Lab 17. The Respiratory System. Laboratory Objectives

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1 Lab 17 The Respiratory System Laboratory Objectives Identify and describe the anatomical structures of the respiratory system. Describe the relationship between volume and pressure. Describe changes in volume and pressure during inspiration and expiration. Compare external respiration and internal respiration. Define the mechanisms of oxygen transport in the blood. Define the mechanisms of carbon dioxide transport in the blood. Identify the effects of temperature, ph, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and oxygen partial pressure on oxygen saturation of hemoglobin. Describe the pathological changes associated with allergic asthma at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Describe testing important in the diagnosis and management of this condition. 1

2 Activity 1: Cadaver Video. The Respiratory System Function > Respiratory System Structure > See > Cadaver Video. The Respiratory System (17:44) 1. The respiratory system is divided into two functionally distinct zones. What are they? 2. What is the function of the nasal conchae? 3. Where are the paranasal sinuses located and what is their function? 4. What tonsils are located in the oropharynx? What is their function? 5. The laryngopharynx splits to form what two structures? 6. What cartilage forms the anterior surface of the larynx? What cartilage is inferior to this cartilage and superior to the thyroid gland? 7. What two folds of tissue make up the glottis? 8. Where do the primary bronchi and major vessels enter the lungs? 9. Which lung is larger? Why? 2

3 Activity 2: Anatomy Function > See > Visual Anatomy > Respiratory System > Cadaver Practicals 1. Name the nasal chonchae? 2. Name the lobes of the lungs. 3. Name the 9 pieces of cartilage that form the larynx. 4. Describe the organizational structure of the bronchi. 5. Compare the vocal and vestibular folds of the larynx. 3

4 Activity 3: Ventilation Navigation: Wiley Plus > Read, Study, and Practice > Lab Exercise 33. Respiratory System Structure > Do > Reading Content > A Pulmonary Ventilation 1. Label the above diagram using the following terms: bronchus, diaphragm, lungs covered with visceral pleura, parietal pleura and thoracic wall, pleural cavity, and trachea 2. In the model lung, is the air in the balloons currently at, above, or below atmospheric pressure? 3. Describe the response if the diaphragm in this model was pushed up. 4. Describe the response if the diaphragm in this model was pulled down. 5. In this model, the glass jar does not change shape. Is that an accurate representation of a human thoracic wall? Why? 4

5 Activity 4: Respiration Function > Do > Interactive Exercise: Gas Exchange Match-up 1. List the percentages of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen in atmospheric air. 2. What is meant by the partial pressure of a gas? 3. Why can internal and external respiration be described as passive processes? 4. Finish the statement: For oxygen to diffuse into tissues, the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood must... 5

6 Activity 5: Oxygen Transport Function > Do > Interactive Concepts and Connections: Oxygen Transport 1. How does fever affect O2 saturation of Hb? 2. Exercise increases lactic acid in the tissues. How does this affect the O2 saturation of Hgb? 3. The partial pressure of oxygen in the tissues is lower than that in the blood. How does this affect the O2 saturation of Hgb? 6

7 Activity 6: Carbon Dioxide Transport Function > Do > Interactive Concepts and Connections: Carbon Dioxide Transport 1. In what three forms is CO2 carried in the blood? 2. What enzyme is needed for CO2 and water to form carbonic acid? 3. What ion trades places with bicarbonate when it diffuses out of the RBC? 4. What happens to CO2 when it reaches the alveoli of the lungs? 7

8 Activity 7: ph Reflex Function > Do > Interactive Exercise: Respiration and ph Reflex 1. Why does a low blood ph increase ventilation? 2. Why does a high blood ph decrease ventilation? 3. Where is the inspiratory control center located? 4. Finish this statement: As the partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases, the number of hydrogen ions... 8

9 Activity 8: The Air Way Function > Do > Interactive Exercise: The Air Way 1. What is the direction of oxygen diffusion in internal respiration? 2. What are the variables influencing ventilation? 3. What it s the primary site of gas exchange in external respiration? Why not the trachea? 9

10 Activity 9: Breathless Function > Do > Homeostatic Imbalances. The Case of the Breathless Boy 1. Why is Taylor s PCO2 levels elevated? Why are his PO2 levels low? 2. Taylor s FVC and FEV1 results are low. Why? 3. What does Taylor s elevated eosinophil and IGE counts indicate? 4. What is the effect of histamine on the airways? 5. How does the disintegration of eosinophils and neutrophils at the site of the allergic reaction affect the bronchi? 6. Why is breathing difficult in this case? 10

11 Activity 10: Coughing Boy Function > Do > Homeostatic Imbalances. The Case of the Coughing Boy 1. Why is Timmy s WBC count so high? 2. Why did they test Timmy s sweat? 3. Does Timmy s chromosome defect alter his ability to generate mrna from DNA? 4. What is the result of defective chloride transport in the respiratory airways? 11

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