Lab 3 Introduction to Quantitative Analysis: Pumps and Measurements of Flow

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lab 3 Introduction to Quantitative Analysis: Pumps and Measurements of Flow"

Transcription

1 Georgia Institute of Technology School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences EAS 4641, Spring 2008 Lab 3 Introduction to Quantitative Analysis: Pumps and Measurements of Flow Purpose of Lab 3: 1) To gain a basic understanding of how to measure (control) a sample air flow. In this lab you will calibrate a critical orifice and will use it in the next lab to control the air-flow through a filter. The particles collected on this filter will be analyzed with the IC calibrated from the previous lab. In practically all situations in atmospheric air quality monitoring, a known quantity of air is extracted from the atmosphere through an inlet, conducted to the detector through a sampling line, and then analyzed for constituents of interest. Among other things, this requires 1) a pump to move the air and 2) a way to monitor or determine the amount of air sampled (e.g., a flow meter). The schematic below shows a typical arrangement of components. In this laboratory we will focus mainly on the measurement of flow. Inlet Sample Transmission line Detector Flow Meter or Flow Control Vacuum Pump Flow Meters To determine concentrations of atmospheric constituents, a known quantity of air must be analyzed. Typically, this requires a measurement of a flow rate (i.e., how much air was sampled over a period of time). Flow meters can be divided into two types, mass and volumetric, and the corresponding flow rates given on a mass or volumetric basis. Measurements of trace gases typically involve mass flow rates, whereas aerosol measurements are most often done on a volumetric basis. Volumetric flow rate (e.g. unit, cm 3 /s) depends on the gas T and P. However, concentrations are often reported at some reference condition, i.e., standard T and P (20 C, 1 atm). One can convert between different states by the ideal gas law. That is Q s = Q a P a /P s T s /T a where s = standard conditions; a = ambient conditions The concentration will then be: C s = C a (Q a /Q s ) 1

2 Mass flow meters (e.g. unit, g/cm 3 ) and mass flow controllers are ubiquitous and more readily available then volumetric meters and flow controllers. Using mass flow rates trace gas concentrations are reported as mixing ratios (e.g., ppbv, pptv, etc see any chemistry or atm. chemistry text for more info on mixing ratios). Flow rate Measurement Methods. (Reference: Aerosol Measurement; Principles Techniques and Applications, Editor Willeke and Baron, Chapter 22) Also see Appendix Methods to measure flow rates include: Pitot tube (measures velocity that can be converted to a flow rate) Hot wire or film anemometer (velocity measurement) Obstruction Meters o Venturi or orifice meter (measure ΔP across calibrated resistance) o Critical orifice (used to maintain constant volumetric flow) o Rotameter (variable area) Laminar flow meter (useful since can transmit particles/gases efficiently) Positive displacement meters o soap bubble o piston, which includes gas meters Mass flow meter A note of caution when measuring volumetric flow rates; care must be taken as to where the flow meter is placed since volumetric flow depends on P. Typically a volumetric flow meter is situated so that one side of the flow meter is at ambient P. In this way the measurement is of the flow rate at ambient conditions. Details on Some Specific Flow Meters (See web page file: Appendix 1 Meas of Flows.pdf for more details) Positive displacement meters are primary standards because their calibrations can be determined by direct physical measurement. The simplest and most accurate of these meters use a water surface (spirometer), or a soap bubble film (bubble flow meter) to produce a sealed chamber with variable volume. A more common positive displacement meter is the gas meter, which involves a piston moving in a cylinder. The movement of the piston, and hence the volume swept out by the piston, is recorded on a dial. A flow rate is determined from the volume of air the passes through the gas meter over a certain period of time. Laminar Flow meters are commonly employed in aerosol science since the flow meter is simply a straight narrow-bore tube that will efficiently transports particles (minimal wall losses). Thus a laminar flow meter can be used to monitor a sample flow upstream of the detector and the air to be sampled can be passed through the meter. The device is based on measuring the pressure drop through a known length of tube under fully developed laminar flow conditions. Under so-called Hagen Poiseuille flow pressure drop is directly proportional to volumetric flow rate. For circular tubes, laminar flow requires a Reynolds Number less than ~ Laminar flow meters can typically only measure flow rates up to approximately 2 L/min 2

3 A critical orifice is a small circular restriction placed in a tube to maintain a constant flow rate. If the absolute pressure downstream of an orifice is less than 0.53 times the upstream pressure the flow in the orifice throat will be sonic and further reduction in pressure does not change the flow rate. These devices are useful for taking constant flow rate samples with a vacuum pump. The are often used in integrated filter measurements of aerosol chemical composition. Flow Controllers: A flow controller combines a flow measurement with a metering valve. A feed back loop is used to maintain a constant user preset flow rate by automatic adjustment of the valve. Mass flow controllers are common and used extensively in trace gas measurement systems. 3

4 Experiment No 3: Measurement/Control of Volumetric Flow In the following experiment you will calibrate a critical orifice. An uncertainty analysis should be applied to all calibrations. Calibration of a Critical Orifice with a gas meter Set up the experiment shown in Lab Figure 1. Start with the valve totally closed and make a series (say 5 or so) repeated measurements with the gas meter and stop-watch at each valve setting. Record all pertinent data for each valve setting (e.g, volume, elapsed time, ambient pressure P 1 (use local met data) and pressure P 2. Make measurements for a total of 5 or so different valve settings. As you perform this experiment construct a graph of the absolute pressure ratio P 2 /P 1 vs Q. Note, P 1 is the ambient pressure, use 1 atm. The P 2 meter may measure gauge pressure, make sure you convert this to absolute pressure. Q is the volumetric flow rate, use units of L/min. For the last data point, remove the valve and determine the flow rate Pressure Gauge Flow Meter P 2 P 1 Valve Lab Figure L/m Critical Orifice Vacuum Pump (vane pump) 1. Make a graph of Q versus the pressure ratio (P 2 /P 1 ), include error bars and state how they were determined. 2. Is the orifice s behavior as expected, explain? (see Appendix 1 Meas of Flows.pdf). If the orifice is used in an experiment to maintain a constant flow, how would you know if it is working properly (what would you monitor). Can you think of problems when using a critical orifice when measuring aerosols. 3. Math Problem: Assume a critical orifice with 0.4 mm diameter is fabricated for air sampling purposes and used downstream of a filter. The flow rate is measured to be 1L/min when the upstream pressure is close to the ambient pressure (760 mm Hg, 20 C). 4

5 (See Appendix 1: Measurement of Flows for equation). What size of orifice (diameter) must be fabricated if the sampling flow rate is now 2 L/min, assuming the downstream/upstream pressure ratio is still less than 0.53? 5

Lab 3 Introduction to Quantitative Analysis: Pumps and Measurements of Flow

Lab 3 Introduction to Quantitative Analysis: Pumps and Measurements of Flow Georgia Institute of Technology School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences EAS 4641, Spring 2007 Lab 3 Introduction to Quantitative Analysis: Pumps and Measurements of Flow Purpose of Lab 3: 1) To gain a

More information

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Exercise 3-2 Orifice Plates EXERCISE OBJECTIVE In this exercise, you will study how differential pressure flowmeters operate. You will describe the relationship between the flow rate and the pressure drop

More information

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES revised by Igor Bolotin 03/05/12

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES revised by Igor Bolotin 03/05/12 LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES revised by Igor Bolotin 03/05/ This experiment will introduce you to the kinetic properties of low-pressure gases. You will make observations on the rates with which selected

More information

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES adapted by Luke Hanley and Mike Trenary

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES adapted by Luke Hanley and Mike Trenary ADH 1/7/014 LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES adapted by Luke Hanley and Mike Trenary This experiment will introduce you to the kinetic properties of low-pressure gases. You will make observations on the

More information

Chapter 3 EXPERIMENTAL: EQUIPMENT, SET-UP, AND PROCEDURE

Chapter 3 EXPERIMENTAL: EQUIPMENT, SET-UP, AND PROCEDURE Chapter 3 EXPERIMENTAL: EQUIPMENT, SET-UP, AND PROCEDURE 72 3.0 Introduction The experimental work was carried out in three stages. First stage: a laboratory scale single nozzle horizontal jet ejector

More information

TWO PHASE FLOW METER UTILIZING A SLOTTED PLATE. Acadiana Flow Measurement Society

TWO PHASE FLOW METER UTILIZING A SLOTTED PLATE. Acadiana Flow Measurement Society TWO PHASE FLOW METER UTILIZING A SLOTTED PLATE Acadiana Flow Measurement Society Gerald L. Morrison Presented by: Mechanical Engineering Department Daniel J. Rudroff 323 Texas A&M University Flowline Meters

More information

Gas Laws. Directions: Describe what contribution each of the Scientist below made to the Gas Laws and include there gas law equation.

Gas Laws. Directions: Describe what contribution each of the Scientist below made to the Gas Laws and include there gas law equation. Gas Laws Name Date Block Introduction One of the most amazing things about gases is that, despite wide differences in chemical properties, all the gases more or less obey the gas laws. The gas laws deal

More information

Gas flow calibrations performed at the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA)

Gas flow calibrations performed at the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA) Int. J. Metrol. Qual. Eng. 5, 303 (2014) c EDP Sciences 2014 DOI: 10.1051/ijmqe/2014012 Gas flow calibrations performed at the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA) D. Jonker and E.P. Tarnow

More information

Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids

Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids Property is meaning any measurable characteristic of a substance, such as pressure, volume, or temperature, or a characteristic that can be calculated or deduced,

More information

Pressure Measurement

Pressure Measurement Pressure Measurement Manometers Sensors, Transducers Ashish J. Modi Lecturer, Dept. of Mech.Engg., Shri S.V.M. inst. Of Technology, Bharuch Pressure Pressure is a force per unit area exerted by a fluid

More information

H o w t o U s e a R e g u l a t o r t o R e d u c e T i m e D e l a y i n a n A n a l y t i c a l S y s t e m

H o w t o U s e a R e g u l a t o r t o R e d u c e T i m e D e l a y i n a n A n a l y t i c a l S y s t e m H o w t o U s e a R e g u l a t o r t o R e d u c e T i m e D e l a y i n a n A n a l y t i c a l S y s t e m By Doug Nordstrom and Mike Adkins Swagelok Company Process measurements are instantaneous but

More information

SPH 4C Unit 4 Hydraulics and Pneumatic Systems

SPH 4C Unit 4 Hydraulics and Pneumatic Systems SPH 4C Unit 4 Hydraulics and Pneumatic Systems Properties of Fluids and Pressure Learning Goal: I can explain the properties of fluids and identify associated units. Definitions: Fluid: A substance that

More information

Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

More information

Comments on Homework. Class 4 - Pressure. Atmospheric Pressure. Gauge vs. Absolute Pressure. 2. Gauge vs. Absolute Pressure. 1.

Comments on Homework. Class 4 - Pressure. Atmospheric Pressure. Gauge vs. Absolute Pressure. 2. Gauge vs. Absolute Pressure. 1. Class 4 - Pressure 1. Definitions 2. Gauge Pressure 3. Pressure and Height of Liquid Column (Head) 4. Pressure Measurement and Manometers Please don t forget the special problem for the next HW assignment

More information

THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES

THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES 14 THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES SECTION 14.1 PROPERTIES OF GASES (pages 413 417) This section uses kinetic theory to explain the properties of gases. This section also explains how gas pressure is affected by

More information

Chapter 6 Leak detection

Chapter 6 Leak detection Chapter 6 Leak detection 1 2 1. Leak rate q L = V p t mbar l s -1 A leak rate of 1 mbar l s -1 exists in a closed vessel having a volume of 1 liter when the pressure increases by 1 mbar within one second,

More information

Additional Reading General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, by Timberlake, chapter 8.

Additional Reading General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, by Timberlake, chapter 8. Gas Laws EXPERIMENTAL TASK Determine the mathematical relationship between the volume of a gas sample and its absolute temperature, using experimental data; and to determine the mathematical relationship

More information

Level MEASUREMENT 1/2016

Level MEASUREMENT 1/2016 Level MEASUREMENT 1/2016 AGENDA 2 A. Introduction B. Float method C. Displacer method D. Hydrostatic pressure method E. Capacitance method G. Ultrasonic method H. Radar method I. Laser method J. Level

More information

PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems

PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems CHAPTER 14 Fluids Fluids at rest pressure vs. depth Pascal s principle Archimedes s principle Buoynat forces Fluids in motion: Continuity & Bernoulli equations 1. How deep

More information

CHAPTER 6: PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 6: PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT CHAPTER 6: PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT Objective To measure the permeability of rock samples using a gas permeameter and to apply Klinkenberg effect corrections to obtain the liquid permeability. Introduction

More information

This educational seminar discusses creating, measuring, and troubleshooting Rough Vacuum.

This educational seminar discusses creating, measuring, and troubleshooting Rough Vacuum. This educational seminar discusses creating, measuring, and troubleshooting Rough Vacuum. Specifically, today s talk will cover: Brief review of Vacuum Fundamentals Applications Using Rough Vacuum Rough

More information

By Syed Ahmed Amin Shah 4 th semester Class No 8 Submitted To Engr. Saeed Ahmed

By Syed Ahmed Amin Shah 4 th semester Class No 8 Submitted To Engr. Saeed Ahmed EXPERIMENT # 01 DEMONSTRATION OF VARIOUS PARTS OF HYDRAULIC BENCH. HYDRAULIC BENCH Hydraulic bench is a very useful apparatus in hydraulics and fluid mechanics it is involved in majority of experiments

More information

Name: Class: Date: SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided.

Name: Class: Date: SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. CHAPTER 11 REVIEW Gases SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Pressure =. For a constant force, when the surface area is tripled the pressure is (a) doubled. (b)

More information

Experiment 8: Minor Losses

Experiment 8: Minor Losses Experiment 8: Minor Losses Purpose: To determine the loss factors for flow through a range of pipe fittings including bends, a contraction, an enlargement and a gate-valve. Introduction: Energy losses

More information

THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER TUTORIAL NO: 1 (SPECIFIC VOLUME, PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE)

THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER TUTORIAL NO: 1 (SPECIFIC VOLUME, PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE) THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER TUTORIAL NO: 1 (SPECIFIC VOLUME, PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE) 1. A vacuum gauge mounted on a condenser reads 66 cm Hg. What is the absolute pressure in the condenser

More information

METHOD 2E - DETERMINATION OF LANDFILL GAS PRODUCTION FLOW RATE. NOTE: This method does not include all of the

METHOD 2E - DETERMINATION OF LANDFILL GAS PRODUCTION FLOW RATE. NOTE: This method does not include all of the 287 METHOD 2E - DETERMINATION OF LANDFILL GAS PRODUCTION FLOW RATE NOTE: This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling and analytical)

More information

MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY PIPE FRICTION

MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY PIPE FRICTION MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY PIPE FRICTION Objective To estimate the fluid pressure drops and roughness specifications for copper

More information

Applying Hooke s Law to Multiple Bungee Cords. Introduction

Applying Hooke s Law to Multiple Bungee Cords. Introduction Applying Hooke s Law to Multiple Bungee Cords Introduction Hooke s Law declares that the force exerted on a spring is proportional to the amount of stretch or compression on the spring, is always directed

More information

Exploring the Properties of Gases. Evaluation copy. 10 cm in diameter and 25 cm high)

Exploring the Properties of Gases. Evaluation copy. 10 cm in diameter and 25 cm high) Exploring the Properties of Gases Computer 30 The purpose of this investigation is to conduct a series of experiments, each of which illustrates a different gas law. You will be given a list of equipment

More information

Investigation on Divergent Exit Curvature Effect on Nozzle Pressure Ratio of Supersonic Convergent Divergent Nozzle

Investigation on Divergent Exit Curvature Effect on Nozzle Pressure Ratio of Supersonic Convergent Divergent Nozzle RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS Investigation on Divergent Exit Curvature Effect on Nozzle Pressure Ratio of Supersonic Convergent Divergent Nozzle Shyamshankar.M.B*, Sankar.V** *(Department of Aeronautical

More information

Lesson 12: Fluid statics, Continuity equation (Sections ) Chapter 9 Fluids

Lesson 12: Fluid statics, Continuity equation (Sections ) Chapter 9 Fluids Lesson : luid statics, Continuity equation (Sections 9.-9.7) Chapter 9 luids States of Matter - Solid, liquid, gas. luids (liquids and gases) do not hold their shapes. In many cases we can think of liquids

More information

Appendix D: SOP of INNOVA 1412 Photoacoustic Multi-Gas Monitor. Description and Principle of Operation

Appendix D: SOP of INNOVA 1412 Photoacoustic Multi-Gas Monitor. Description and Principle of Operation Page 1 of 19 : SOP of INNOVA 1412 Photoacoustic Multi-Gas Monitor Description and Principle of Operation The photoacoustic multi-gas monitor (INNOVA 1412, Innova AirTech Instruments, Denmark) is a highly

More information

Pneumatic dead-weight tester Model CPB3500

Pneumatic dead-weight tester Model CPB3500 Calibration technology Pneumatic dead-weight tester Model CPB3500 WIKA data sheet CT 31.22 Applications Primary standard for calibrating the scale in a pneumatic range from -1... 120 bar / -14.5... 1,600

More information

End of Chapter Exercises

End of Chapter Exercises End of Chapter Exercises Exercises 1 12 are conceptual questions that are designed to see if you have understood the main concepts of the chapter. 1. While on an airplane, you take a drink from your water

More information

Air Pycnometer. Operating Manual. Umwelt-Geräte-Technik GmbH

Air Pycnometer. Operating Manual. Umwelt-Geräte-Technik GmbH Operating Manual Air Pycnometer Version: 24/05/17 Umwelt-Geräte-Technik GmbH Eberswalder Str. 58 D-15374 Müncheberg phone: +49 (0) 33 43 2-89 575 fax: +49 (0) 33 43 2-89 573 e-mail: info@ugt-online.de

More information

Applications of Bernoulli s principle. Principle states that areas with faster moving fluids will experience less pressure

Applications of Bernoulli s principle. Principle states that areas with faster moving fluids will experience less pressure Applications of Bernoulli s principle Principle states that areas with faster moving fluids will experience less pressure Artery o When blood flows through narrower regions of arteries, the speed increases

More information

Sign up to receive ATOTW weekly -

Sign up to receive ATOTW weekly - THE PHYSICS OF FLOW ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK 84 9TH APRIL 2008 Paul Clements, SpR in Anaesthetics, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK. Carl Gwinnutt, Consultant Anaesthetist, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK.

More information

Name: Period: Date: CHAPTER 10 NOTES 10.3: The Gas Laws

Name: Period: Date: CHAPTER 10 NOTES 10.3: The Gas Laws Name: Period: Date: 1. Define gas laws: CHAPTER 10 NOTES 10.3: The Gas Laws 2. What units do the following measurements need to be in to describe gases? Boyle s Law a. Temperature b. Volume c. Pressure

More information

Chapter 13. Gases. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1

Chapter 13. Gases. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1 Chapter 13 Gases Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1 Section 13.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. Copyright Cengage

More information

AMT-Ex Dewpoint Transmitter

AMT-Ex Dewpoint Transmitter AMT-Ex Dewpoint Transmitter Instruction Manual Alpha Moisture Systems Alpha House 96 City Road Bradford BD8 8ES England Tel: +44 1274 733100 Fax: +44 1274 733200 email: mail@amsytems.co.uk web: www.amsystems.co.uk

More information

States of Matter Review

States of Matter Review States of Matter Review May 13 8:16 PM Physical States of Matter (Phases) Solid Liquid Melting Gas Condensation Freezing Evaporation Deposition Sublimation Sep 13 6:04 PM 1 May 13 8:11 PM Gases Chapter

More information

Air Quality 2b - PFGC/FID Analysis of Benzene and Toluene in Automobile Emissions

Air Quality 2b - PFGC/FID Analysis of Benzene and Toluene in Automobile Emissions Air Quality 2b - PFGC/FID Analysis of Benzene and Toluene in Automobile Emissions Introduction: There is a bit of explanation of the health effects of benzene in the Introduction section of the first part

More information

Pressure of the atmosphere varies with elevation and weather conditions. Barometer- device used to measure atmospheric pressure.

Pressure of the atmosphere varies with elevation and weather conditions. Barometer- device used to measure atmospheric pressure. Chapter 12 Section 1 Pressure A gas exerts pressure on its surroundings. Blow up a balloon. The gas we are most familiar with is the atmosphere, a mixture of mostly elemental nitrogen and oxygen. Pressure

More information

800 Series Mass Flow Meters and Controllers. High Performance Mass Flow Meters and Controllers

800 Series Mass Flow Meters and Controllers. High Performance Mass Flow Meters and Controllers 800 Series Mass Flow Meters and Controllers High Performance Mass Flow Meters and Controllers WHY MASS FLOW? In most processes it is mass, not volume, which is the critical variable. Volumetric flow measurements

More information

THE WAY THE VENTURI AND ORIFICES WORK

THE WAY THE VENTURI AND ORIFICES WORK Manual M000 rev0 03/00 THE WAY THE VENTURI AND ORIFICES WORK CHAPTER All industrial combustion systems are made up of 3 main parts: ) The mixer which mixes fuel gas with combustion air in the correct ratio

More information

THE INFLOW OF UNWANTED AIR

THE INFLOW OF UNWANTED AIR IN PRESSURIZED PIPES The main reason for the inflow of air in public water distribution systems is excessive water velocity. Air traveling with water in pressurized pipes can result in high turbulence

More information

Ideal gas law. Introduction

Ideal gas law. Introduction Ideal gas law Introduction We think of a gas as a collection of tiny particles in random, thermal motion. When they collide with the sides of a container, they exert a force on the container walls. The

More information

Mass Flow Controller (MFC) for Gases

Mass Flow Controller (MFC) for Gases Mass Flow Controller (MFC) for Gases Bypass MFC with capillary technology for nominal flow rates from 5 ml N /min to 15 l N /min Applicable for aggressive gases Compact design and digital communication

More information

T004.BioTector TOC Analyzer Pressure and Flow Test failure analysis

T004.BioTector TOC Analyzer Pressure and Flow Test failure analysis March 2013 PAGE 1 of 5 T004.BioTector TOC Analyzer Pressure and Flow Test failure analysis Section 1: Pressure Test. Theory of operation. The Mass Flow Controller (MFC) in the BioTector is used to confirm

More information

Technical Report. Comparison of Ventilation Standard Calibration Methods

Technical Report. Comparison of Ventilation Standard Calibration Methods Physical Test Methods Sub-Group Technical Report Comparison of Ventilation Standard Calibration Methods May 2012 Author: Ian Tindall Cerulean Linford Wood East Milton Keynes, UK Sub-Group Coordinator Nils

More information

ASSIGNMENT 2 CHE 3473

ASSIGNMENT 2 CHE 3473 DUE: May 23 ASSIGNMENT 2 CHE 3473 #Problem 1: 3.3 #Problem 2: 3.4 #Problem 3: 3.5 #Problem 4: 3.6 #Problem 5: 3.7 #Problem 6: 3.8 #Problem 7: 3.11 #Problem 8: 3.15 #Problem 9: 3.22 #Problem 10: 3.32 #Problem

More information

VAPOR PRESSURE AND ENTHALPY OF VAPORIZATION OF A PURE LIQUID: THE ISOTENISCOPE METHOD

VAPOR PRESSURE AND ENTHALPY OF VAPORIZATION OF A PURE LIQUID: THE ISOTENISCOPE METHOD Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment I-3b VAPOR PRESSURE AND ENTHALPY OF VAPORIZATION OF A PURE LIQUID: THE ISOTENISCOPE METHOD References: See relevant sections of undergraduate Physical Chemistry

More information

Theoretical Modelling of Rotary Valve Air Leakage for Pneumatic Conveying Systems

Theoretical Modelling of Rotary Valve Air Leakage for Pneumatic Conveying Systems University of Wollongong Research Online Faculty of Engineering - Papers (Archive) Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences 2002 Theoretical Modelling of Rotary Valve Air Leakage for Pneumatic Conveying

More information

Unique mounting features for Thermal Mass Flow Meters. By Martin Raab in cooperation with CaTeC b.v.

Unique mounting features for Thermal Mass Flow Meters. By Martin Raab in cooperation with CaTeC b.v. Unique mounting features for Thermal Mass Flow Meters By Martin Raab in cooperation with CaTeC b.v. Development and production of sensors and transmitters for: humidity dew point CO2 O2 air velocity mass

More information

Highest Quality. Gas Chlorination Systems

Highest Quality. Gas Chlorination Systems Highest Quality Gas Chlorination Systems Application: Gas chlorination systems are used for water disinfection and other purposes in a variety of applications. Compared to other disinfection methods, chlorine

More information

Heat Engine. Reading: Appropriate sections for first, second law of thermodynamics, and PV diagrams.

Heat Engine. Reading: Appropriate sections for first, second law of thermodynamics, and PV diagrams. Heat Engine Equipment: Capstone, 2 large glass beakers (one for ice water, the other for boiling water), temperature sensor, pressure sensor, rotary motion sensor, meter stick, calipers, set of weights,

More information

The Application of Temperature and/or Pressure Correction Factors in Gas Measurement

The Application of Temperature and/or Pressure Correction Factors in Gas Measurement The Application of Temperature and/or Pressure Correction Factors in Gas Measurement COMBINED BOYLE S CHARLES GAS LAWS To convert measured volume at metered pressure and temperature to selling volume at

More information

Leak Checking Large Vacuum Chambers

Leak Checking Large Vacuum Chambers Leak Checking Large Vacuum Chambers Technical Overview Vacuum Technologies Introduction Understanding the pump-down characteristics of a large vacuum vessel is critical for determining whether the vacuum

More information

Development of Gasdynamic Probe for Total Temperature Measurement in gases

Development of Gasdynamic Probe for Total Temperature Measurement in gases ASET 20- National Conference on Emerging Trends in Propulsion Technology Development of Gasdynamic Probe for Total Temperature Measurement in gases K Sathiyamoorthy, Souren Misra 2, Srinivas J, Baskaran

More information

Quick Reference Technical Data

Quick Reference Technical Data Bulletin 127C 2 Quick Reference Technical Data For over 100 years, The Spencer Turbine Company has specialized in innovative solutions to air and gas handling problems. Spencer's product line includes

More information

PNEUMATIC PRESSURE CONTROLLERS

PNEUMATIC PRESSURE CONTROLLERS PNEUMATIC PRESSURE CONTROLLERS VARIABLE VOLUME PRESSURE CONTROLLER MODELS: V-1 R AND V-2R The 3D Variable Volume Pressure Controller is available for requirements of 0-1,000 psi and 0-6,000 psi in absolute

More information

Slide 5 / What is the difference between the pressure on the bottom of a pool and the pressure on the water surface? A ρgh B ρg/h C ρ/gh D gh/ρ

Slide 5 / What is the difference between the pressure on the bottom of a pool and the pressure on the water surface? A ρgh B ρg/h C ρ/gh D gh/ρ Slide 1 / 47 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m3 and alcohol with a density 800 kg/m3 are selected for an experiment. If the experiment requires equal masses of each liquid, what is the

More information

Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 10, page 1] D J Weinkauff - Nerinx Hall High School. Chapter 10 Gases

Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 10, page 1] D J Weinkauff - Nerinx Hall High School. Chapter 10 Gases Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 10, page 1] Chapter 10 Gases We have talked a little about gases in Chapter 3 and we dealt briefly with them in our stoichiometric calculations in

More information

POLISH MARITIME RESEARCH 4(80) 2013 Vol 20; pp /pomr

POLISH MARITIME RESEARCH 4(80) 2013 Vol 20; pp /pomr POLISH MARITIME RESEARCH 4(80) 2013 Vol 20; pp. 25-33 10.2478/pomr-2013-0037 The influence of efficiency of the cooling system on the thermodynamic parameters and performance of a two - stage VC 20.96

More information

Full-Vacuum Chlorinator C 2212 MB / 1

Full-Vacuum Chlorinator C 2212 MB / 1 MB 2 04 12 / 1 Purpose of full-vacuum chlorinators Chlorine gas is important for the disinfection of potable and swimming pool water but also represents a source of danger as far as handling, transportation

More information

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases The word kinetic refers to. Kinetic energy is the an object has because of its motion. Kinetic Molecular

More information

Fundamentals of NGL Sampling Systems. By Dominic Giametta & Jim Klentzman

Fundamentals of NGL Sampling Systems. By Dominic Giametta & Jim Klentzman Fundamentals of NGL Sampling Systems By Dominic Giametta & Jim Klentzman The purpose of this paper is to discuss in depth the systems we use as a standard to sample natural gas liquids, or NGL s. Before

More information

1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that:

1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that: University Physics (Prof. David Flory) Chapt_15 Thursday, November 15, 2007 Page 1 Name: Date: 1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that: A) pressure is the same

More information

Gases and Pressure SECTION 11.1

Gases and Pressure SECTION 11.1 SECTION 11.1 Gases and In the chapter States of Matter, you read about the kineticmolecular theory of matter. You were also introduced to how this theory explains some of the properties of ideal gases.

More information

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES PAGE: 1 of 14 CONTENTS 1.0 SCOPE AND APPLICATION 2.0 METHOD SUMMARY 3.0 SAMPLE PRESERVATION, CONTAINERS, HANDLING, AND STORAGE 4.0 INTERFERENCES AND POTENTIAL PROBLEMS 5.0 EQUIPMENT/APPARATUS 5.1 Subatmospheric

More information

BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY

BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY Dr.R.Selvakumar.M.D.D.A.DNB Professor of Anaesthesiology, K.A.P.Viswanatham Govt medical college, Trichy. The current practice of Anaesthesiology demands knowledge

More information

3 Flow and Pressure Control

3 Flow and Pressure Control 3 Hydrogen shutdown Column shutdown Turning gas flows on and off EPC-controlled streams NonEPC-controlled streams Electronic Pneumatic Control (EPC) Interpreting flow and pressure readings Configuration

More information

Inquiry Module 1: Checking the calibration of a micropipette

Inquiry Module 1: Checking the calibration of a micropipette Inquiry Module 1: Checking the calibration of a micropipette 1. Introduction Larger volumes (1mL and more) are usually measured using pipets or measuring cylinders. Such cylinders and pipets are labelled

More information

Section GAS CHLORINATION SYSTEM

Section GAS CHLORINATION SYSTEM PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SUMMARY Section 11260 This Section includes the furnishing and subsequent installation, complete and in place, of a functioning gas chlorination disinfection system for water as shown

More information

Inflatable Packer Single & Double. Single & Double Packer Dimension. Wireline Packer. Water Testing Packer (WTP) Packer

Inflatable Packer Single & Double. Single & Double Packer Dimension. Wireline Packer. Water Testing Packer (WTP) Packer Inflatable Packer Single & Double Single & Double Packer Dimension Wireline Packer Water Testing Packer (WTP) Packer Packer Working Pressure & Depth Chart Packer Water Hand Pump Packer Air Driven Pump

More information

Figure 1 Schematic of opposing air bearing concept

Figure 1 Schematic of opposing air bearing concept Theoretical Analysis of Opposing Air Bearing Concept This concept utilizes air bearings to constrain five degrees of freedom of the optic as shown in the figure below. Three pairs of inherently compensated

More information

1. All fluids are: A. gases B. liquids C. gases or liquids D. non-metallic E. transparent ans: C

1. All fluids are: A. gases B. liquids C. gases or liquids D. non-metallic E. transparent ans: C Chapter 14: FLUIDS 1 All fluids are: A gases B liquids C gases or liquids D non-metallic E transparent 2 Gases may be distinguished from other forms of matter by their: A lack of color B small atomic weights

More information

Boyle s Law. Pressure-Volume Relationship in Gases. Figure 1

Boyle s Law. Pressure-Volume Relationship in Gases. Figure 1 Boyle s Law Pressure-Volume Relationship in Gases The primary objective of this experiment is to determine the relationship between the pressure and volume of a confined gas. The gas we use will be air,

More information

A Journal of Practical and Useful Vacuum Technology. By Phil Danielson

A Journal of Practical and Useful Vacuum Technology. By Phil Danielson A Journal of Practical and Useful Vacuum Technology From By Phil Danielson Thermal Conductivity Gauges Thermal conductivity pressure gauges are extremely common in vacuum technology, but an understanding

More information

Pre-adjustable pressure reducing valves with self-contained cartridge

Pre-adjustable pressure reducing valves with self-contained cartridge Pre-adjustable pressure reducing valves with self-contained cartridge 535..H series ACCREDITED ISO 91 FM 15 15/17 GB replaces 15/1GB Function Pressure reducing valves are devices which, when installed

More information

Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases

Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases I. First Concepts a. The 3 states of matter most important to us: solids, liquids, and gases. b. Real Gases and Ideal Gases i. Real gases exist, ideal gases do not ii.

More information

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 10. Gases. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 10. Gases. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Presentation Chapter 10 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Characteristics of Unlike liquids and solids, gases Expand to fill their containers. Are highly compressible.

More information

The Ideal Gas Constant

The Ideal Gas Constant Chem 2115 Experiment # 8 The Ideal Gas Constant OBJECTIVE: This experiment is designed to provide experience in gas handling methods and experimental insight into the relationships between pressure, volume,

More information

Long term stability tests of INO RPC prototypes

Long term stability tests of INO RPC prototypes Long term stability tests of INO RPC prototypes While the problem of sudden aging in the glass RPC prototypes is being investigated, a few RPCs of dimension 40 cm 30 cm were fabricated, using glass procured

More information

Lab. Manual. Fluid Mechanics. The Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering

Lab. Manual. Fluid Mechanics. The Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering Lab. Manual of Fluid Mechanics The Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering General Safety rules to be followed in Fluid Mechanics Lab: 1. Always wear shoes before entering lab. 2. Do not touch

More information

A New Way to Handle Changing Fluid Viscosity and the Full-to-empty Effect

A New Way to Handle Changing Fluid Viscosity and the Full-to-empty Effect A New Way to Handle Changing Fluid Viscosity and the Full-to-empty Effect Nordson EFD, 40 Catamore Blvd., East Providence RI 02914 www.nordsonefd.com A New Way to Handle Changing Fluid Viscosity And the

More information

To convert to millimeters of mercury, we derive a unit factor related to the equivalent relationship 29.9 in. Hg = 760 mm Hg.

To convert to millimeters of mercury, we derive a unit factor related to the equivalent relationship 29.9 in. Hg = 760 mm Hg. Example Exercise 11.1 Gas Pressure Conversion Meteorologists state that a falling barometer indicates an approaching storm. Given a barometric pressure of 27.5 in. Hg, express the pressure in each of the

More information

1.3. PROCESS MONITORING AND CONTROL

1.3. PROCESS MONITORING AND CONTROL 1.3. PROCESS MONITORING AND CONTROL An important part of any chemical process is the instrumentation that is provided to monitor and control it. The common element of the two functions, monitoring and

More information

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to do the following:

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to do the following: Liquid-Phase Contacting Scrubbers Goal To familiarize you with the operation, collection efficiency, and major maintenance problems of liquid-phase contacting scrubbers. Objectives At the end of this lesson,

More information

Oil-Lubricated Compressors for Regenerative Cryocoolers Using an Elastic Membrane

Oil-Lubricated Compressors for Regenerative Cryocoolers Using an Elastic Membrane Oil-Lubricated Compressors for Regenerative Cryocoolers Using an Elastic Membrane E.C. Luo, Z.H. Wu, G.Y. Yu, J.Y. Hu, and W. Dai Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences

More information

H16 Losses in Piping Systems

H16 Losses in Piping Systems H16 Losses in Piping Systems The equipment described in this manual is manufactured and distributed by TECQUIPMENT LIMITED Suppliers of technological laboratory equipment designed for teaching. BONSALL

More information

GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO FLOW METER INSTALLATION EFFECTS

GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO FLOW METER INSTALLATION EFFECTS GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO FLOW METER INSTALLATION EFFECTS www.tuvnel.com An Introductory Guide to Flow Meter Installation Effects The aim of this Good Practice Guide is to introduce the subject

More information

CHAPTER 3 AUTOMOTIVE AIR COMPRESSOR

CHAPTER 3 AUTOMOTIVE AIR COMPRESSOR 30 CHAPTER 3 AUTOMOTIVE AIR COMPRESSOR 3.1 INTRODUCTION A machine providing air at a high pressure is called as an air compressor. Air compressors have been used in industry for well over 100 years because

More information

Full Range Pressure Compensating Variable Flow Control

Full Range Pressure Compensating Variable Flow Control Engineering & Manufacturing Solutions Specifications: See flow chart for capacity. Rated for 3000 psi (207 bar). Weighs 7- ¾ lbs. (3.52 kg). 30-Micron Filtration Recommended. Torque to turn side lever

More information

Another convenient term is gauge pressure, which is a pressure measured above barometric pressure.

Another convenient term is gauge pressure, which is a pressure measured above barometric pressure. VACUUM Theory and Applications Vacuum may be defined as the complete emptiness of a given volume. It is impossible to obtain a perfect vacuum, but it is possible to obtain a level of vacuum, defined as

More information

PRESSURE REGULATORS AND FLOWMETERS, ALL MEDICAL GASES

PRESSURE REGULATORS AND FLOWMETERS, ALL MEDICAL GASES PRESSURE REGULATORS ALL MEDICAL GASES In this section we propose our pressure regulators (FM series, MU and MERCURY ) and our Rs flowmeters for applications other than oxygen therapy (presented in the

More information

Botlek Studiegroep Badotherm. Solving measurements issues with Diaphragm seals 3 Case Studies

Botlek Studiegroep Badotherm. Solving measurements issues with Diaphragm seals 3 Case Studies Botlek Studiegroep 9-4-2015 Badotherm Solving measurements issues with Diaphragm seals 3 Case Studies Prepared: 10/04/2015 Badotherm Company Summary Badotherm introduction Family owned company Founded

More information

Glass microchip for droplet chemistry

Glass microchip for droplet chemistry ANALYTICAL MICROSYSTEMS Exercise No. 2 Glass microchip for droplet chemistry Goals of exercise: During this laboratory students will investigate range of ratio of water and oil pressure which is necessary

More information

XDF BURNERS DUAL FUEL EXCESS AIR BURNER FEATURES DESCRIPTION EXCESS AIR OPERATION

XDF BURNERS DUAL FUEL EXCESS AIR BURNER FEATURES DESCRIPTION EXCESS AIR OPERATION DUAL FUEL EXCESS AIR BURNER MODEL: 3610, 3651 Revision: 0 FEATURES Burns all fuel gases or light oils Nozzle mix design for on ratio control or excess air 350% excess air all sizes on gas or oil Turndown

More information

Increase in Evaporation Caused by Running Spa Jets swhim.com

Increase in Evaporation Caused by Running Spa Jets swhim.com Increase in Evaporation Caused by Running Spa Jets swhim.com Nomenclature A pipe cross-section area, m D water inlet diameter of the venturi tube nozzle, mm diameter of small end of the throat of the venturi

More information