATION WITH APPROPRIATE ROCK- FLUID PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS

TRANSITION ZONE CHARACTERIZATION WITH APPROPRIATE ROCK- FLUID PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS TRANSITION ZONE CHARACTERIZATION WITH APPROPRIATE ROCK- FLUID PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS Richard L. Christiansen, * Michael J. Heymans, ** and Anand Kumar* *Colorado School of Mines **Geological Consultant

More information

THREE-PHASE CAPILLARY PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS IN CENTRIFUGE AT RESERVOIR CONDITIONS

THREE-PHASE CAPILLARY PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS IN CENTRIFUGE AT RESERVOIR CONDITIONS SCA004-9 /3 THREE-PHASE CAPILLARY PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS IN CENTRIFUGE AT RESERVOIR CONDITIONS G. A. Virnovsky, K.O. Vatne, J.E. Iversen, RF-Rogaland Research, and C. Signy, ENSG-RF. This paper was prepared

More information

IMPROVEMENTS OF COREFLOOD DESIGN AND INTERPRETATION USING A NEW SOFTWARE.

IMPROVEMENTS OF COREFLOOD DESIGN AND INTERPRETATION USING A NEW SOFTWARE. IMPROVEMENTS OF COREFLOOD DESIGN AND INTERPRETATION USING A NEW SOFTWARE. A. FINCHAM ELF Exploration UK plc, F. GOUTH ELF EP Technical Centre PAU FRANCE ABSTRACT : A new software package (CAROPT) has been

More information

MINING STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER (MSRC) FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CAIRO UNIVERSITY NATURAL GAS ENINEERING DIPLOMA

MINING STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER (MSRC) FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CAIRO UNIVERSITY NATURAL GAS ENINEERING DIPLOMA MINING STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER (MSRC) FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CAIRO UNIVERSITY NATURAL GAS ENINEERING DIPLOMA COURSE CONTENTS Section I DR.Helmy 1-Properties of N.G and Condensate Systems 2-Gas Reservoirs

More information

Comparison of methods to calculate relative permeability from capillary pressure in consolidated water-wet porous media

Comparison of methods to calculate relative permeability from capillary pressure in consolidated water-wet porous media WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 42, W645, doi:1.129/25wr4482, 26 Comparison of methods to calculate relative permeability from capillary pressure in consolidated water-wet porous media Kewen Li 1 and Roland

More information

4 RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

4 RESERVOIR ENGINEERING 4 RESERVOIR ENGINEERING This chapter summarizes the reservoir engineering data and analysis used in the development of the Depletion Plan for the White Rose Field. The data were derived from seismic and

More information

WATER OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITY COMPARATIVE STUDY: STEADY VERSUS UNSTEADY STATE

WATER OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITY COMPARATIVE STUDY: STEADY VERSUS UNSTEADY STATE SCA2005-77 1/7 WATER OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITY COMPARATIVE STUDY: STEADY VERSUS UNSTEADY STATE 1 Marcelo M. Kikuchi, 1 Celso C.M. Branco, 2 Euclides J. Bonet, 2 Rosângela M.Zanoni, 1 Carlos M. Paiva 1

More information

CHAPTER 6: PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 6: PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT CHAPTER 6: PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT Objective To measure the permeability of rock samples using a gas permeameter and to apply Klinkenberg effect corrections to obtain the liquid permeability. Introduction

More information

Ali Al-Harrasi, Zaal Alias, Abhijit Mookerjee, Michiel Van Rijen, Khalid Maamari (Petroleum Development Oman)

Ali Al-Harrasi, Zaal Alias, Abhijit Mookerjee, Michiel Van Rijen, Khalid Maamari (Petroleum Development Oman) SCA2008-06 1/12 INTEGRATION OF WATER/OIL CAPILLARY PRESSURES FROM DIFFERENT MEASUREMENTS IN A COMMON CAPILLARY PRESSURE MODEL FOR AN EXTREMELY HETEROGENEOUS CARBONATE RESERVOIR (CASE STUDY) Ali Al-Harrasi,

More information

STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY BY THE CAPILLARY PRESSURE METHOD

STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY BY THE CAPILLARY PRESSURE METHOD TEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY BY THE CAPILLARY PREURE METHOD Keen Li and Roland N. Horne Department of Petroleum Engineering, tanford University Abstract Various capillary pressure techniques such as

More information

COPYRIGHT. Reservoir Fluid Core. Single Phase, Single Component Systems. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

COPYRIGHT. Reservoir Fluid Core. Single Phase, Single Component Systems. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Single Phase, Single Component Systems Learning Objectives Reservoir Fluid Core Single Phase, Single Component Systems By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Define terms used to describe the

More information

Influence of Capillary Pressure on Estimation of Relative Permeability for Immiscible WAG Processes

Influence of Capillary Pressure on Estimation of Relative Permeability for Immiscible WAG Processes Influence of Capillary Pressure on Estimation of Relative Permeability for Immiscible WAG Processes Elisabeth Iren Dale 1,2 and Arne Skauge 1 1 Centre for Integrated Petroleum Research - University of

More information

GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS. Dr. Helmy Sayyouh Petroleum Engineering Cairo University

GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS. Dr. Helmy Sayyouh Petroleum Engineering Cairo University GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS Dr. Helmy Sayyouh Petroleum Engineering Cairo University Introduction and Definitions Gas condensate production may be thought of as a type intermediate between oil and gas. The

More information

Computer simulation of Special Core Analysis (SCAL) flow experiments shared on the Internet

Computer simulation of Special Core Analysis (SCAL) flow experiments shared on the Internet Computer simulation of Special Core Analysis (SCAL) flow experiments shared on the Internet J.G. Maas and A.M. Schulte Shell International Exploration and Production B.V., Research and Technical Services,

More information

IMPROVING THE ASSESSMENT OF RESIDUAL HYDROCARBON SATURATION WITH THE COMBINED QUANTITATIVE INTERPRE- TATION OF RESISTIVITY AND NUCLEAR LOGS

IMPROVING THE ASSESSMENT OF RESIDUAL HYDROCARBON SATURATION WITH THE COMBINED QUANTITATIVE INTERPRE- TATION OF RESISTIVITY AND NUCLEAR LOGS IMPROVING THE ASSESSMENT OF RESIDUAL HYDROCARBON SATURATION WITH THE COMBINED QUANTITATIVE INTERPRE- TATION OF RESISTIVITY AND NUCLEAR LOGS Zoya Heidari, Carlos Torres-Verdín, Alberto Mendoza, and Gong

More information

Situated 250km from Muscat in

Situated 250km from Muscat in CYAN MAGENTA YELLOW BLACK GRAVITY GAINS A novel method of determining gas saturation has proved successful in Oman s Natih Field where conventional methods were giving anomalous results in difficult conditions.

More information

Assessment of Residual Hydrocarbon Saturation with the Combined Quantitative Interpretation of Resistivity and Nuclear Logs 1

Assessment of Residual Hydrocarbon Saturation with the Combined Quantitative Interpretation of Resistivity and Nuclear Logs 1 PETROPHYSICS, VOL. 52, NO. 3 (JUNE 211); PAGE 217-237; 17 FIGURES; 14 TABLES Assessment of Residual Hydrocarbon Saturation with the Combined Quantitative Interpretation of Resistivity and Nuclear Logs

More information

HIBERNIA THREE-PHASE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS AT RESERVOIR CONDITIONS

HIBERNIA THREE-PHASE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS AT RESERVOIR CONDITIONS SCA2017-001 1/12 HIBERNIA THREE-PHASE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS AT RESERVOIR CONDITIONS By Daniel R. Maloney and Brad E. Milligan, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company This paper was prepared

More information

PARAMETER BASED SCAL - ANALYSING RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FOR FULL FIELD APPLICATION

PARAMETER BASED SCAL - ANALYSING RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FOR FULL FIELD APPLICATION SCA2014-080 1/12 PARAMETER BASED SCAL - ANALYSING RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FOR FULL FIELD APPLICATION Einar Ebeltoft, Frode Lomeland, Amund Brautaset and Åsmund Haugen Statoil ASA, Stavanger, Norway This

More information

SURPRISING TRENDS ON TRAPPED HYDROCARBON SATURATION WITH WETTABILITY

SURPRISING TRENDS ON TRAPPED HYDROCARBON SATURATION WITH WETTABILITY SCA2007-51 1/6 SURPRISING TRENDS ON TRAPPED HYDROCARBON SATURATION WITH WETTABILITY V. Sander Suicmez 1,2, Mohammad Piri 3 and Martin J. Blunt 2 1 EXPEC Advanced Research Center, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran

More information

Chapter 8: Reservoir Mechanics

Chapter 8: Reservoir Mechanics PTRT 1472: Petroleum Data Management II Chapter 8: Reservoir Mechanics - Reservoir drives Types of Natural Gas Reservoir Fluids Natural gas is petroleum in a gaseous state, so it is always accompanied

More information

Improvements of the Semidynamic Method for Capillary Pressure Measurements

Improvements of the Semidynamic Method for Capillary Pressure Measurements 1995 SCA Confere,nce Paper Number 953 1 Improvements of the Semidynamic Method for Capillary Pressure Measurements R. Lenormand, A. Eisenzimmer and Ph. Delaplace Institut Franquis du P&trole BP 3 T 1 92506

More information

An Improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface LNAPL - Part 1

An Improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface LNAPL - Part 1 An Improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface LNAPL - Part 1 Dave Thomas Copyright 2011 Chevron Corporation All Rights Reserved Copyright claimed throughout, except where owned by others

More information

SCA-9421 THREE-PHASE RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES AND TRAPPED GAS MEASUREMENTS RELATED TO WAG PROCESSES. Arne Skauge and Johne A.

SCA-9421 THREE-PHASE RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES AND TRAPPED GAS MEASUREMENTS RELATED TO WAG PROCESSES. Arne Skauge and Johne A. THREE-PHASE RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES AND TRAPPED GAS MEASUREMENTS RELATED TO WAG PROCESSES. Arne Skauge and Johne A. Larsen Norsk Hydro Research Center, Bergen, Norway ABSTRACT Three-phase relative permeability

More information

SPE Effect of Initial Water Saturation on Spontaneous Water Imbibition Kewen Li, SPE, Kevin Chow, and Roland N. Horne, SPE, Stanford University

SPE Effect of Initial Water Saturation on Spontaneous Water Imbibition Kewen Li, SPE, Kevin Chow, and Roland N. Horne, SPE, Stanford University SPE 7677 Effect of Initial Water Saturation on Spontaneous Water Imbibition Keen Li, SPE, Kevin Cho, and Roland N. Horne, SPE, Stanford University Copyright, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper

More information

Vapour pressure of liquids SURFACE TENSION

Vapour pressure of liquids SURFACE TENSION Vapour pressure of liquids A liquid in a closed container is subjected to partial vapour pressure due to the escaping molecules from the surface; it reaches a stage of equilibrium when this pressure reaches

More information

COMPARING HYSTERESIS MODELS FOR RELATIVE PERMEABILITY IN WAG STUDIES

COMPARING HYSTERESIS MODELS FOR RELATIVE PERMEABILITY IN WAG STUDIES COMPARING HYSTERESIS MODELS FOR RELATIVE PERMEABILITY IN WAG STUDIES Johne Alex Larsen and Arne Skauge Norsk Hydro Research Centre1 University of Bergen, Norway ABSTRACT Immiscible WAG have been simulated

More information

Experimental and numerical investigation of one-dimensional waterflood in porous reservoir

Experimental and numerical investigation of one-dimensional waterflood in porous reservoir al and numerical investigation of one-dimensional waterflood in porous reservoir N. Hadia a, L. Chaudhari a, A. Aggarwal b, Sushanta K. Mitra a, *, M. Vinjamur b, R. Singh c a IITB ONGC Joint Research

More information

PROTOCOLS FOR CALIBRATING NMR LOG-DERIVED PERMEABILITIES

PROTOCOLS FOR CALIBRATING NMR LOG-DERIVED PERMEABILITIES SCA2005-37 1/15 PROTOCOLS FOR CALIBRATING NMR LOG-DERIVED PERMEABILITIES John L. Shafer 1, Songhua Chen 2, Daniel T. Georgi 2 1 Reservoir Management Group, 2 BakerHughes This paper was prepared for presentation

More information

Pore-scale Network Modeling of Three-Phase Flow Based on Thermodynamically Consistent Threshold Capillary Pressures. II. Results

Pore-scale Network Modeling of Three-Phase Flow Based on Thermodynamically Consistent Threshold Capillary Pressures. II. Results Transp Porous Med (2017) 116:1139 1165 DOI 10.1007/s11242-016-0815-7 Pore-scale Network Modeling of Three-Phase Flow Based on Thermodynamically Consistent Threshold Capillary Pressures. II. Results Arsalan

More information

This file was downloaded from Telemark Open Research Archive TEORA -

This file was downloaded from Telemark Open Research Archive TEORA - This file was downloaded from Telemark Open Research Archive TEORA - http://teora.hit.no/dspace/ Title: Computational study of fingering phenomenon in heavy oil reservoir with water drive Authors: Wijeratne,

More information

Department of Civil & Geological Engineering GEOE Engineering Geology

Department of Civil & Geological Engineering GEOE Engineering Geology Department of Civil & Geological Engineering GEOE 218.3 Engineering Geology Assignment #3, Head, Pore Pressure & Effective Stress Due 08 Oct, 2010 NOTE: Numbered subscripts indicate depth, in metres, below

More information

AN INTEGRATED PETROPHYSICAL TOOL MEASUREMENTS AND DATA INTERPRETATION

AN INTEGRATED PETROPHYSICAL TOOL MEASUREMENTS AND DATA INTERPRETATION AN INTEGRATED PETROPHYSICAL TOOL MEASUREMENTS AND DATA INTERPRETATION Roland LENORMAND* and Philippe SCHMITZ** *Institut Français du Pétrole - Rueil Malmaison 92852 cedex, FRANCE e-mail : roland.lenormand@ifp.fr

More information

Brent Sleep, Magdalena Krol, University of Toronto Kevin Mumford, Queen s University Richard Johnson, Oregon Health and Science University

Brent Sleep, Magdalena Krol, University of Toronto Kevin Mumford, Queen s University Richard Johnson, Oregon Health and Science University Brent Sleep, Magdalena Krol, University of Toronto Kevin Mumford, Queen s University Richard Johnson, Oregon Health and Science University Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) Power Control System Vapour

More information

RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES FOR TWO- AND THREE PHASE FLOW PROCESSES RELEVANT TO THE DEPRESSURIZATION OF THE STATFJORD FIELD

RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES FOR TWO- AND THREE PHASE FLOW PROCESSES RELEVANT TO THE DEPRESSURIZATION OF THE STATFJORD FIELD SCA28-23 /2 RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES FOR TWO- AND THREE PHASE FLOW PROCESSES RELEVANT TO THE DEPRESSURIZATION OF THE STATFJORD FIELD Egil Boye Petersen Jr (), Arild Lohne (2), Kåre O. Vatne (2), Johan Olav

More information

AN ENGINEERING APPROACH TO MEASURING AND MODELING GAS CONDENSATE RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES

AN ENGINEERING APPROACH TO MEASURING AND MODELING GAS CONDENSATE RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES AN ENGINEERING APPROACH TO MEASURING AND MODELING GAS CONDENSATE RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES Aud Sævareid, ResLab, Trondheim, Norway Curtis H. Whitson, NTNU and PERA, Trondheim, Norway Øivind Fevang, PERA,

More information

Effect of Gas-wetness on Gas-water Two-phase Seepage in Visual Microscopic Pore Models

Effect of Gas-wetness on Gas-water Two-phase Seepage in Visual Microscopic Pore Models Copyright 2013 Tech Science Press SL, vol.10, no.1, pp.19-26, 2013 Effect of Gas-wetness on Gas-water Two-phase Seepage in Visual Microscopic Pore Models G. C. Jiang 1,2, M. Zhang 1,2, X. X. Xing 3, S.

More information

A SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTALLY DERIVED RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND RESIDUAL SATURATION ON NORTH SEA RESERVOIR CORES

A SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTALLY DERIVED RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND RESIDUAL SATURATION ON NORTH SEA RESERVOIR CORES SCA22-12 1/12 A SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTALLY DERIVED RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND RESIDUAL SATURATION ON NORTH SEA RESERVOIR CORES Arne Skauge 1, and Bård Ottesen 2, 1 Norsk Hydro ASA and University of Bergen,

More information

Reservoir Simulator Practical

Reservoir Simulator Practical Reservoir Simulator Practical Course Notes 2012 Philipp Lang IZR Room 403 Tel 3004 philipp.lang@unileoben.ac.at for further information please refer to the accompanying document Info Sheet & Course Logistics

More information

Technical Note. Determining the surface tension of liquids by measurements on pendant drops

Technical Note. Determining the surface tension of liquids by measurements on pendant drops Technical Note Pendant Drop Measurements Technical note: TN316e Industry section: all Author: FT, TW Date: 12/2010 Method: Drop Shape Analyzer DSA100 Keywords: Methods, surface tension, interfacial tension,

More information

ACCEPTABLE WATER-OIL AND GAS-OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS FOR USE IN RESERVOIR SIMULATION MODELS

ACCEPTABLE WATER-OIL AND GAS-OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS FOR USE IN RESERVOIR SIMULATION MODELS SCA2007-11 1/12 ACCEPTABLE WATER-OIL AND GAS-OIL RELATIVE PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS FOR USE IN RESERVOIR SIMULATION MODELS Zubair Kalam, Tawfiq Obeida and Abdurrahman Al Masaabi Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore

More information

SCA : TRAPPED VERSUS INITIAL GAS SATURATION TRENDS FROM A SINGLE CORE TEST Dan Maloney and David Zornes, ConocoPhillips

SCA : TRAPPED VERSUS INITIAL GAS SATURATION TRENDS FROM A SINGLE CORE TEST Dan Maloney and David Zornes, ConocoPhillips SCA2003-22: TRAPPED VERSUS INITIAL GAS SATURATION TRENDS FROM A SINGLE CORE TEST Dan Maloney and David Zornes, ConocoPhillips This paper was prepared for presentation at the International Symposium of

More information

and its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to 4.0 ft/s 2.

and its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to 4.0 ft/s 2. 1.26. A certain object weighs 300 N at the earth's surface. Determine the mass of the object (in kilograms) and its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to

More information

Pendant Drop Measurements

Pendant Drop Measurements KRÜSS pplication Note TN316d Page 1 Pendant Drop Measurements pplication note: TN316d Industry section: all uthor: Dr. Tobias Winkler Date: December 2010 Method: Drop Shape nalysis System DS100 Drop Shape

More information

Capillary Pressure and Rock Wettability Effects on Wireline Formation Tester Measurements

Capillary Pressure and Rock Wettability Effects on Wireline Formation Tester Measurements SPE 56712 Capillary Pressure and Rock Wettability Effects on Wireline Formation Tester Measurements H. Elshahawi, SPE and K. Fathy, SPE, Schlumberger Oilfield Services, and S. Hiekal, SPE, IEOC Copyright

More information

Section 2 Multiphase Flow, Flowing Well Performance

Section 2 Multiphase Flow, Flowing Well Performance Section 2 Multiphase Flow, Flowing Well Performance Multiphase Vertical Flow When producing an oil or gas well, the flow of the fluids up the tubing will be in most cases be 2 phase, liquid and gas. The

More information

Capillary Transition Zones from a Core Analysis Perspective

Capillary Transition Zones from a Core Analysis Perspective Capillary Transition Zones from a Core Analysis Perspective Johne Alex Larsen, Trond Thorsen and Geir Haaskjold Norsk Hydro Research Centre, N-52 Bergen, Norway E-mail: Johne.Alex.Larsen@hydro.com Abstract

More information

INCLUDING CAPILLARY PRESSURE IN SIMULATIONS OF STEADY STATE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY EXPERIMENTS

INCLUDING CAPILLARY PRESSURE IN SIMULATIONS OF STEADY STATE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY EXPERIMENTS INCLUDING CAPILLARY PRESSURE IN SIMULATIONS OF STEADY STATE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY EXPERIMENTS S. Poulsen(), T. Skauge(2a), S.O. Dyrhol(2b), E. Stenby(), and A. Skauge(3) () Dept of Chemical Engineering,

More information

Effect of Reservoir Heterogeneity on Immiscible Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery

Effect of Reservoir Heterogeneity on Immiscible Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery AES/PE/09-22 Effect of Reservoir Heterogeneity on Immiscible Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery August 2009 Olatunji Oloruntoba Samuel Title : Effect of Reservoir Heterogeneity on Immiscible Foam Enhanced Oil

More information

Impact of relative permeability hysteresis on the numerical simulation of WAG injection

Impact of relative permeability hysteresis on the numerical simulation of WAG injection Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 50 (2006) 115 139 www.elsevier.com/locate/petrol Impact of relative permeability hysteresis on the numerical simulation of WAG injection Elizabeth J. Spiteri,

More information

A MEASUREMENT OF STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY. Cengiz Satik. Stanford Geothermal Program Stanford University Stanford, CA

A MEASUREMENT OF STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY. Cengiz Satik. Stanford Geothermal Program Stanford University Stanford, CA PROCEEDINGS. Twenty-Third Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford. California, January 26-28, 1998 SGP-TR-158 A MEASUREMENT OF STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY Cengiz

More information

Correcting for Wettability and Capillary Pressure Effects on Formation Tester Measurements

Correcting for Wettability and Capillary Pressure Effects on Formation Tester Measurements SPE 63075 Correcting for Wettability and Capillary Pressure Effects on Formation Tester Measurements H. Elshahawi, SPE, M. Samir, SPE, and K. Fathy, SPE, Schlumberger Oilfield Services Copyright 2000,

More information

SPE Copyright 2003, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.

SPE Copyright 2003, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. SPE 79716 Numerical Simulation with Input Consistency between Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability Kewen Li, SPE, and Roland N. Horne, SPE, Stanford University Copyright 2003, Society of Petroleum

More information

SIMULATION OF CORE LIFTING PROCESS FOR LOST GAS CALCULATION IN SHALE RESERVOIRS

SIMULATION OF CORE LIFTING PROCESS FOR LOST GAS CALCULATION IN SHALE RESERVOIRS SCA213-5 1/12 SIMULATION OF CORE LIFTING PROCESS FOR LOST GAS CALCULATION IN SHALE RESERVOIRS Kurt Wilson, A.S. Padmakar, Firoze Mondegarian, Chevron This paper was prepared for presentation at the International

More information

A REAPPRAISAL OF THE EVIDENCE FOR DAMAGE CAUSED BY OVEN DRYING OF HYDROCARBON ZONE CORE

A REAPPRAISAL OF THE EVIDENCE FOR DAMAGE CAUSED BY OVEN DRYING OF HYDROCARBON ZONE CORE A REAPPRAISAL OF THE EVIDENCE FOR DAMAGE CAUSED BY OVEN DRYING OF HYDROCARBON ZONE CORE P. Mitchell, Integrated Core Consultancy Services D. Walder, A. M. Brown & K.J. Sincock, BP Exploration ABSTRACT

More information

. In an elevator accelerating upward (A) both the elevator accelerating upward (B) the first is equations are valid

. In an elevator accelerating upward (A) both the elevator accelerating upward (B) the first is equations are valid IIT JEE Achiever 2014 Ist Year Physics-2: Worksheet-1 Date: 2014-06-26 Hydrostatics 1. A liquid can easily change its shape but a solid cannot because (A) the density of a liquid is smaller than that of

More information

IMPROVED CORE ANALYSIS MEASUREMENTS IN LOW PERMEABILITY TIGHT GAS FORMATIONS

IMPROVED CORE ANALYSIS MEASUREMENTS IN LOW PERMEABILITY TIGHT GAS FORMATIONS SCA2015-020 1/12 IMPROVED CORE ANALYSIS MEASUREMENTS IN LOW PERMEABILITY TIGHT GAS FORMATIONS S. Kryuchkov 1,2, J. Bryan 1,2, L.Yu 1, D. Burns 3 and A. Kantzas 1,2 1 PERM Inc., Calgary, Canada; 2 University

More information

SECOND ENGINEER REG III/2 NAVAL ARCHITECTURE

SECOND ENGINEER REG III/2 NAVAL ARCHITECTURE SECOND ENGINEER REG III/2 NAVAL ARCHITECTURE LIST OF TOPICS A B C D E F G H I J Hydrostatics Simpson's Rule Ship Stability Ship Resistance Admiralty Coefficients Fuel Consumption Ship Terminology Ship

More information

CO2-EOR simulations in OPM OPM meeting 19 th of October.

CO2-EOR simulations in OPM OPM meeting 19 th of October. CO2-EOR simulations in OPM OPM meeting 19 th of October. Why CO2-EOR? PARIS COP21 IEA: CO2-EOR - a stepping stone for CCS CCS full scale demo in Norway. From: gassnova.no From: Statoil.com Why CO2-EOR

More information

RESERVOIR DRIVE MECHANISMS

RESERVOIR DRIVE MECHANISMS RESERVOIR DRIVE MECHANISMS There are several ways in which oil can be naturally displaced and produced from a reservoir, and these may be termed mechanisms or "drives". Where one mechanism is dominant,

More information

Irrigation &Hydraulics Department lb / ft to kg/lit.

Irrigation &Hydraulics Department lb / ft to kg/lit. CAIRO UNIVERSITY FLUID MECHANICS Faculty of Engineering nd Year CIVIL ENG. Irrigation &Hydraulics Department 010-011 1. FLUID PROPERTIES 1. Identify the dimensions and units for the following engineering

More information

Hydrostatics Physics Lab XI

Hydrostatics Physics Lab XI Hydrostatics Physics Lab XI Objective Students will discover the basic principles of buoyancy in a fluid. Students will also quantitatively demonstrate the variance of pressure with immersion depth in

More information

Modelling of Tail Production by Optimizing Depressurization

Modelling of Tail Production by Optimizing Depressurization Modelling of Tail Production by Optimizing Depressurization Arne Skauge*, Dag Standnes, and Øystein Pettersen, Univ. of Bergen Bergen, Norway Main effects of depressurization influencing oil recovery Change

More information

Florida Method of Test for MEASUREMENT OF WATER PERMEABILITY OF COMPACTED ASPHALT PAVING MIXTURES

Florida Method of Test for MEASUREMENT OF WATER PERMEABILITY OF COMPACTED ASPHALT PAVING MIXTURES Florida Method of Test for MEASUREMENT OF WATER PERMEABILITY OF COMPACTED ASPHALT PAVING MIXTURES 1. SCOPE Designation: FM 5-565 1.1 This test method covers the laboratory determination of the water conductivity

More information

Techniques to Handle Limitations in Dynamic Relative Permeability Measurements SUPRI TR 128 TOPICAL REPORT

Techniques to Handle Limitations in Dynamic Relative Permeability Measurements SUPRI TR 128 TOPICAL REPORT Techniques to Handle Limitations in Dynamic Relative Permeability Measurements SUPRI TR 128 by Suhail Qadeer, William E. Brigham, and Louis M. Castanier TOPICAL REPORT For the period ending May 2002 Work

More information

The water supply for a hydroelectric plant is a reservoir with a large surface area. An outlet pipe takes the water to a turbine.

The water supply for a hydroelectric plant is a reservoir with a large surface area. An outlet pipe takes the water to a turbine. Fluids 1a. [1 mark] The water supply for a hydroelectric plant is a reservoir with a large surface area. An outlet pipe takes the water to a turbine. State the difference in terms of the velocity of the

More information

FORMATION TESTER MOBILITY. Lachlan Finlayson, Chief Petrophysicist Petrofac Engineering & Production Services Engineering Services Consultancy

FORMATION TESTER MOBILITY. Lachlan Finlayson, Chief Petrophysicist Petrofac Engineering & Production Services Engineering Services Consultancy FORMATION TESTER MOBILITY Lachlan Finlayson, Chief Petrophysicist Petrofac Engineering & Production Services Engineering Services Consultancy 1 Introduction Petrofac Formation Testers Pretest Procedure

More information

Workshop 1: Bubbly Flow in a Rectangular Bubble Column. Multiphase Flow Modeling In ANSYS CFX Release ANSYS, Inc. WS1-1 Release 14.

Workshop 1: Bubbly Flow in a Rectangular Bubble Column. Multiphase Flow Modeling In ANSYS CFX Release ANSYS, Inc. WS1-1 Release 14. Workshop 1: Bubbly Flow in a Rectangular Bubble Column 14. 5 Release Multiphase Flow Modeling In ANSYS CFX 2013 ANSYS, Inc. WS1-1 Release 14.5 Introduction This workshop models the dispersion of air bubbles

More information

A07 Surfactant Induced Solubilization and Transfer Resistance in Gas-Water and Gas-Oil Systems

A07 Surfactant Induced Solubilization and Transfer Resistance in Gas-Water and Gas-Oil Systems A07 Surfactant Induced Solubilization and Transfer Resistance in Gas-Water and Gas-Oil Systems R Farajzadeh* (TU Delft), A. Banaei (TU Delft), J. Kinkela (TU Delft), T. deloos (TU Delft), S. Rudolph (TU

More information

Gas viscosity ( ) Carr-Kobayashi-Burrows Correlation Method Lee-Gonzalez-Eakin Method. Carr-Kobayashi-Burrows Correlation Method

Gas viscosity ( ) Carr-Kobayashi-Burrows Correlation Method Lee-Gonzalez-Eakin Method. Carr-Kobayashi-Burrows Correlation Method Gas viscosity The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of the internal fluid friction (resistance) to flow. If the friction between layers of the fluid is small, i.e., low viscosity, an applied shearing force

More information

PREDICTION OF FORMATION WATER SATURATION FROM ROUTINE CORE DATA POPULATIONS

PREDICTION OF FORMATION WATER SATURATION FROM ROUTINE CORE DATA POPULATIONS PREDICTION OF FORMATION WATER SATURATION FROM ROUTINE CORE DATA POPULATIONS P. Mitchell, Integrated Core Consultancy Services D. Walder & A. M. Brown, BP Exploration Abstract A new empirical water saturation

More information

Measuring Relative Permeability With NMR

Measuring Relative Permeability With NMR SCA2018-054 1/10 Measuring Relative Permeability With NMR M.J. Dick 1, D. Veselinovic 1, T. Kenney 1 and D. Green 1 1 Green Imaging Technologies, Fredericton, NB, Canada This paper was prepared for presentation

More information

LOW SALINITY FLOODING: EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION AND NUMERICAL INTERPRETATION

LOW SALINITY FLOODING: EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION AND NUMERICAL INTERPRETATION SCA2013-022 1/13 LOW SALINITY FLOODING: EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION AND NUMERICAL INTERPRETATION Shehadeh K. Masalmeh 1, Tibi G. Sorop 2, Bart M.J.M. Suijkerbuijk 2, Esther C.M. Vermolen 2, Sippe Douma 1 H.

More information

Evaluation of CO2 storage actuarial risk: defining an evidence base

Evaluation of CO2 storage actuarial risk: defining an evidence base DEVEX 2011, 12 th May, Aberdeen Evaluation of CO2 storage actuarial risk: defining an evidence base Neil Burnside Mark Naylor School of Geosciences University of Edinburgh neil.burnside@ed.ac.uk Outline

More information