First Aid - immediate care that is given to the victim of an injury or illness until experts can take over - Oftentimes, it s the difference between

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1 First Aid

2 First Aid - immediate care that is given to the victim of an injury or illness until experts can take over - Oftentimes, it s the difference between life and death or recovery vs permanent disability

3 Basic Principles of First Aid 1. Recognize an emergency exists. 2. Remain calm. 3. Assess the safety of the scene. 4. Determine if victim needs help. 5. Administer first aid. 6. Call Continue providing care until help arrives

4 CPR - Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation CABD - Circulation, Airway, Breathing, Defibrillation Circulation - pushing on the chest gets oxygenated blood out to the body Airway - use head-tilt, chin-lift method Breathing - into mouth or nose to provide oxygen Defibrillation - delivers a shock to the heart to restore it s rhythm

5 CPR (continued) 1. Determine if victim is ok. 2. Assess safety of scene 3. Call 911, send someone for help. 4. Begin CPR - check for pulse and breathing, if none, give 30 chest compressions/2 breaths if one person rescue (two person rescue - one person does compressions, other breathes) 5. Chest comp. ~ 2 in. for adults, 1 ½ for infants

6 Choking - Heimlich Maneuver 1. Determine if victim is choking (unable to talk, breathe or cough) 2. Administer abdominal thrusts (fist of one hand in between belly button and xiphoid process of sternum, grasp fist with other hand and apply quick, upward thrusts to press into the victim s abdomen) until object is expelled.

7 Choking (continued) 3. If person becomes unconscious, begin CPR 4. For conscious infants, administer 5 back blows (heel of palm) followed by 5 chest thrusts (2-3 fingers on sternum

8 Bleeding and Wounds Wound - any damage to soft tissues; can be open or closed Types of wounds 1. Abrasion - skin is scraped off; little bleeding 2. Incision - cut by a sharp object; smooth edges 3. Laceration - tearing by excessive force; jagged edges

9 Types of wounds (continued) 4. Puncture - caused by a sharp object, damage could be hidden and not visible (internal bleeding) 5. Avulsion - tissue is torn or separated from the body (ex.; ear, nose, hand); heavy bleeding 6. Amputation - body part is cut off and separated from the body (finger, toe, hand, etc); heavy bleeding

10 Controlling bleeding 1. Direct pressure - applied directly to wound 2. Elevation - raise injured part above chest level while continuing to apply direct pressure 3. Pressure bandage - apply pressure bandage to hold dressings in place; continue direct pressure 4. Pressure points - apply pressure to main artery to stop blood supply to the injured area

11 Shock Hypoperfusion - shock; a clinical set of signs and symptoms associated with an inadequate supply of blood to body organs - Symptoms include pale or cyanotic skin, cool to the touch skin, diaphoresis (excessive sweating), rapid, weak pulse, shallow, irregular respirations, general weakness and confusion, anxiety, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision

12 Causes of shock Hemorrhage, excessive pain, infection, heart attack, stroke, poisoning by chemicals, drugs or gases, lack of oxygen, psychological trauma, dehydration from burns vomiting or diarrhea - All types of shock impair circulation and decrease the supply of oxygen to body cells, tissues and organs

13 Treatment for shock Treatment is directed toward eliminating the cause of shock, improving circulation, providing adequate oxygen supply and maintaining body temperature.

14 Poisoning Poisoning - contact with any chemical substance that causes injury, illness or death -Can occur from ingestion, inhalation, injection or absorption through the skin Ingestion - Call poison control center for information on how to proceed for ingested poisons

15 Poisons (continued) Inhalation - remove victim from scene, taking care not to breathe in gas (ex.; carbon monoxide) Contact - wash affected area with soap and water (ex.; poison ivy) Injection - such as from an insect, spider or snake bite (remove any visible stinger by scraping it away from the skin)

16 Burns -caused by fire, heat, chemical agents, radiation and/or electricity First degree - superficial; sunburn, burn by steam Second degree - blisters form; red or blotchy Third degree - white or charred appearance; patient may not experience pain because of damage to nerve endings

17 Treatment for burns First (superficial) & second degree burns- cool the area by flushing with large amounts of cool water (DO NOT USE ICE OR ICE WATER) Third degree burns - call for help immediately; do not attempt to remove clothing, watch for shock

18 Heat exposure Heat cramps - muscle pain/spasms that result from loss of water and salt through sweating Heat exhaustion - victim is exposed to heat & loses fluids through sweating; pale, clammy skin, profuse sweating, fatigue, weakness, headache, dizziness, fainting Heat stroke - caused by prolonged exposure to high temps; body can t eliminate excess heat; temp of 105 or higher; red, hot, dry skin

19 Treatment for heat exposure Get individual to a cooler environment; provide sports drinks or water to replenish fluids lost; cold cloths to forehead. In case of heat stroke, body must be cooled quickly...ice packs can be used on wrists, ankles, axillary area and groin to decrease body temp

20 Cold exposure Hypothermia - body temp less than 95; shivering, numbness, weakness, drowsiness, poor coordination, confusion, loss of consciousness Frostbite - actual freezing of tissue fluids accompanied by damage to the skin and underlying tissues; early signs are redness and tingling; - Treat by immersing in warm water (not HOT)

21 Bone and Joint Injuries Fracture - break in a bone Dislocation - when end of bone is displaced from the joint Sprain - injury to the tissues surrounding a bone Strain - overstretching of a muscle caused by overexertion

22 Treatment for bone and joint injuries Splint - device used to immobilize injured parts Sling - used to support the arm, hand, forearm and shoulder to provide immobility

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