UNIT 2 Chapter 3. Elodea and Photosynthesis. The Origins of Life. Learning Outcomes: Chapter 3 Lab/Activity #2. Introduction: Safety Issues:

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "UNIT 2 Chapter 3. Elodea and Photosynthesis. The Origins of Life. Learning Outcomes: Chapter 3 Lab/Activity #2. Introduction: Safety Issues:"

Transcription

1 The Origins of Life UNIT 2 Chapter 3 Name: Section: Date: Chapter 3 Lab/Activity #2 Elodea and Photosynthesis Introduction: Photosynthetic organisms (cyanobacteria) first evolved about 3.5 billion years ago and are the oldest known fossils on Earth. Cyanobacteria live in water, can manufacture their own food, and are one of the most important groups of bacteria on Earth. The cyanobacteria have been important in shaping the course of evolution and ecological change throughout Earth s history. Cyanobacteria took in atmospheric carbon dioxide, water and sunlight and converted it into sugar (glucose) and released the waste product oxygen. Photosynthesis reduced the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, as oxygen was continually being released. For roughly a billion years, oxygen released by cyanobacteria did not build up in the atmosphere. It was used up by two sources: oceans and rocks. Oxygen dissolved in the oceans and oxidized (rusted) the exposed iron and other minerals, as seen in banded rock formations around the world. Approximately two billion years ago, the reservoirs of oxidizable rock became saturated and thus allowing the buildup of free oxygen in the air. As oxygen moved into the early atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation from the sun split the oxygen molecules (O2), which then recombined, producing the Earth s ozone layer (O 3 ). This, in turn, reduced the amount of incoming ultraviolet radiation striking the Earth. The impact for life on Earth was enormous. With reduced amounts of ultraviolet radiation, organisms moved into shallow water and, ultimately, onto the land. Materials: Elodea stem (up to 10 cm 4 inches). Store Elodea in oxygenated water, use as soon as possible after purchase. Distilled water Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate powder) Test tube rack or metal stand Large test tube Lamp ( watt) Single-edged razor blade Tape Timer or clock Metric ruler Learning Outcomes: After completing this lab activity and studying Chapter 3, The Origins of Life, you should be able to: 1. Construct a simple apparatus to measure the rate of photosynthesis. 2. Observe the process of photosynthesis by watching oxygen bubbling from Elodea plants. 3. Learn that photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and produces oxygen. 4. Manipulate conditions of an experiment. 5. Record, graph and analyze data collected. 6. Explain photosynthesis and why it is important. 7. Explain why oxygen levels have increased dramatically over the course of the Earth s history. Safety Issues: 1. Glass Hazard: Test tubes need to be handled with care. 2. Heat Hazard: lamp bulb can get very hot. Do not allow drops of water near the hot light bulbs. The bulbs may explode. 3. Chemical Hazard: Do not ingest chemicals; wash hands when finished. Theories and Origins of Life Lab/Activity 2 3-7

2 UNIT 2 Chapter 3 The Origins of Life Vocabulary: Autotroph self-nourishing ; refers to plants. Cyanobacteria another name for bluegreen algae. Glucose a six carbon sugar. Photosynthesis putting together with light ; the process of using carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to make glucose. Respiration the process of converting sugar into energy. Procedure: 1. Research Question(s): This lab activity will allow you to see the release of oxygen gas in the freshwater plant, Elodea. You will manipulate the conditions for photosynthesis by changing amounts of available light and carbon dioxide. Can changes in carbon dioxide or light influence the rate of photosynthesis? 2. Literature Review: This purpose of this lab activity is to observe photosynthesis in action using the freshwater plant Elodea. Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide, water and energy (in the form of light) to sugar, water and oxygen. The chemical equation looks like this: 6 CO H 2 O C 6 H 12 O H 2 O + 6 O 2 carbon dioxide water vapor light sugar water oxygen gas Instruction(s) for Teacher: It is essential to maintain the Elodea in well-lit aquaria or similar arrangement. Adding two to three grams of baking soda for each liter of water used will aid in oxygen generation. Alternative Lab Arrangement Large beakers with several sprigs of Elodea can be placed in an inverted water-filled graduated cylinder. Oxygen levels can be read from the graduated cylinder in place of counting bubbles. Elodea stem in test tube. 3. Hypothesis: Based on the research question(s) and the literature review write your hypothesis/prediction(s) below. Answers vary. Students should include a statement regarding the rate of photosynthesis of Elodea such as: 1. The rate of photosynthesis of Elodea, as measured by the amount of oxygen gas given off, is not affected by light. 2. The rate of photosynthesis of Elodea, as measured by the amount of oxygen gas given off, is not affected by carbon dioxide levels. 4. Activity: Station Set-up: 1. Obtain an Elodea stem. Carefully cut away several leaves from the cut end of the stem. Approximately 5 mm (1.5 in) from the cut end, slice the stem at an angle. Lightly crush this end with your fingers. 2. Place the stem in a test tube, partially filled with water, cut end up. Fill test tube to near the top with water. 3. Place the test tube in a rack or affix it to a metal stand. Running the Activity: 1. Place a lamp 5 cm (2 in) from the test tube. 2. Wait for the first signs of bubbles to begin the activity. If no bubbles, cut and gently crush the stem again. 3-8 The Foundation of Life in the Ocean

3 The Origins of Life UNIT 2 Chapter 3 3. Once bubbles start to appear, record the number of bubbles that appear over a three-minute interval. Repeat recording bubbles for three minutes at least one more time. Average your numbers. 4. Move the lamp back 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm (2 in, 4 in, 6 in, and 10 in) or as determined by your teacher. Wait one minute and record the number of bubbles that appear over a three minute interval for each light adjustment. Repeat recording bubbles for three minutes at least one more time at each location. Average your numbers. 5. Add a pinch of baking soda to the test tube. Move the lamp back to the 5 cm (2 in) position. Wait one minute and record the number of bubbles that appear over a three-minute interval. Repeat recording bubbles for an additional three-minutes. Average your numbers. 6. Move the lamp back 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm (2 in, 4 in, 6 in, and 10 in) or as determined by your teacher. Wait one minute and record the number of bubbles that appear over a three-minute interval at each location. Repeat recording bubbles for three minutes at least one more time at each location. Average your numbers. Instruction(s) for Teacher: You may want students to focus on one variable (light or carbon dioxide) and report findings to others. Data Collection: Elodea Stem in Fresh Water Distance from Light Source Number of Bubbles in 3 Minutes 5 cm (2 in) Number of bubbles will vary 30 5 cm (2 in) 20 Average at 5 cm (2 in) cm (4 in) Number of bubbles decreases with distance 10 cm (4 in) 16 Average at 10 cm (4 in) cm (6 in) cm (6 in) 11 Average at 15 cm (6 in) cm (10 inches) cm (10 in) 9 Average at 25 cm (10 in) 8 Observation statement: What did you observe? Oxygen gas bubbles form on the ends of the Elodea sprig and are released. Light levels influence rate of oxygen production. Theories and Origins of Life Lab/Activity 2 3-9

4 UNIT 2 Chapter 3 The Origins of Life Observation statement: What did you observe? Oxygen production of Elodea sprigs Oxygen gas bubbles form on the ends of the Elodea sprig and under varying or changing light and carbon are released. The addition of baking soda influences the rate of dioxide levels influences the number of oxygen bubbles produced by Elodea sprigs. oxygen production. OXYGEN PRODUCTION OF ELODEA SPRIGS UNDER VARYING CONDITIONS Title: 30 Number of Bubbles Freshwater (blue ink) Baking Soda (red ink) Distance from Light Source 5 cm (2 in) 5 cm (2 in) Average at 5 cm (2 in) 10 cm (4 in) 10 cm (4 in) Average at 10 cm (4 in) 15 cm (6 in) 15 cm (6 in) Average at 15 cm (6 in) 25 cm (10 in) 25 cm (10 in) Average at 25 cm (10 in) Elodea Stem in Fresh Water and Baking Soda cm (2 in) 10 cm (4 in) 15 cm (6 in) 25 cm (10 in) Distance from Light Source Number of Bubbles in 3 Minutes Number of bubbles varies. Number of bubbles decreases with distance. Would expect more bubbles with baking soda treatment compared to freshwater treatment. Analysis of Results: Interpret and analyze your results by answering the following question(s). 1. On graphing paper, use your data to construct a bar graph of your control and experimental groups. Be sure to label the graph and give the graph an appropriate title The Foundation of Life in the Ocean

5 The Origins of Life UNIT 2 Chapter 3 2. Why did you move the lamp away from the Elodea sprig? Answers vary, but should indicate that moving the lamp away from the Elodea sprig reduces the light intensity, which should reduce the bubble count. 3. Why did you add baking soda? Answers vary, but should point out that baking soda is a form of carbon dioxide. 4. What is the independent variable for your group? Distance from Elodea. 5. What change do you expect in the control group? Moving the lamp away causes a reduction in photosynthesis rate, as measured by bubble production. 6. What change do you expect in the experimental group? Adding baking soda increases photosynthesis rate, as measured by bubble production. 7. List the biotic and abiotic factors present. Biotic Elodea Abiotic light source, water, baking soda, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. Conclude and Communicate: 1. The research question for this activity: Can changes in carbon dioxide or light influence the rate of photosynthesis? 2. Your hypothesis/prediction(s) for this activity: Hypothesis/prediction(s) should be the same as at the start of the activity. 1. The rate of photosynthesis of Elodea, as measured by the amount of oxygen gas given off, is not affected by light. 2. The rate of photosynthesis of Elodea, as measured by the amount of oxygen gas given off, is not affected by carbon dioxide levels. Theories and Origins of Life Lab/Activity

6 UNIT 2 Chapter 3 The Origins of Life 3. Is your original hypothesis/prediction(s) supported by your data? Why or why not? Hopefully not, the manipulation of variables should influence the measured parameter. 4. Write two new research questions based on what you have learned from this activity: Answers vary. Students should ask questions such as: 1. What happens when the variables are changed from light and carbon dioxide levels to temperature? 2. What affect does water cloudiness (turbidity) have on photosynthesis? 3. Do colors (wavelengths) of light have an influence on photosynthesis? 5. The value and importance of this activity to the study of science: Answers vary. Students should indicate that they have gained knowledge about: 1. Photosynthesis and its use of carbon dioxide to produce oxygen. 2. The manipulation of experimental conditions to test a hypothesis (i.e., factors that could change the rate of photosynthesis). 3. The importance of photosynthesis. 4. Why oxygen levels have increased dramatically over the course of the Earth s history The Foundation of Life in the Ocean

Aerobic Respiration. Evaluation copy

Aerobic Respiration. Evaluation copy Aerobic Respiration Computer 17 Aerobic cellular respiration is the process of converting the chemical energy of organic molecules into a form immediately usable by organisms. Glucose may be oxidized completely

More information

Evaluation copy. Interdependence of Plants and Animals. computer OBJECTIVES MATERIALS

Evaluation copy. Interdependence of Plants and Animals. computer OBJECTIVES MATERIALS Interdependence of Plants and Animals Computer 14 Plants and animals share many of the same chemicals throughout their lives. In most ecosystems, O 2, CO 2, water, food and nutrients are exchanged between

More information

Adaptations of Desert Plants

Adaptations of Desert Plants Adaptations of Desert Plants Topic The shape and surface area of a leaf are related to its ability to gain and release water. Introduction Deserts are biomes that present great difficulties to their inhabitants.

More information

1. Photosynthesis and Light. See real-time evidence that light causes photosynthesis to occur!

1. Photosynthesis and Light. See real-time evidence that light causes photosynthesis to occur! Y OU LIGHT UP MY LIFE 1. Photosynthesis and Light You Light Up My Life Student Instruction Sheet Challenge See real-time evidence that light causes photosynthesis to occur! Equipment and Materials computer

More information

Determination of the Gas-Law Constant (R) using CO2

Determination of the Gas-Law Constant (R) using CO2 Determination of the Gas-Law Constant (R) using CO2 EXPERIMENT 11 Prepared by Edward L. Brown and Miranda Raines, Lee University The student will become familiar with ideal gases and how their properties

More information

See if you can determine what the following magnified photos are. Number your paper to 5.

See if you can determine what the following magnified photos are. Number your paper to 5. Challenge 7 See if you can determine what the following magnified photos are. Number your paper to 5. The Answers: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Science answers questions with experiments DEFINE THE PROBLEM Begin

More information

Transpiration. DataQuest OBJECTIVES MATERIALS

Transpiration. DataQuest OBJECTIVES MATERIALS Transpiration DataQuest 13 Water is transported in plants, from the roots to the leaves, following a decreasing water potential gradient. Transpiration, or loss of water from the leaves, helps to create

More information

What does the % represent on the beakers?

What does the % represent on the beakers? DISSOLVED OXYGEN VIDEO FAQs What does the % represent on the beakers? What are the glass tubes to beakers for? How is the temperature being kept the same (at 5 o then 35 o )? What is salinity in parts

More information

What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in multicellular organisms?

What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in multicellular organisms? INV~t:;TIGATION 6 CELLULAR RESPIRATION* What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in multicellular organisms? BACKGROUND Living systems require free energy and matter to maintain order, to grow,

More information

GRADE 6: Materials 1. UNIT 6M.1 7 hours. Solubility. Resources. About this unit. Previous learning. Expectations. Key vocabulary and technical terms

GRADE 6: Materials 1. UNIT 6M.1 7 hours. Solubility. Resources. About this unit. Previous learning. Expectations. Key vocabulary and technical terms GRADE 6: Materials 1 Solubility UNIT 6M.1 7 hours About this unit This is the first of four units on materials in Grade 6. This unit builds on the study of the properties of water in Unit 5M.1. Unit 7M.1

More information

Lab 4: Transpiration

Lab 4: Transpiration Lab 4: Transpiration Water is transported in plants, from the roots to the leaves, following a decreasing water potential gradient. Transpiration, or loss of water from the leaves, helps to create a lower

More information

APBiology Unit 2, Chapter 8

APBiology Unit 2, Chapter 8 APBiology Unit 2, Chapter 8 Research Question What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in multicellular organisms? Background Living systems require free energy and matter to maintain order,

More information

The Ideal Gas Constant

The Ideal Gas Constant Chem 2115 Experiment # 8 The Ideal Gas Constant OBJECTIVE: This experiment is designed to provide experience in gas handling methods and experimental insight into the relationships between pressure, volume,

More information

Determination of R: The Gas-Law Constant

Determination of R: The Gas-Law Constant Determination of R: The Gas-Law Constant PURPOSE: EXPERIMENT 9 To gain a feeling for how well real gases obey the ideal-gas law and to determine the ideal-gas-law constant R. APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS: KClO

More information

Chapter 13 Gases. H. Cannon, C. Clapper and T. Guillot Klein High School. Pressure/Temperature Conversions

Chapter 13 Gases. H. Cannon, C. Clapper and T. Guillot Klein High School. Pressure/Temperature Conversions Chapter 13 Gases Pressure/Temperature Conversions Convert the following: 1. 3.50 atm = kpa 2. 123 atm = mmhg 3. 970.0 mmhg = torr 4. 870.0 torr = kpa 5. 250.0 kpa = atm 6. 205.0 mmhg = kpa 7. 12.4 atm

More information

UNIT 10 - GASES. Notes & Worksheets - Honors

UNIT 10 - GASES. Notes & Worksheets - Honors Ideal Gas Equation 1 WKSHT 1.) What is the pressure exerted by 2.0 moles of an ideal gas when it occupies a volume of 12.0 L at 373 K? 2.) A flashbulb of volume 2.6 cm 3 contains O 2 gas at a pressure

More information

Gas Laws. 2 HCl(aq) + CaCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + CaCl 2 (aq) HCl(aq) + NaHCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + NaCl(aq)

Gas Laws. 2 HCl(aq) + CaCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + CaCl 2 (aq) HCl(aq) + NaHCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + NaCl(aq) Gas Laws Introduction: Although we cannot see gases, we can observe their behavior and study their properties. For example, we can watch a balloon filled with helium gas floating in air and conclude that

More information

Lab: The Effect of Exercise on Cellular Respiration

Lab: The Effect of Exercise on Cellular Respiration Lab: The Effect of Exercise on Cellular Respiration Purpose: To analyze the effect the exercise has on breathing rate, heart rate, and carbon dioxide production Background Information: Cellular respiration

More information

Experiment #2. Density and Measurements

Experiment #2. Density and Measurements Experiment #2. Density and Measurements Goals 1. To measure and record length, volume and mass accurately with the correct number of significant figures 2. To use significant figures correctly in calculations.

More information

The Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate

The Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate The Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate Small quantities of molecular oxygen (O 2 ) can be obtained from the thermal decomposition of certain oxides, peroxides, and salts of oxoacids. Some examples of

More information

Objective To identify a pure liquid substance using the physical properties of solubility, density, and boiling point.

Objective To identify a pure liquid substance using the physical properties of solubility, density, and boiling point. Chemistry 1020 Identification of an Unknown Liquid Objective To identify a pure liquid substance using the physical properties of solubility, density, and boiling point. Text reference solubility, density,

More information

Before doing this lab you should understand:

Before doing this lab you should understand: RVE CELL RESPIRATION OVERVIEW In this experiment you will work with seeds that are living but dormant. A seed contains an embryo plant and a food supply surrounded by a seed coat. When the necessary conditions

More information

3 Global Winds and Local Winds

3 Global Winds and Local Winds CHAPTER 1 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

More information

ACT Prep - Experiments Round 1!

ACT Prep - Experiments Round 1! ACT Prep - Experiments Round 1! An experiment was run to determine how temperature and the amount of sugar affect the rate at which sugar dissolves in water. Study 1 In the first experiment, a scientist

More information

Chapter 2: Light as a Wave

Chapter 2: Light as a Wave Chapter 2: Light as a Wave LW: 2.3.1 WARM-UP Students revisit a diagram from the Harvesting Sunlight article. (5 min) Light from a Grow Bulb Answer Here LW: 2.3.1 WARM-UP Students revisit a diagram from

More information

Experiment 8 GAS LAWS

Experiment 8 GAS LAWS Experiment 8 GAS LAWS FV 6/25/2017 MATERIALS: Amontons Law apparatus, Boyle s Law apparatus, Avogadro s Corollary apparatus, four beakers (2 L), warm-water bath, ice, barometer, digital thermometer, air

More information

Name Class Date. Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used.

Name Class Date. Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used. Assessment Chapter Test B The Movement of Ocean Water USING KEY TERMS Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used.

More information

1. Determining Solution Concentration

1. Determining Solution Concentration In this exercise you will determine the concentration of salt solutions by measuring samples with known concentration and making a calibration curve. You will review units of concentration, and how to

More information

Helicopter C.E.R. Teacher Pages

Helicopter C.E.R. Teacher Pages Helicopter C.E.R. Teacher Pages 45 Minutes Objective Students will conduct an experiment to determine if wing length will affect the descent time of a paper helicopter. Students will analyze their data

More information

Lab 5- Cellular Respiration

Lab 5- Cellular Respiration Lab 5- Cellular Respiration Background: Many cellular processes require energy. Aerobic cellular respiration supplies energy by the oxidation of glucose. This is a complex process involving a number of

More information

It s Cold Outside: Exploring the Effects of Temperature on GloFish Activity

It s Cold Outside: Exploring the Effects of Temperature on GloFish Activity Name Class Period Date It s Cold Outside: Exploring the Effects of Temperature on GloFish Activity Objective The learner will determine how a low temperature will affect the behavior of a GloFish fluorescent

More information

End of Chapter Exercises

End of Chapter Exercises End of Chapter Exercises Exercises 1 12 are conceptual questions that are designed to see if you have understood the main concepts of the chapter. 1. While on an airplane, you take a drink from your water

More information

1. Read the overview. What is the difference between germinating and nongerminating

1. Read the overview. What is the difference between germinating and nongerminating Pre-lab Cell Respiration (# 5) 1. Read the overview. What is the difference between germinating and nongerminating seeds? 2. Why do seeds need oxygen? And, what would measuring the oxygen consumption of

More information

6 Producers and Consumers IN KELP FORESTS or coral reefs near the shore of the ocean it is easy for us to see

6 Producers and Consumers IN KELP FORESTS or coral reefs near the shore of the ocean it is easy for us to see 6 Producers and Consumers IN KELP FORESTS or coral reefs near the shore of the ocean it is easy for us to see the various parts of an ecosystem, especially because the near-shore ecosystems tend to be

More information

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases The word kinetic refers to. Kinetic energy is the an object has because of its motion. Kinetic Molecular

More information

The Determination of the Value for Molar Volume

The Determination of the Value for Molar Volume Objective The Determination of the Value for Molar Volume Using a chemical reaction that produces a gas, measure the appropriate values to allow a determination of the value for molar volume. Brief Overview

More information

C6Hi (g) 6 H2O + 6 C02(g) + energy

C6Hi (g) 6 H2O + 6 C02(g) + energy Experient Cell Respiration 110 Cell respiration refers to the process of converting the cheical energy of organic olecules into a for iediately usable by organiss. Glucose ay be oxidized copletely if sufficient

More information

INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECTROPHOTOMETER AND PIPETTING SKILLS

INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECTROPHOTOMETER AND PIPETTING SKILLS INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECTROPHOTOMETER AND PIPETTING SKILLS Section A: Intro to the spectrophotometer A commonly used instrument in the analysis of cellular extracts is the Spectrophotometer. Today you

More information

A It is halved. B It is doubled. C It is quadrupled. D It remains the same.

A It is halved. B It is doubled. C It is quadrupled. D It remains the same. WAVES UNIT REVIEW EN: CALIFORNIA STATE QUESTIONS: 1. A sound wave is produced in a metal cylinder by striking one end. Which of the following occurs as the wave travels along the cylinder? A Its amplitude

More information

Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Air, It s Really There

Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Air, It s Really There Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Air, It s Really There Key Concepts In a gas, the particles (atoms and molecules) have weak attractions for one another. They are able to move freely past each other with little interaction

More information

Experiment 1 Introduction to Some Laboratory Measurements

Experiment 1 Introduction to Some Laboratory Measurements Experiment 1 Introduction to Some Laboratory Measurements Introduction In this experiment you will familiarize yourself with the English & metric systems of measurement, weigh with a centigram balance,

More information

FIRST GRADE ATMOSPHERE

FIRST GRADE ATMOSPHERE FIRST GRADE ATMOSPHERE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Investigating the water cycle. LAB: Experiencing surface tension. POST: Discovering how

More information

DISSOLVED OXYGEN SENSOR BT34i

DISSOLVED OXYGEN SENSOR BT34i DISSOLVED OXYGEN SENSOR BT34i USER S GUIDE CENTRE FOR MICROCOMPUTER APPLICATIONS http://www.cma-science.nl Short description The CMA Dissolved Oxygen (DO) sensor BT34i measures the concentration of dissolved

More information

CHAPTER 5 : THE AIR AROUND US

CHAPTER 5 : THE AIR AROUND US CHAPTER 5 : THE AIR AROUND US The Composition of Air Air is a mixture consist of Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Carbon dioxide 0.03% Inert gases 0.97% Water vapour Microorganism Dust The percentage of the constituents

More information

STRUCTURED INQUIRY: Investigating Surface Area to Volume Ratio in Cells

STRUCTURED INQUIRY: Investigating Surface Area to Volume Ratio in Cells STRUCTURED INQUIRY: Investigating Surface Area to Volume Ratio in Cells Introduction: All organisms are composed of cells. The size and shape of a cell determines how well it can deliver nutrients to its

More information

Dissolved Oxygen in Water. Evaluation copy. Table 1. Temperature Range ( C) Trout Smallmouth bass Caddisfly larvae

Dissolved Oxygen in Water. Evaluation copy. Table 1. Temperature Range ( C) Trout Smallmouth bass Caddisfly larvae Dissolved Oxygen in Water Computer 12A Although water is composed of oxygen and hydrogen atoms, biological life in water depends upon another form of oxygen molecular oxygen. Oxygen is used by organisms

More information

D. De La Matter 2004 Swimming Pool Chemistry STUDENT ACTIVITIES:

D. De La Matter 2004 Swimming Pool Chemistry STUDENT ACTIVITIES: D. De La Matter 2004 Swimming Pool Chemistry STUDENT ACTIVITIES: Good News! Flinn Scientific Inc. has developed a classroom kit of experiments based on these activities. The Kit Catalog # is AP6599. Ordering

More information

2. investigate the effect of solute concentration on water potential as it relates to living plant tissues.

2. investigate the effect of solute concentration on water potential as it relates to living plant tissues. In this lab you will: 1. investigate the processes of diffusion and osmosis in a model membrane system, and 2. investigate the effect of solute concentration on water potential as it relates to living

More information

It s a Gas - Natural Gas

It s a Gas - Natural Gas Lesson Plan - Page 1 Topic Natural gas Source Oil and Natural Gas, pages 20-21, 22-23 Objective Students will learn that natural gas is a substance formed over millions of years from decaying ocean plants

More information

Gas Laws. Introduction

Gas Laws. Introduction Gas Laws Introduction In 1662 Robert Boyle found that, at constant temperature, the pressure of a gas and its volume are inversely proportional such that P x V = constant. This relationship is known as

More information

4.) There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles. This means that

4.) There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles. This means that KINETIC MOLECULAR (K-M) THEORY OF MATTER NOTES - based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion - assumptions of the K-M Theory 1.) Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that

More information

15 Air Around us. We have learnt in Chapter 9 that. not to be republished NCERT 15.1 IS AIR PRESENT EVERYWHERE AROUND US? Activity 2.

15 Air Around us. We have learnt in Chapter 9 that. not to be republished NCERT 15.1 IS AIR PRESENT EVERYWHERE AROUND US? Activity 2. 15 Air Around us We have learnt in Chapter 9 that all living things require air. But, have you ever seen air? You might not have seen air, but, surely you must have felt its presence in so many ways. You

More information

b. Graphs provide a means of quickly comparing data sets. Concepts: a. A graph can be used to identify statistical trends

b. Graphs provide a means of quickly comparing data sets. Concepts: a. A graph can be used to identify statistical trends Baseball Bat Testing: Subjects: Topics: data. Math/Science Gathering and organizing data from an experiment Creating graphical representations of experimental data Analyzing and interpreting graphical

More information

How does atmospheric pressure vary? Measuring atmospheric pressure at different altitudes above sea level

How does atmospheric pressure vary? Measuring atmospheric pressure at different altitudes above sea level Dimension 2 Cross Cutting Concepts Dimension 1 Science and Engineering Practices FRAMEWORK FOR K-12 SCIENCE EDUCATION 2012 USA Standards Correlation The Dimension I practices listed below are called out

More information

Experiment C-6 Gas Solubility

Experiment C-6 Gas Solubility 1 Experiment C-6 Gas Solubility Objectives To measure dissolved oxygen in water by using an oxygen sensor. To learn about physical factors that influence oxygen solubility in water. To examine the dissolved

More information

Measuring Lung Capacity

Measuring Lung Capacity Measuring Lung Capacity 1 Name Measuring Lung Capacity Background Information: We need a constant supply of oxygen in order to stay alive. We use oxygen to break down food to release energy and produce

More information

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2013 series 9700 BIOLOGY. 9700/53 Paper 5 (Planning, Analysis and Evaluation), maximum raw mark 30

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2013 series 9700 BIOLOGY. 9700/53 Paper 5 (Planning, Analysis and Evaluation), maximum raw mark 30 CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2013 series 9700 BIOLOGY 9700/53 Paper 5 (Planning, Analysis and Evaluation),

More information

Bay Area Scientists in Schools Presentation Plan

Bay Area Scientists in Schools Presentation Plan Bay Area Scientists in Schools Presentation Plan Lesson Name Measuring Carbon Dioxide with Vernier Probes Presenter(s) Derek Vigil Currey, Ph.D student in Physics at UCB Grade Level 5th Standards Connection(s)

More information

A) It cannot be predicted. B) It is squared. C) It is doubled. D) It is halved. E) It does not change.

A) It cannot be predicted. B) It is squared. C) It is doubled. D) It is halved. E) It does not change. AP Chemistry Test (Chapter 5) Class Set Multiple Choice (50%) 1) A sample of argon gas is sealed in a container. The volume of the container is doubled at a constant temperature. What happens to the pressure

More information

A Liter a Lung Measuring Lung Capacity

A Liter a Lung Measuring Lung Capacity A Liter a Lung Measuring Lung Capacity OBJECTIVE In this investigation, students will compare the actual and expected vital capacities of their classmates. LEVEL Middle Grades Life Science CONNECTIONS

More information

How does atmospheric pressure vary? Measuring atmospheric pressure at different altitudes above sea level

How does atmospheric pressure vary? Measuring atmospheric pressure at different altitudes above sea level Objective The purpose of this activity is to study atmospheric pressure variations, as we reach higher altitudes, in order to create a hypothesis. The hypothesis will be tested by using the Labdisc air

More information

Making a Barometer and Using It

Making a Barometer and Using It SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS ON FILE Revised Edition 2.5-1 Making a Barometer and Using It Topic Air pressure Time Varies! Safety Please click on the safety icon to view safety precautions. Materials large (1-gal)

More information

Additional Reading General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, by Timberlake, chapter 8.

Additional Reading General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, by Timberlake, chapter 8. Gas Laws EXPERIMENTAL TASK Determine the mathematical relationship between the volume of a gas sample and its absolute temperature, using experimental data; and to determine the mathematical relationship

More information

DISSOLVING AND SOLUBILITY

DISSOLVING AND SOLUBILITY DISSOLVING AND SOLUBILITY QUICK REVIEW: Homogeneous mixtures: a solution of substances in which no settling occurs (looks like one thing). A solution occurs when the particles of the components slip in

More information

Chemistry HP Unit 6 Gases. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 6 will assess the following:) 6. Gases

Chemistry HP Unit 6 Gases. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 6 will assess the following:) 6. Gases Chemistry HP Unit 6 Gases Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 6 will assess the following:) 6. Gases 6-1. Define pressure using a mathematical equation. 6-2. Perform calculations involving pressure,

More information

THE GAS STATE. Unit 4. CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas.

THE GAS STATE. Unit 4. CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas. Unit 4 THE GAS STATE CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9. Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas Page 4 # to 4 9. Boyles Law P α /V PV = Constant P V = P V Pressure Atmospheric Pressure

More information

MHR Unit 3 Mixtures and Solutions

MHR Unit 3 Mixtures and Solutions NL S7 Chapter 08 1/10/07 5:27 PM Page 252 id you notice in Chapter 5 that water was called pure water when it was identified as a pure substance? Why was it necessary to call it pure water? In what way

More information

ISE-730 Oxygen Electrode and DO2-100 Currentto-Voltage

ISE-730 Oxygen Electrode and DO2-100 Currentto-Voltage Technical Note ISE-730 and DO2-100 Overview In 1954, Dr. Leland Clark invented the first membrane-covered electrode designed to measure the concentration of oxygen in blood, or solution. This electrode

More information

Read ENTIRE lab up to Disposal Section. MAKE NOTES!!! **For Procedures, Highlight equipment used and circle quantities measured out.

Read ENTIRE lab up to Disposal Section. MAKE NOTES!!! **For Procedures, Highlight equipment used and circle quantities measured out. Lab Ch 2 Mass, Volume, & Density Lab Partners: READ Prelab!!! Read ENTIRE lab up to Disposal Section. MAKE NOTES!!! **For Procedures, Highlight equipment used and circle quantities measured out. Density

More information

Determination of the Percentage Oxygen in Air

Determination of the Percentage Oxygen in Air CHEM 121L General Chemistry Laboratory Revision 1.2 Determination of the Percentage Oxygen in Air In this laboratory exercise we will determine the percentage by volume of Oxygen in Air. We will do this

More information

ARM & HAMMER Baking Soda

ARM & HAMMER Baking Soda Pool Care: Made Easy Crystal Clear Opening ARM & HAMMER Baking Soda 1 A Safe and Natural Start ARM & HAMMER Baking Soda is the quick, safe and natural way to open your pool for the season. Use our conveniently

More information

170 points. 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description.

170 points. 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description. Ch 15 Earth s Oceans SECTION 15.1 An Overview of Oceans 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description. (5 points) 1. German research

More information

LABORATORY TECHNIQUES. Pouring Liquids

LABORATORY TECHNIQUES. Pouring Liquids LABORATORY TECHNIQUES Working in the chemistry laboratory you will be handling potentially dangerous substances and performing unfamiliar tasks. This section provides you with a guide to the safe laboratory

More information

Neutrally Buoyant No More

Neutrally Buoyant No More Intended Class: Marine Science Intended Grade Level: 11-12 Neutrally Buoyant No More Time Allotment: Two, 55-minute periods. Day one should be lecture, background information and giving the students time

More information

Roy G. Biv Charles W. McLaughlin

Roy G. Biv Charles W. McLaughlin SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS ON FILE Revised Edition 6.25-1 Roy G. Biv Charles W. McLaughlin Topic Relationship between wavelength and frequency of light Time 1 hour! Safety Please click on the safety icon to view

More information

States of Matter Review

States of Matter Review States of Matter Review May 13 8:16 PM Physical States of Matter (Phases) Solid Liquid Melting Gas Condensation Freezing Evaporation Deposition Sublimation Sep 13 6:04 PM 1 May 13 8:11 PM Gases Chapter

More information

Guide for Reading. Vocabulary compressibility

Guide for Reading. Vocabulary compressibility 14.1 Properties of Gases Connecting to Your World In organized soccer, there are rules about equipment. For international competitions, the ball s mass must be not more than 450 grams and not less than

More information

EXPERIMENT 6 THE SPEED OF SOUND USING THE RESONANCE OF LONGITUDINAL WAVES

EXPERIMENT 6 THE SPEED OF SOUND USING THE RESONANCE OF LONGITUDINAL WAVES EXPERIMENT 6 THE SPEED OF SOUND USING THE RESONANCE OF LONGITUDINAL WAVES Sound waves produced by a tuning fork are sent down a tube filled with a gas. The waves reflect back up the tube from a water surface

More information

Lab #1: Introduction to Lab Techniques INTRODUCTION

Lab #1: Introduction to Lab Techniques INTRODUCTION Name Lab #1: Introduction to Lab Techniques INTRODUCTION Our goals in this experiment are (1) to make some measurements using a metric ruler, (2) to learn how to determine volumes with a graduated cylinder,

More information

Evaluation copy. Vapor Pressure of Liquids. computer OBJECTIVES MATERIALS

Evaluation copy. Vapor Pressure of Liquids. computer OBJECTIVES MATERIALS Vapor Pressure of Liquids Computer 10 In this experiment, you will investigate the relationship between the vapor pressure of a liquid and its temperature. When a liquid is added to the Erlenmeyer flask

More information

(ml/l), (mg/l) or (ppm)

(ml/l), (mg/l) or (ppm) Oxygen Optode What is this sensor? This sensor is used to detect dissolved oxygen and oxygen saturation levels in a given body of water i. Oxygen sensors detect Dissolved Oxygen, often abbreviated to DO.

More information

Boyle s Law Practice

Boyle s Law Practice Boyle s Law Practice Boyle s Law is an indirect relationship. Most of these problems can be done in your head without showing your work. 1. Herman has 30.0 L of helium gas trapped in a cylinder by a piston.

More information

1. Quantity of a gas (moles) 2. Temperature of the gas. 3. Volume occupied by the gas. 4. Pressure exerted by the gas. PV = nrt

1. Quantity of a gas (moles) 2. Temperature of the gas. 3. Volume occupied by the gas. 4. Pressure exerted by the gas. PV = nrt Experiment 5 Stoichiometry : Gases Determining the Ideal Gas Constant Lab Owl Announcement: Upon completion of this lab log onto OWL. Your fourth Lab Owl assignment, Lab Owl: Exp 5 should appear there.

More information

Atmosphere Glencoe. Name

Atmosphere Glencoe. Name Atmosphere 2005 Glencoe Name Note-taking Worksheet Atmosphere Section 1 Earth s Atmosphere A. thin layer of air that protects the Earth s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful Sun rays B. Atmospheric

More information

Dissolved Oxygen and measurement possibilities. Berno Lüpkes, 15 th March 2017

Dissolved Oxygen and measurement possibilities. Berno Lüpkes, 15 th March 2017 Dissolved Oxygen and measurement possibilities Berno Lüpkes, 15 th March 2017 Content 1. Introduction to Dissolved Oxygen 2. Amperometric measurement principle 3. Optical measurement principle 4. Optical

More information

Contact Person(s) : Isabel M. Fisenne APPLICATION

Contact Person(s) : Isabel M. Fisenne APPLICATION Ra-02-RC RADIUM-226 - EMANATION PROCEDURE Contact Person(s) : Isabel M. Fisenne APPLICATION This procedure is specific and may be applied to almost any matrix which can be converted to a homogeneous solution.

More information

HURRICANE AND GLOBAL WARMING CONTROL

HURRICANE AND GLOBAL WARMING CONTROL Page 1 of 21 HURRICANE AND GLOBAL WARMING CONTROL brian334@peoplepc.com Home Contact Us HurricaneControl This machine is patented # 7434524, BY BRIAN SANDLER brian334@peoplepc.com A experimental proposal

More information

Standard 3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

Standard 3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which Teacher Name: Tammy Heddings Date: April 04, 2009 Grade Level: 3-6 Subject: Science Time: 30 minutes Concept: Scientific Investigation Topic: Variables SOLs: Standard 3.1 The student will plan and conduct

More information

Vocabulary: Objectives: Materials: For Each Station: (Have 2 stations for each liquid; 8 stations total, in student groups of 3-4) Students will:

Vocabulary: Objectives: Materials: For Each Station: (Have 2 stations for each liquid; 8 stations total, in student groups of 3-4) Students will: Author: Ms. Adrienne Maribel López Date Created: August 2007 Subject: Properties of Matter Level: 6 th 8 th grade Standards: NYS Learning Standards for Mathematics, Science, and Technology-- Intermediate

More information

Experiment P18: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor)

Experiment P18: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) PASCO scientific Physics Lab Manual: P18-1 Experiment P18: (Force Sensor) Concept Time SW Interface Macintosh file Windows file Newton's Laws 45 m 300/500/700 P18 P18_BUOY.SWS EQUIPMENT NEEDED CONSUMABLES

More information

First term Revision Paper - Physics. Year 9

First term Revision Paper - Physics. Year 9 Sp3 conservation of energy First term Revision Paper - Physics Year 9 1. A student makes a solar water heater using a hosepipe. He paints the hosepipe black and fills it with water. He coils the hosepipe

More information

Comparing Indexes Among Primates

Comparing Indexes Among Primates CHAPTER 12 ADDITIONAL INVESTIGATION Comparing Indexes Among Primates Background Humans have the largest brains of all primates. In order to accommodate this large brain, the skull of a human has a vertical

More information

Hydrofluoric Acid SOP

Hydrofluoric Acid SOP Introduction Hydrofluoric acid (HF) has a number of chemical, physical, and toxicological properties, which make handling this material especially hazardous. Anhydrous HF is a clear, colorless, fuming,

More information

Air Temperature, Melting Ice and Disappearing Land

Air Temperature, Melting Ice and Disappearing Land Air Temperature, Melting Ice and Disappearing Land Climate scientists study changes in icebergs and glaciers. Glaciers are massive sheets of ice that cover the land in places like Greenland in the Arctic

More information

1 What Causes Climate?

1 What Causes Climate? Section 1 What Causes Climate? 1 What Causes Climate? Objectives After this lesson, students will be able to I.4.1.1 Identify factors that influence temperature and precipitation. I.4.1.2 Explain what

More information

SAFETY DATA SHEET (SDS)

SAFETY DATA SHEET (SDS) SAFETY DATA SHEET (SDS) 1. PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION PROUDCT IDENTIFICATION: Product Name: Product Number: Product Use: EVOLUTION INTERIOR CANVAS EGGSHELL 100310 WHITE Water-thinned Paint MANUFACTURER:

More information

Behavior of Gases Chapter 12 Assignment & Problem Set

Behavior of Gases Chapter 12 Assignment & Problem Set Behavior of Gases Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Behavior of Gases 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition

More information

OCN201 Spring14 1. Name: Class: Date: True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

OCN201 Spring14 1. Name: Class: Date: True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. Name: Class: _ Date: _ OCN201 Spring14 1 True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Short residence time elements are uniformly distributed in the oceans 2. Thermohaline circulation

More information

Gases and Pressure SECTION 11.1

Gases and Pressure SECTION 11.1 SECTION 11.1 Gases and In the chapter States of Matter, you read about the kineticmolecular theory of matter. You were also introduced to how this theory explains some of the properties of ideal gases.

More information

SUBSTATION MAINTENANCE ELECTRICAL OPERATING PROCEDURE

SUBSTATION MAINTENANCE ELECTRICAL OPERATING PROCEDURE Page 1 of 6 A. PURPOSE AND SCOPE This procedure establishes safe working practices for handling sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) gas and release minimization practices. This document also specifies methods

More information