Ch. 11 Mass transfer principles

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Ch. 11 Mass transfer principles"

Transcription

1 Transport of chemical species in solid, liquid, or gas mixture Transport driven by composition gradient, similar to temperature gradients driving heat transport We will look at two mass transport mechanisms, both analogous to heat transport: Diffusion mass transfer Convection mass transfer 1

2 Diffusion mass heat transfer Results from intermolecular collisions that lead to net motion of molecules in direction of decreasing concentration. Analogous to conduction heat transfer Examples: Doping of semiconductor wafers to achieve desired electrical properties Diffusion of carbon atoms during heat treating of steel Leaking of gas through container wall 2

3 Convection mass transfer Combination of diffusion mass transfer combined with bulk fluid motion Examples: Drying of materials such as paper and food products Evaporation of water in power plant cooling tower Chemical reactions and combustion processes determination of distribution of reactants and products 3

4 Convection mass transfer drying process 4

5 Diffusion mass transfer diffusion in a vertical column 5

6 Conservation of chemical species Species concentration may be specified in terms of mass, moles, mass fraction, mole fraction, partial pressure, etc. Begin by considering mass concentration r i, the local density of species i in units of mass/volume 6

7 7

8 Conservation of species i results in: 8

9 In limit of small Dx, Dy Sum terms in Eq over all components results in: 9

10 We know from continuity requirements that: Bulk (mass) averaged velocity components: 10

11 Difference between component velocity and massaveraged velocity = diffusion velocity: 11

12 Diffusion flux defined as: Substituting back into Eq yields: 12

13 Using the continuity equation: We now need mass flux, j i, terms Fick s Law 13

14 Basic equation for binary mass transfer under isothermal, isobaric, steady conditions: Where j x,1 is the mass flux of species 1 in to species 2 per unit area, per unit time (kg/m 2 s or moles/m 2 s) D 12 is the mass diffusion coefficient of species 1 into species 2 (m 2 /s or ft 2 /s) 14

15 Substituting Fick s law: This is the mass-diffusion equation, analogous to the heat diffusion equation: 15

16 Mole fraction of species i: Relation between mass concentration (density) and mole fraction: Molar concentration: 16

17 Steady diffusion through a stationary medium: 17

18 Steady diffusion through a stationary medium: BC s 18

19 Mass diffusivity binary diffusion 19

20 Table 11.2: binary gas mixture diffusivities To find D at other P, T values: 20

21 Table 11.3: gases and organic solutes in water To find D at other T values (2 subscript is for solvent) 21

22 22

23 To solve our differential equation for the mass distribution, we need some boundary conditions and initial conditions (if transient). Initial condition simply specifies distribution of mass at beginning of problem (zero solute, or uniform distribution solute, for example). Boundary conditions more difficult since concentration of species is normally not continuous across an interface 23

24 For example, consider a solid in contact with a gas: Gas Solid y C gas,amb C gas,1 If we want to solve for the distribution of the gas inside the solid, the boundary condition is the concentration of gas on the solid side of the boundary, C gas,1 at y = 0 24

25 Case a) Ideal gas mixture in contact with a liquid phase of one of the mixture components Gas mixture Liquid, species 1 y C gas,1 If we are interested in diffusion of species 1 into gas mixture, we need concentration of species 1 at interface on the gas side 25

26 Boundary condition given as: Partial pressure of species 1 on mixture side is saturation pressure of species 1 at liquid temperature, T To relate to concentration: Gas mixture y P 1 Liquid, species 1 26

27 Case b) Ideal gas mixture in contact with a liquid phase of one of the mixture components Suppose now we are interested in diffusion of species in liquid Boundary condition is Henry s Law: Gas mixture P i Liquid y x i 27

28 H = Henry s constant P i = partial pressure in gas mixture x i = mole fraction of gas in liquid Henry s Law limitations: Dilute solutions (Mole fraction, x i is small) Low pressures, P i < 1 atm 28

29 Case c) Binary liquid mixture with species 1 as solute, in contact with pure substance of species 1 Concentration of species 1 on liquid side assume thermodynamic equilibrium at interface Find solubility data for species 1 into liquid Example from text: Solubility of NaCl in H 2 O at 0 o C: 35.7 grams of NaCl per 100 grams of H 2 O 29

30 Case d) Solid medium in contact with a gas that is soluble in the solid Boundary condition is: Gas mixture Solid y P i n i P 1 = partial pressure in gas mixture C L = molar concentration of gas on solid side of interface (kmol/m 3 ) S = Solubility of species i in solid 30

31 A few solubility values 31

32 Solving convection problems Boundary layers Equivalent form of Newton s law of cooling: 32

33 Heat and mass transfer analogy: Sh = Sherwood number Sc = Schmidt number 33

34 For example: laminar parallel flow over a flat plate in the presence of a concentration gradient Appropriate average Nusselt number: Sherwood number becomes: 34

35 Limit of heat and mass transfer analogy: 35

36 Example 36

37 37

38 38

39 39

40 40

Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids

Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids Property is meaning any measurable characteristic of a substance, such as pressure, volume, or temperature, or a characteristic that can be calculated or deduced,

More information

PROPERTIES OF GASES. [MH5; Ch 5, (only)]

PROPERTIES OF GASES. [MH5; Ch 5, (only)] PROPERTIES OF GASES [MH5; Ch 5, 5.1-5.5 (only)] FEATURES OF A GAS Molecules in a gas are a long way apart (under normal conditions). Molecules in a gas are in rapid motion in all directions. The forces

More information

Figure Vapor-liquid equilibrium for a binary mixture. The dashed lines show the equilibrium compositions.

Figure Vapor-liquid equilibrium for a binary mixture. The dashed lines show the equilibrium compositions. Another way to view this problem is to say that the final volume contains V m 3 of alcohol at 5.93 kpa and 20 C V m 3 of air at 94.07 kpa and 20 C V m 3 of air plus alcohol at 100 kpa and 20 C Thus, the

More information

Fall 2004 Homework Problem Set 9 Due Wednesday, November 24, at start of class

Fall 2004 Homework Problem Set 9 Due Wednesday, November 24, at start of class 0.30 Fall 004 Homework Problem Set 9 Due Wednesday, November 4, at start of class Part A. Consider an iron surface which serves as a catalyst for the production of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. The

More information

States of Matter Review

States of Matter Review States of Matter Review May 13 8:16 PM Physical States of Matter (Phases) Solid Liquid Melting Gas Condensation Freezing Evaporation Deposition Sublimation Sep 13 6:04 PM 1 May 13 8:11 PM Gases Chapter

More information

PURE SUBSTANCE. Nitrogen and gaseous air are pure substances.

PURE SUBSTANCE. Nitrogen and gaseous air are pure substances. CLASS Third Units PURE SUBSTANCE Pure substance: A substance that has a fixed chemical composition throughout. Air is a mixture of several gases, but it is considered to be a pure substance. Nitrogen and

More information

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases The word kinetic refers to. Kinetic energy is the an object has because of its motion. Kinetic Molecular

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Test General Chemistry CH116 UMass Boston Summer 2013 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The pressure exerted by a column of

More information

Elements that exist as gases at 25 o C and 1 atmosphere H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

Elements that exist as gases at 25 o C and 1 atmosphere H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn AP Chemistry Chapter 5 Sections 5. 5.9 Note Organizer Pressure, The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro, The Ideal Gas Law, Gas Stoichiometry, Dalton s Law of Partial Pressure, The Kinetic olecular

More information

Chapter 13 Gases and Pressure. Pressure and Force. Pressure is the force per unit area on a surface. Force Area. Pressure =

Chapter 13 Gases and Pressure. Pressure and Force. Pressure is the force per unit area on a surface. Force Area. Pressure = Chapter 13 Gas Laws Chapter 13 Gases and Pressure Pressure and Force Pressure is the force per unit area on a surface. Pressure = Force Area Chapter 13 Gases and Pressure Gases in the Atmosphere The atmosphere

More information

Applied Physics Topics 2

Applied Physics Topics 2 Applied Physics Topics 2 Dr Andrey Varvinskiy Consultant Anaesthetist Torbay Hospital, UK EDAIC Paper B Lead and Examiner TOPICS 2 Gas Laws Other Laws: Dalton, Avogadro Critical temperature Critical pressure

More information

Appendix 2. Basic physical properties applied to the respiratory system

Appendix 2. Basic physical properties applied to the respiratory system Appendix 2. Basic physical properties applied to the respiratory system Fluid is a general definition of a state of matter characterized by a weak intermolecular connection (Van der Waal's cohesive forces),

More information

Pressure of the atmosphere varies with elevation and weather conditions. Barometer- device used to measure atmospheric pressure.

Pressure of the atmosphere varies with elevation and weather conditions. Barometer- device used to measure atmospheric pressure. Chapter 12 Section 1 Pressure A gas exerts pressure on its surroundings. Blow up a balloon. The gas we are most familiar with is the atmosphere, a mixture of mostly elemental nitrogen and oxygen. Pressure

More information

Worksheet 1.7: Gas Laws. Charles Law. Guy-Lassac's Law. Standard Conditions. Abbreviations. Conversions. Gas Law s Equation Symbols

Worksheet 1.7: Gas Laws. Charles Law. Guy-Lassac's Law. Standard Conditions. Abbreviations. Conversions. Gas Law s Equation Symbols Name Block Worksheet 1.7: Gas Laws Boyle s Law Charles Law Guy-Lassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The

More information

Multiple Choice (40%)

Multiple Choice (40%) AP Chemistry Test (Chapter 5) Please do not write on this test thank you! Multiple Choice (40%) 1) A sealed rigid container is filled with three ideal gases: A, B and C. The partial pressure of each gas

More information

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 10. Gases. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 10. Gases. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Presentation Chapter 10 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Characteristics of Unlike liquids and solids, gases Expand to fill their containers. Are highly compressible.

More information

4.) There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles. This means that

4.) There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles. This means that KINETIC MOLECULAR (K-M) THEORY OF MATTER NOTES - based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion - assumptions of the K-M Theory 1.) Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that

More information

Chemistry HP Unit 6 Gases. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 6 will assess the following:) 6. Gases

Chemistry HP Unit 6 Gases. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 6 will assess the following:) 6. Gases Chemistry HP Unit 6 Gases Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 6 will assess the following:) 6. Gases 6-1. Define pressure using a mathematical equation. 6-2. Perform calculations involving pressure,

More information

PSI Chemistry: Gases Multiple Choice Review

PSI Chemistry: Gases Multiple Choice Review PSI Chemistry: Gases Multiple Choice Review Name Kinetic Molecular Theory 1. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of matterare in constant motion (A) have different shapes (B) have different

More information

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES revised by Igor Bolotin 03/05/12

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES revised by Igor Bolotin 03/05/12 LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES revised by Igor Bolotin 03/05/ This experiment will introduce you to the kinetic properties of low-pressure gases. You will make observations on the rates with which selected

More information

Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases

Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases I. First Concepts a. The 3 states of matter most important to us: solids, liquids, and gases. b. Real Gases and Ideal Gases i. Real gases exist, ideal gases do not ii.

More information

Chapter 7 Single Point Calculations

Chapter 7 Single Point Calculations Chapter 7 Single Point Calculations Objectives By this point we have learned a great deal about the thermodynamics of the OLI Software and the internal workings of the simulation engine. We have also learned

More information

Chapter 13. Gases. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1

Chapter 13. Gases. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1 Chapter 13 Gases Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1 Section 13.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. Copyright Cengage

More information

Section 10-1: The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter. 1) How does the word kinetic apply to particles of matter?

Section 10-1: The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter. 1) How does the word kinetic apply to particles of matter? Kinetic-Molecular theory of Matter/Ch10, Gases/Ch11 Column notes: Answer all parts of each question IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Use the text, figures and captions as resources. Section 10-1: The Kinetic-Molecular

More information

Diffusivity in Gases Experiment ver 05.10a

Diffusivity in Gases Experiment ver 05.10a Diffusivity in Gases Experiment ver 05.0a number of experimental techniques have been developed for the measurement of the diffusivity in gases. Both steady-state and unsteady-state methods are used. However,

More information

To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode CLICK HERE EXERCISE! EXERCISE! To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode CLICK HERE

To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode CLICK HERE EXERCISE! EXERCISE! To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode CLICK HERE Boyle s Law Boyle s law Pressure and volume are inversely related (constant T, temperature, and n, # of moles of gas). PV k (kis a constant for a given sample of air at a specific temperature) P V P V

More information

Gases and Pressure SECTION 11.1

Gases and Pressure SECTION 11.1 SECTION 11.1 Gases and In the chapter States of Matter, you read about the kineticmolecular theory of matter. You were also introduced to how this theory explains some of the properties of ideal gases.

More information

Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 10, page 1] D J Weinkauff - Nerinx Hall High School. Chapter 10 Gases

Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 10, page 1] D J Weinkauff - Nerinx Hall High School. Chapter 10 Gases Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 10, page 1] Chapter 10 Gases We have talked a little about gases in Chapter 3 and we dealt briefly with them in our stoichiometric calculations in

More information

What parameters do we use to describe gases? pressure: force/unit area 1 atm = 101 kpa; volume: liters (L) Temperature: K Amount of gas: moles

What parameters do we use to describe gases? pressure: force/unit area 1 atm = 101 kpa; volume: liters (L) Temperature: K Amount of gas: moles Gases Chapter 9 What parameters do we use to describe gases? pressure: force/unit area 1 atm = 101 kpa; volume: liters (L) Temperature: K Amount of gas: moles A gas consists of small particles that move

More information

Gases Day 12. Phases of Matter

Gases Day 12. Phases of Matter Phases of Matter Gases Day 12 Kinetic Molecular Theory ( Ideal Gases ) 1) The molecules of a gas are in continual, and random, motion of varying speeds. 2) The average kinetic energy of the gas molecules

More information

Pascal s Sinking Feeling LinkedIn Article March 8, 2016 Caoimhín P. Connell Forensic Industrial Hygienist

Pascal s Sinking Feeling LinkedIn Article March 8, 2016 Caoimhín P. Connell Forensic Industrial Hygienist Forensic Applications Consulting Technologies, Inc. Pascal s Sinking Feeling LinkedIn Article March 8, 2016 Caoimhín P. Connell Forensic Industrial Hygienist A very common myth we encounter is the issue

More information

Determination of Dissolved Gases in Ground Waters. By Ray Martrano Laboratory Director Seewald Laboratories Inc.

Determination of Dissolved Gases in Ground Waters. By Ray Martrano Laboratory Director Seewald Laboratories Inc. Determination of Dissolved Gases in Ground Waters By Ray Martrano Laboratory Director Seewald Laboratories Inc. Overview of Presentation What is a dissolved gas? Why do we want to study dissolved gases?

More information

Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes:

Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes: Name: Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes: Block: In chemistry, the relationships between gas physical properties are described as gas laws. Some of these properties are pressure, volume,

More information

THE GAS STATE. Unit 4. CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas.

THE GAS STATE. Unit 4. CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas. Unit 4 THE GAS STATE CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9. Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas Page 4 # to 4 9. Boyles Law P α /V PV = Constant P V = P V Pressure Atmospheric Pressure

More information

A) It cannot be predicted. B) It is squared. C) It is doubled. D) It is halved. E) It does not change.

A) It cannot be predicted. B) It is squared. C) It is doubled. D) It is halved. E) It does not change. AP Chemistry Test (Chapter 5) Class Set Multiple Choice (50%) 1) A sample of argon gas is sealed in a container. The volume of the container is doubled at a constant temperature. What happens to the pressure

More information

Behavior of Gases Chapter 12 Assignment & Problem Set

Behavior of Gases Chapter 12 Assignment & Problem Set Behavior of Gases Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Behavior of Gases 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition

More information

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES adapted by Luke Hanley and Mike Trenary

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES adapted by Luke Hanley and Mike Trenary ADH 1/7/014 LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES adapted by Luke Hanley and Mike Trenary This experiment will introduce you to the kinetic properties of low-pressure gases. You will make observations on the

More information

Boyle s Law Practice

Boyle s Law Practice Boyle s Law Practice Boyle s Law is an indirect relationship. Most of these problems can be done in your head without showing your work. 1. Herman has 30.0 L of helium gas trapped in a cylinder by a piston.

More information

Interchangeability Criteria.

Interchangeability Criteria. Interchangeability Criteria. A substitute gas should burn satisfactorily with negligible change in burner performance on all types of burners without the need for special adjustment. The important requirements

More information

I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange

I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange Respiratory Gases Exchange Dr Badri Paudel, M.D. 2 I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange 3 Partial pressure The pressure exerted by each type of gas in a mixture Diffusion of gases through liquids Concentration

More information

C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 5 P a g e 1

C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 5 P a g e 1 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 5 P a g e 1 Chapter 5: Gases Homework: Read Chapter 5. Work out sample/practice exercises Keep up with MasteringChemistry assignments Gas Properties: Ideal Gas: Gases

More information

1. All fluids are: A. gases B. liquids C. gases or liquids D. non-metallic E. transparent ans: C

1. All fluids are: A. gases B. liquids C. gases or liquids D. non-metallic E. transparent ans: C Chapter 14: FLUIDS 1 All fluids are: A gases B liquids C gases or liquids D non-metallic E transparent 2 Gases may be distinguished from other forms of matter by their: A lack of color B small atomic weights

More information

Please do not write on this test. Please use the answer sheet. 1) Please choose all conditions that would allow a gas sample to behave ideally.

Please do not write on this test. Please use the answer sheet. 1) Please choose all conditions that would allow a gas sample to behave ideally. AP Chemistry Test (Chapter 5) Please do not write on this test. Please use the answer sheet. Multiple Choice (50%) 1) Please choose all conditions that would allow a gas sample to behave ideally. I) Nonpolar

More information

BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY

BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY Dr.R.Selvakumar.M.D.D.A.DNB Professor of Anaesthesiology, K.A.P.Viswanatham Govt medical college, Trichy. The current practice of Anaesthesiology demands knowledge

More information

Kinetic Molecular Theory

Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory Name Period Unit 7 HW 1 Worksheet (Goals 1 & 2) 1. Describe how gases, liquids, and solids compare using the following table. Volume (definite or indefinite) Molecular Motion (high,

More information

CALCULATING THE SPEED OF SOUND IN NATURAL GAS USING AGA REPORT NO Walnut Lake Rd th Street Houston TX Garner, IA 50438

CALCULATING THE SPEED OF SOUND IN NATURAL GAS USING AGA REPORT NO Walnut Lake Rd th Street Houston TX Garner, IA 50438 CALCULATING THE SPEED OF SOUND IN NATURAL GAS USING AGA REPORT NO. 10 Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy JPS Measurement Consultants, Inc Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc (CEESI) 13002 Walnut Lake

More information

Reflux Condensation with Various Non-Condensable Gases

Reflux Condensation with Various Non-Condensable Gases Proceedings of the 3 rd World Congress on Mechanical, Chemical, and Material Engineering (MCM'17) Rome, Italy June 8 10, 2017 Paper No. HTFF 168 ISSN: 2369-8136 DOI: 10.11159/htff17.168 Reflux Condensation

More information

UNIT 4 IB MATERIAL PARTICLE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER PHASES & ATTRACTIONS

UNIT 4 IB MATERIAL PARTICLE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER PHASES & ATTRACTIONS UNIT 4 IB MATERIAL Name: PARTICLE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER PHASES & ATTRACTIONS ESSENTIALS: Know, Understand, and Be Able To Apply Avogadro s law to calculate reacting volumes of gases. Apply the concept of

More information

Mass Transfer. Bioprocess Engineering Principles, Second Edition Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mass Transfer. Bioprocess Engineering Principles, Second Edition Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. C H A P T E R 10 Mass Transfer Mass transfer occurs in mixtures containing concentration variations. For example, when dye is dropped into a pail of water, mass transfer processes are responsible for the

More information

11 Properties of Gases

11 Properties of Gases South asadena Honors Chemistry Name 11 roperties of Gases eriod Date S A I O N 1 E M E R A U R E Standard emperature is: 0 C or 273 K Convert: 26.0 C 299 K 400 K _127 C 100 K 173 C 135 C _408_ K -127 C

More information

Chapter 4, Problem 30.

Chapter 4, Problem 30. Chapter 4, Problem 30. A well-insulated rigid tank contains 5 kg of a saturated liquid vapor mixture of water at l00 kpa. Initially, three-quarters of the mass is in the liquid phase. An electric resistor

More information

1. [Chang7 5.P.013.] Convert 295 mmhg to kpa. kpa Convert 2.0 kpa to mmhg. mmhg

1. [Chang7 5.P.013.] Convert 295 mmhg to kpa. kpa Convert 2.0 kpa to mmhg. mmhg Score 1. [Chang7 5.P.013.] Convert 295 mmhg to kpa. kpa Convert 2.0 kpa to mmhg. mmhg 2. [Chang7 5.P.019.] The volume of a gas is 5.80 L, measured at 1.00 atm. What is the pressure of the gas in mmhg if

More information

Energy and mass transfer in gas-liquid reactors.

Energy and mass transfer in gas-liquid reactors. Energy and mass transfer in gas-liquid reactors. John M Smith School of Engineering (D2) University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK j.smith@surrey.ac.uk 1 Energy and mass transfer in gas-liquid reactors.

More information

Chapter 11 Gases. Review Skills

Chapter 11 Gases. Review Skills Chapter 11 Gases t s Monday morning, and Lilia is walking out of the chemistry building, thinking about the introductory lecture on gases that her instructor just presented. Dr. Scanlon challenged the

More information

Integration of Impact Factors of Gas-Liquid Transfer Rate

Integration of Impact Factors of Gas-Liquid Transfer Rate Zhiyong Duan and James L. Martin Department of Civil Engineering Mississippi State University P.O. Box 9546 Mississippi State, MS 39762-9546 662-325-2902 E-mail: zd9@msstate.edu ABSTRACT The gas transfer

More information

Date: Period: Gas Laws Worksheet #1 - Boyle s, Charles, Gay-Lussac s, and Combined Gas Law

Date: Period: Gas Laws Worksheet #1 - Boyle s, Charles, Gay-Lussac s, and Combined Gas Law Name: Date: Period: Gas Laws Worksheet #1 - Boyle s, Charles, Gay-Lussac s, and Combined Gas Law Boyle s Law: V1P1 = V2P2 1. A gas sample contained in a cylinder equipped with a moveable piston occupied

More information

Chemistry 12 Notes on Graphs Involving LeChatelier s Principle

Chemistry 12 Notes on Graphs Involving LeChatelier s Principle Chemistry 12 Notes on Graphs Involving LeChatelier s Principle 1. Temperature Changes When a system adjusts due to a temperature change, there are no sudden changes in concentration of any species, so

More information

DISTILLATION POINTS TO REMEMBER

DISTILLATION POINTS TO REMEMBER DISTILLATION POINTS TO REMEMBER 1. Distillation columns carry out physical separation of liquid chemical components from a mixture by a. A combination of transfer of heat energy (to vaporize lighter components)

More information

Distillation Design The McCabe-Thiele Method

Distillation Design The McCabe-Thiele Method Distillation Design The McCabe-Thiele Method Distiller diagam Introduction Using rigorous tray-by-tray calculations l is time consuming, and is often unnecessary. One quick method of estimation i for number

More information

Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy

Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy Announcements: CAPA due Friday at 10pm. Comment on the hint in Problem 5. CAPA solutions from previous sets can be found by logging onto CAPA and selecting View Previous Set

More information

The Ideal Gas Constant

The Ideal Gas Constant Chem 2115 Experiment # 8 The Ideal Gas Constant OBJECTIVE: This experiment is designed to provide experience in gas handling methods and experimental insight into the relationships between pressure, volume,

More information

Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter

Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter Gases Properties of Gases Gas Pressure Gases What gases are important for each of the following: O 2, CO 2 and/or He? A. B. C. D. 1 2 Gases What gases are important for each of the following: O 2, CO 2

More information

Name: Class: Date: SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided.

Name: Class: Date: SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. CHAPTER 11 REVIEW Gases SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Pressure =. For a constant force, when the surface area is tripled the pressure is (a) doubled. (b)

More information

Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D.

Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D. Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D. OBJECTIVES: After studying this lecture, the student should understand: 1. Application of the gas laws to pulmonary physiology. 2. How to

More information

Determination of the Gas-Law Constant (R) using CO2

Determination of the Gas-Law Constant (R) using CO2 Determination of the Gas-Law Constant (R) using CO2 EXPERIMENT 11 Prepared by Edward L. Brown and Miranda Raines, Lee University The student will become familiar with ideal gases and how their properties

More information

Lecture Outline Chapter 15. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 15. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline Chapter 15 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 15 Fluids Density Units of Chapter 15 Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy

More information

Chapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops

Chapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops C h e m i s t r y 1 2 C h a p t e r 11 G a s e s P a g e 1 Chapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops Gas Properties: Gases have high kinetic energy low

More information

Process Nature of Process

Process Nature of Process AP Physics Free Response Practice Thermodynamics 1983B4. The pv-diagram above represents the states of an ideal gas during one cycle of operation of a reversible heat engine. The cycle consists of the

More information

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation-

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Overview: Atmosphere & Climate Atmospheric layers Heating at different latitudes Atmospheric convection cells (Hadley, Ferrel, Polar) Coriolis Force Generation of winds

More information

Kinematics of Vorticity

Kinematics of Vorticity Kinematics of Vorticity Vorticity Ω Ω= V 2 circumferentially averaged angular velocity of the fluid particles Sum of rotation rates of perpendicular fluid lines Non-zero vorticity doesn t imply spin.ω=0.

More information

To convert to millimeters of mercury, we derive a unit factor related to the equivalent relationship 29.9 in. Hg = 760 mm Hg.

To convert to millimeters of mercury, we derive a unit factor related to the equivalent relationship 29.9 in. Hg = 760 mm Hg. Example Exercise 11.1 Gas Pressure Conversion Meteorologists state that a falling barometer indicates an approaching storm. Given a barometric pressure of 27.5 in. Hg, express the pressure in each of the

More information

INTRODUCTION Porosity, permeability, and pore size distribution are three closely related concepts important to filter design and filter performance.

INTRODUCTION Porosity, permeability, and pore size distribution are three closely related concepts important to filter design and filter performance. Measurement of Filter Porosity using a Custom-Made Pycnometer George Chase The University of Akron INTRODUCTION Porosity, permeability, and pore size distribution are three closely related concepts important

More information

Moist convection in hydrogen atmospheres and the frequency of Saturn s giant storms Cheng Li and Andrew P. Ingersoll

Moist convection in hydrogen atmospheres and the frequency of Saturn s giant storms Cheng Li and Andrew P. Ingersoll SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2405 Moist convection in hydrogen atmospheres and the frequency of Saturn s giant storms Cheng Li and Andrew P. Ingersoll 2 S1. Isobaric mixing across temperature

More information

Gas Laws V 1 V 2 T 1. Gas Laws.notebook. May 05, T = k P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2. = 70 kpa. P. V = k. k = 1 atm = kpa

Gas Laws V 1 V 2 T 1. Gas Laws.notebook. May 05, T = k P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2. = 70 kpa. P. V = k. k = 1 atm = kpa Gas Laws At constant temperature, all gases behave the same when compressed As increasing pressure is applied to a gas in a closed container, the volume of the gas decreases he product of pressure and

More information

UNIT 10 - GASES. Notes & Worksheets - Honors

UNIT 10 - GASES. Notes & Worksheets - Honors Ideal Gas Equation 1 WKSHT 1.) What is the pressure exerted by 2.0 moles of an ideal gas when it occupies a volume of 12.0 L at 373 K? 2.) A flashbulb of volume 2.6 cm 3 contains O 2 gas at a pressure

More information

Lecture 8 questions and answers The Biological Pump

Lecture 8 questions and answers The Biological Pump Lecture 8 questions and answers The Biological Pump (1) How long would it take a particle of about 2micron in size and a density of 1.5 g/cm 3 to get to the bottom of the sea (4000m)? How do particles

More information

. In an elevator accelerating upward (A) both the elevator accelerating upward (B) the first is equations are valid

. In an elevator accelerating upward (A) both the elevator accelerating upward (B) the first is equations are valid IIT JEE Achiever 2014 Ist Year Physics-2: Worksheet-1 Date: 2014-06-26 Hydrostatics 1. A liquid can easily change its shape but a solid cannot because (A) the density of a liquid is smaller than that of

More information

Pressure is defined as force per unit area. Any fluid can exert a force

Pressure is defined as force per unit area. Any fluid can exert a force Physics Notes Chapter 9 Fluid Mechanics Fluids Fluids are materials that flow, which include both liquids and gases. Liquids have a definite volume but gases do not. In our analysis of fluids it is necessary

More information

Pressure Measurement

Pressure Measurement Pressure Measurement Manometers Sensors, Transducers Ashish J. Modi Lecturer, Dept. of Mech.Engg., Shri S.V.M. inst. Of Technology, Bharuch Pressure Pressure is a force per unit area exerted by a fluid

More information

Graham s Law of Diffusion 1. Dalton s law of partial pressure is not applied for 1) N CO ) NO O 3) CO O ) O, N. vessel contains Helium and Methane in : 1 molar ratio at 0 bar pressure. Due to leakage,

More information

Worksheet: Solubility

Worksheet: Solubility 1. According to your Reference Tables, which substance forms an unsaturated solution when 80 grams of the substance is dissolved in 100 grams of H 2 O at 10 C? (A) KI (B) KNO 3 (C) NaNO 3 (D) NaCl 2. The

More information

PETER STARODUB - PALOS VERDES PENINSULA HIGH SCHOOL

PETER STARODUB - PALOS VERDES PENINSULA HIGH SCHOOL STARODUB CHEM. 2AP UNIT 2-2 CH. 5: Gases 1 UNIT 2-2: CH. 5 GASES READ P. 179 214 ASSIGNMENTS: #1 P. 7 #1-12 Pressure Problems #2 P. 14 #1-17 Gas Law Problems #3 P. 17 #1-12 Gas Density, Molar Mass, Stoichiometry

More information

Heat Engine. Reading: Appropriate sections for first, second law of thermodynamics, and PV diagrams.

Heat Engine. Reading: Appropriate sections for first, second law of thermodynamics, and PV diagrams. Heat Engine Equipment: Capstone, 2 large glass beakers (one for ice water, the other for boiling water), temperature sensor, pressure sensor, rotary motion sensor, meter stick, calipers, set of weights,

More information

Gas Laws. 2 HCl(aq) + CaCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + CaCl 2 (aq) HCl(aq) + NaHCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + NaCl(aq)

Gas Laws. 2 HCl(aq) + CaCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + CaCl 2 (aq) HCl(aq) + NaHCO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) + NaCl(aq) Gas Laws Introduction: Although we cannot see gases, we can observe their behavior and study their properties. For example, we can watch a balloon filled with helium gas floating in air and conclude that

More information

Gas Laws Chapter 14. Complete the following pressure conversion. Be sure to show how units cancel.

Gas Laws Chapter 14. Complete the following pressure conversion. Be sure to show how units cancel. Gas Laws Chapter 14 Complete the following pressure conversion. Be sure to show how units cancel. 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 101.3 kpa = 14.7 psi = 1.013 bar 1. The air pressure for a certain tire

More information

Chapter 13 Gases. Review Skills

Chapter 13 Gases. Review Skills Chapter 13 Gases t s Monday morning, and Lilia is walking out of the chemistry building, thinking about the introductory lecture on gases that her instructor just presented. Dr. Scanlon challenged the

More information

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages )

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages ) Name Date Class 3 SAES OF MAER SECION 3. HE NAURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) his section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature

More information

Lab Dates. CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 11 Gas Laws Notes

Lab Dates. CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 11 Gas Laws Notes Name Period CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 11 Gas Laws Notes Quiz Date Lab Dates Exam Date Notes, Homework, Exam Reviews and Their KEYS located on CRHS Academic Chemistry Website: https://cincochem.pbworks.com

More information

CTB3365x Introduction to Water Treatment

CTB3365x Introduction to Water Treatment CTB3365x Introduction to Water Treatment D4b Aeration Doris van Halem Did you know that there are not just gasses in your glass of sparkling coke, but also in the tap water you drink? Welcome to the water

More information

AP* Chemistry GASES mm Hg = torr =1.00 atm = kpa 10 5 Pa

AP* Chemistry GASES mm Hg = torr =1.00 atm = kpa 10 5 Pa THE PROPERTIES OF GASES Only 4 quantities are needed to define the state of a gas: a) the quantity of the gas, n (in moles) b) the temperature of the gas, T (in KELVINS) c) the volume of the gas, V (in

More information

Determination of R: The Gas-Law Constant

Determination of R: The Gas-Law Constant Determination of R: The Gas-Law Constant PURPOSE: EXPERIMENT 9 To gain a feeling for how well real gases obey the ideal-gas law and to determine the ideal-gas-law constant R. APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS: KClO

More information

THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES

THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES 14 THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES SECTION 14.1 PROPERTIES OF GASES (pages 413 417) This section uses kinetic theory to explain the properties of gases. This section also explains how gas pressure is affected by

More information

A Model of Gas Bubble Growth by Comsol Multiphysics

A Model of Gas Bubble Growth by Comsol Multiphysics Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSO Conference 21 Paris A Model of Gas Bubble Growth by Comsol Multiphysics B.Chinè *1,2 and M. Monno 1,3 1 aboratorio MUSP, Macchine Utensili e Sistemi di Produzione,

More information

Numerical Simulation of Instability of Geothermal Production Well

Numerical Simulation of Instability of Geothermal Production Well GRC Transactions, Vol. 37, 2013 Numerical Simulation of Instability of Geothermal Production Well Ryuichi Itoi 1, Yasunari Katayama 3, Toshiaki Tanaka 1, Naoto Kumagai 2, and Takaichi Iwasaki 3 1 Department

More information

Wind Regimes 1. 1 Wind Regimes

Wind Regimes 1. 1 Wind Regimes Wind Regimes 1 1 Wind Regimes The proper design of a wind turbine for a site requires an accurate characterization of the wind at the site where it will operate. This requires an understanding of the sources

More information

EDEXCEL NATIONALS UNIT 6 MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES and APPLICATIONS. ASSIGNMENT No. 4

EDEXCEL NATIONALS UNIT 6 MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES and APPLICATIONS. ASSIGNMENT No. 4 EDEXCEL NATIONALS UNIT 6 MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES and APPLICATIONS ASSIGNMENT No. 4 NAME: I agree to the assessment as contained in this assignment. I confirm that the work submitted is my own work. Signature

More information

Additional Reading General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, by Timberlake, chapter 8.

Additional Reading General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, by Timberlake, chapter 8. Gas Laws EXPERIMENTAL TASK Determine the mathematical relationship between the volume of a gas sample and its absolute temperature, using experimental data; and to determine the mathematical relationship

More information

GAS LAW WORKSHEET 1 KEY

GAS LAW WORKSHEET 1 KEY 377 GAS LAW WORKSHEET 1 KEY 1. A sample of oxygen gas occupies a volume of 436. ml at 1.0 atm. If the temperature is held constant, what would the pressure of this gas be when the gas is compressed to

More information

4.1 Why is the Equilibrium Diameter Important?

4.1 Why is the Equilibrium Diameter Important? Chapter 4 Equilibrium Calculations 4.1 Why is the Equilibrium Diameter Important? The model described in Chapter 2 provides information on the thermodynamic state of the system and the droplet size distribution.

More information

Fluids: a problem. g (L 2 d) each of the two different fluids. To find the total buoyant force, g (L 2 (L-d)) imagine that the wood block is

Fluids: a problem. g (L 2 d) each of the two different fluids. To find the total buoyant force, g (L 2 (L-d)) imagine that the wood block is Fluids, elasticity, matter Newtonian mechanics of deformable media Fluids: a roblem A beaker contains a thick layer of oil (shown in green) of density ρ 2 floating on water (shown in blue), which has density

More information