1 Cartridge Based & Point-Of-Care Blood Gas Analyser QAP Performances & Quality Management Systems.. Issues AACB QC Workshop 4 Brisbane 16th Sept John Calleja
2 Objectives To discuss Pre-Analytical Issues & the limitations of commonly used Quality Systems. associated with Cartridge Based & Point of Care Blood Gas Devices especially in relation to : RCPA Blood Gas & RCPA POCT Blood Gas.. Programs To highlight optimised procedures to help eliminate / minimise such pre-analytical errors in these programs Generate discussion amongst audience members in how they cope with some of these issues..
4 QAP POCT Blood Gas 6 Labs using method 4 Labs 4 Labs with-in in group group -- Two Two Labs Labs High High
5 QAP POCT Blood Gas 5 Labs using method 4 Labs 4 Labs with-in in group group - -Lab Tworeads Labs High High
6 QAP POCT Blood Gas 4 Labs using method 4 2 Labs in aregroup High 2-Labs Two Labs readshigh Low
7 QAP POCT Blood Gas 6 Labs using method 4 Labs 4 Labs are in in group group 2- Two LabsLabs outlying High
8 Content QAP BG / POC BG Programs Sources of Pre-Analytical Errors / Specific Issues Specific Limitations of POCT Device Quality Management Programs.. to demonstrate adequate or deficient ongoing performance. Standardised techniques for pre-analytical error minimisation ABL90 EPOC QAP Outliers Follow-Up / Documentation Pre-Analytical Causes QC Performances on the day & in period Bias investigation & management Imprecision investigation & management
9 Very Volatile QA Materials Many potential pre-analytical Errors Inability to use Best Practice QC Procedures Wide Int.QC Limits vs.. QAP Limits QAP Method Medians that are not necessarily reliable Peer Group Reference Values
10 1. Sources of Pre-Analytical Error in.. Blood Gas QAP & POCT Programs
11 Issues The Importance of QAP Sample Temperature Equilibration Proper QAP Sample Mixing How you Hold the QAP Sample Vial -Effects on Heat Transfer / Vial Temperature Role of Frothing Importance of Prompt QAP Sample Analysis & Correct Handling / vs. The Effects of Time Delays
12 1.1 Effect of Vial Temperature Equilibration on Gas Solubilities As temperature rises, gasses become less soluble in the aqueous phase. Solubility of CO2 in water = 171 ml CO2 / 100 ml H2O 88 ml CO2 / 100 ml H2O 30 ml CO2 / 100 ml 0o 20o 60o C => For a QAP vial with a Low temp - could get False HIGH pco2 gas readings High temp - could get False LOW pco2 gas readings.
13 1.1 Effect of Temperature on Gas Solubilities Solubility of O2 in water = 0.92 ml O2 / 100 ml H2O 0.61 ml O2 / 100 ml H2O 0.53 ml O2 / 100 ml 4o 22o 30o C => For a QAP vial with a Low temp - could get False HIGH po2 gas readings High temp - could get False LOW po2 gas readings.
14 Excerpt.. From a Blood Gas Analyser Manufacturer s Manual - Showing Temp Corrections for B.Gas QC Ambient Room Temp. taken as 21 23o C If vial 5oC below R.T. PO2: mmhg Higher PCO2: +1.6 mmhg Higher If vial 5oC above RT. PO2: mmhg Lower PCO2: -1.5 mmhg Lower
15 1.1 Effect of Temperature on Gas Solubilities
16 Action Required: Prior to Analysis - QAP samples should be brought to Room Temperature ~ 22 O c - Remove from fridge 1 hour pre-analysis
17 1.2 Gas Solubilities & Effects of Mixing At 1 Atmosphere (760 mmhg) and 20 0C Solubility of CO2 & O2 gasses in water is.. CO2 = 88 ml CO2 / 100 ml H2O O2 0.6 ml O2 / 100 ml H2O = O2 CO2 CO2.. is much more soluble in water.. than O2
18 Sample Mixing Inside the vial:.. Gases (O2, CO2).. are in a state of equilibrium. Distributed between. the air-in-the-vial.. and the aqueous material. Action Required: Samples must be mixed vigorously otherwise.. O2 will tend to stay in gas phase, rather than aqueous phase
19 1.3 How you Hold the Vial to Mix it! may affect the temperature of the vial which may upset the equilibration of the gases between the aqueous phase & gas phase which may give false results!
20 In-Correct Handling Holding the vials in either of these manners - results in Heat Transfer!
21 Correct Handling Action Required: Holding Vial in either of these manners.. Eliminates Heat Transfer to vial from hands!
22 1.4 Sample Frothing After vigorous mixing.. Froth forms at the Top of the Vial. Get: Froth at top. Liquid at bottom The Froth formed helps to keep the dissolved gases in the aqueous phase!
23 1.5 Safety - When opening the vial.. Consider Safety Use gauze or tissues to protect fingers. Position the red dot, to face you. Bend both sides downward away from you Snap vial open
24 1.6 Sampling & Time Delays Post Opening QAP Vials Questions are 1. How much time do we have.. From the time of mixing / opening the vial?.. & 2. How should we Sample the Vials Correctly on Different Analysers to minimise delays..?? & 3. How are results affected by.. Poor Technique &.. Time delays?
25 Sampling techniques techniques.. l l l l Direct Aspiration (via inst. sample probe). Use of an Adaptor Needle & Syringe Capillary Tube Action Required: lmust be Quick.. lin secs. luse a primed 2 ml Syringe / with Blunt Needle. lwith No air bubbles.. into aspirator, syringe or capillary.
26 The effects of Air Gas Compositions & Delayed Analysis on QAP results. The table below shows The Gas Compositions of Air! 1 Atmosphere = 760 mmhg: Partial Pressures of O2 = 21% x 760 = 159 mmhg Partial Pressures of CO2 = 0.031% x 760 = 0.24 mmhg Implications: Samples with low PO2 may get atmospheric contamination High CO2 may get loss to atmosphere!
27 2.0 Examples.. Effects on 2.1 P Other Analytes
28 Effects of Delayed Analysis - QAP sample with Low O2 Sample with Low PO2 (eg) mmhg + Delay Contamination of sample with atmospheric O2.. Atmospheric O2 159 mmhg Atmospheric O2 contamination. Outcome Falsely High QAP result.. For O2 Sample w Low O2 ~ mmhg
29 (eg) Lab with Oxygen Contamination Sample with High O2 (Tgt=160mmHg) - is on target (160)! Sample with Low O2 (Tgt=75mmHg) - is High (86)! Investigation showed: - Not in-line with their method group - But Int. QC OK on day & in-period. - Delayed Analysis > Pre-Analytical O2 contamination - giving False High O2!
30 Same Lab with earlier Oxygen Contamination Results history & duplicate samples show: the lab made the same sampling delay errors later in cycle! see duplicate samples 33-2 & 33-7 But - Non-method related +ve Bias at low concentration...at high concentrations lab performing well!
31 Delayed Analysis QAP sample with High O2 Sample with High PO2 (eg) mmhg + Delay Loss of O2 from sample to atmosphere.. Atmospheric O2 159 mmhg O2 diffuses to atmosphere. Outcome Falsely Low QAP result.. For O2 Sample w High O2 ~ mmhg
32 Balancing Forces for po2 recovery in QAP samples Warm >22oC Cool <22oC false Low false High Poor mixing Good mixing false Low - correct recovery Minimal, < 20s -correct recovery false High Minimal, < 20s -correct recovery Delayed Delayed false Low Need to get temperature, mixing sampling & timing.. RIGHT.. for successful measurement! Temperature Sample Mixing Sampling Delay for samples with PO2 < 160 mmhg Sampling Delay for samples with PO2 >160 mmhg
33 2.0 Examples.. Effects on 2.1 P Other Analytes
34 2.3 How analytes are Affected! 1.0 PH: PH is dependant on PCO2 Henderson Hasselback Equation: ph = Log [HCO3-] / (0.031 x PCO2) If PCO2 is falsely High PH will be Falsely LOW If PCO2 is falsely Low PH will be Falsely HIGH 2.0 Haemoglobin - EPOC measures Haematocrit not HB. - No red-cells present in QAP POC material must be microparticles => Correct recovery may be dependant on correct Vial Mixing.
35 3. Standardised Sampling Techniques to minimise Pre-Analytical Error. 3.1 P.O.C.T (eg) EPOC 3.2 Cartridge Based (eg) ABL90
36 3.1 EPOC Analyser.
37 3.1 QAP Sampling EPOC analyser Equilibrate the QAP vial - min. 1 RT ( Do NOT open yet! ) After QAP Sample Equilibration: Turn on EPOC & allow to initialise Insert an EPOC Test-Card when its ready! EPOC performs Card Integrity Checks & Card Calibration (~ 3 minutes total ) After card is calibrated you have ~ 7 mins to run sample When running QAP samples Important!! run in QA Mode (NOT in Patient Sample mode! ) - This allows a wider response of values & leads to greater analysis success > necessary as QAP samples & Int. QCs are aqueous.. not Whole Blood Prepare a 2ml Syringe + Blunt needle Prime the Syringe plunger (3-4 times).. to get a smooth plunger action. Mix QAP sample vigorously (~ secs) Snap-open & Draw QAP sample into syringe Withdraw needle & Expel air from syringe. Invert Syringe & dispel a few drops onto a tissue Apply Sample from Syringe to cartridge.
41 4. Int. QC Management. of P.O.C. & Cartridge Based Blood Gas Analysers
42 4.1 What does NATA Require?
43 Acknowledges Cartridge Based Instruments Classifies into 2 types Acknowledges Electronic Checks Requires separate QC/QA of Cartridges
44 References the AACB POCT Position Statement Adds Wet QC as a Requirement Categorises POCT into: Low & Medium Complexity devices Min. 1 QC / Month Min. 2 QC / Month
45 Adds conditions for when additional QC checks needed. Comments on ideal QC Matrix States B Gas QC Requirement Daily QC at 2 or more levels Exempts Cartridge Based Instruments from daily req ment
46 4.2 How do we manage Int. QC for a P.O.C. Blood Gas Analyser? (eg) E.P.O.C. Analyser & What are the Issues?
47 4.21 P.O.C (EPOC) Analyser Issues Sensor Software Configuration Version Instruments require.. Sensor Software Configuration Version Updates Need to refer to the Alere web-site 2 updates / Year ~ Jan / July 1 month notification by Alere is provided Must be applied before prev. version expires - otherwise can t use analyser! Int. QC Targets & Limits must also be updated at the time. QC Value Assignment Sheets for Software Version
48 4.22 P.O.C. (EPOC) Analyser Issues QC Ranges Int. QC Targets & Limits updates Specific to.. Sensor Configuration version & Int. QC Lot No QC Value Assignment Sheets for Software Version / QC Lot No. QC Targets & Allowable2sd ranges
49 4.23 P.O.C (EPOC) Analyser Issues QC Ranges Int. QC Monitoring Spreadsheets QC for a given Sensor Configuration version Int. QC Lot No Test Card Lot No. QC Targets & Allowable2sd ranges.. FROM Value Assignment Sheets
50 4.24 P.O.C (EPOC) Analyser Issues QC Ranges This is Inappropriate!!! As several Int. QC Lot Nos. noted!.. All being referenced against the same QC Targets & Allowable2sd ranges > Value assignments must be updated for each QC Lot / Sensor Config. versions
51 4.25 P.O.C (EPOC) Analyser Issues - QC Ranges vs. QAP Allowable Limits EPOC QC Ranges: Int. QC Ranges Expressed as Allowable Range %
52 RCPA QAP Allowable Limits
53 4.25 P.O.C (EPOC) Analyser Issues - QC Ranges vs. QAP Allowable Limits Study of the Ratios of.. EPOC Int. QC Ranges / QAP ALE EPOC Ranges! All Should be < 1 Most > 1.. (1.3 4) QAP Ranges! Ratio of.. Int QC 2SD / QAP ALE Ratio = 24.3% / 6% = 4.05
54 4.25 P.O.C (EPOC) Analyser Issues - QC Ranges vs. QAP Allowable Limits Ratio of.. Int QC 2SD Range / QAP ALE Most Ratios >> 1.. (1.3 4).. All Should be < 1
55 Other Issues
56 4.26 P.O.C (EPOC) Analyser - Other Issues : We are unable to apply Traditional Laboratory QC Best Practices.. to assess.. P.O.C (eg. EPOC) analysers.. for ongoing precision & accuracy performances. Reasons being.. Include: We are effectively forced to use manufacturer provided QC Targets & Limits for each lot of QC/Cartridge lot - as.. QC/Cartridge Lots change very frequently. Costs would be prohibitive to establish our own QC ranges ( eg. By running n=20 tests / qc level and.. establish a Mean & SD.. based QC range ) this would be impractical given the frequency with which lots change The QC is run highly infrequently.. per given QC Lot / Cartridge Lot No. (ie) at best.. get.. 4 to 6 results.. per QC level / QC lot THEN cartridge and qc lots change again.. over a 6 month period. This is inadequate to generate meaningful stats ( including Mean recovery, SD & CV ). Hence real bias trends & real imprecision performance trends cannot be meaningfully assessed. [Goto example next page ] -
58 4.27 P.O.C (EPOC) Analyser - Summary Even if we eliminate pre-analytical QAP sample handling issues by optimising procedures.. It is still possible to get QAP results outside the allowable limits.. When our Int. QC shows adequate performance. The QAP use Overall Participant & Method- Median Targets So.. if many labs in the peer group do not use optimised procedures and their results are affected by pre-analytical error - the reference medians could be skewed & incorrect. This may give the lab a false impression it is out-of range when it may be acceptable.
59 4.3 Cartridge Based Blood Gas Analyser Int. QC Management. (eg) ABL90
60 4.31 ABL90 QC ABL90 QC in AQURE 1. Date Range.. Can Display QC Sequentially.. By Selecting 2. Analyte 3. QC Level 4. Use Movable Focus Bar > Can position over the date you are interested-in. Note - Variable QC Ranges for diff Cartridge Lots 5. Position mouse cursor over data point to show QC Target & QC Range 6. Repeat for next QC Levels
61 4.32 ABL90 QC ABL90 QC Ranges These are automatically configured by analyser on Change of Cartridge ( lasts 30 days ) Not User Re-Configurable!
62 4.33 ABL90 QC Comparing ABL90 QC Ranges.. vs. QAP Allowable Limits.. QAP ALEs EPOC Ranges ABL90 QC Ranges Ratio ABL90 Int. QC Range / QAP ALE : Desirable < 1: Most > 1 Comparable for EPOC: Most > 1
63 4.34 ABL90 QC Saving Grace for ABL90 vs. P.O.C (eg. EPOC ) BGA: - QC Frequency is daily for all QC Levels on the ABL90 - Therefore get a reasonable index of developing Bias & Imprecision - This is similar to traditional best practice QC at one level - On EPOC QC is only analysed monthly. -However QC Limits are fixed & are wider than QAP ALEs... - May get instances of outlying QAP Performances when Int.QC is in-control. - QC lots change monthly so difficult to get a picture of long term accuracy & imprecision
64 5. AACB VQAG Proposed Survey
65 5.0 VQAG Proposed Survey VQAG = Victorian AACB Quality Assurance Group Proposal to send a questionnaire to a representative labs.. to investigate: Their Blood Gas Internal QC Management Practices for: Mainstream analysers (eg) ABL800, Siemans vs Cartridge Based (eg) GEM Premier, ABL90 vs. P.O.C.T (eg) istat, EPOC What QC materials are used What QC Limits are applied / Basis. Frequency at which QCs are run. Who is responsible for the analyser. Where instrument is located (eg) Lab, Reg Lab, Hospital Ward Frequency of Outliers on the RCPA Blood Gas & POCT Blood Gas Programs. How they manage follow-up & documentation of their Outliers on the RCPA Programs How they fare with NATA inspections
66 6. Conclusions
67 6.0 Conclusions There are many Pre-analytical sources of error at Play.. when analysing QAP Blood Gas & POCT BG samples Po2 is particularly vulnerable to these (pco2, ph are also vulnerable) Pre-Analytical error sources MUST therefore be managed carefully Standardised protocols have been developed & can help POCT QC management is very different to General Lab Best Practice QC Procedures making it difficult to independently & objectively assess the performance of an analyser. Labs are ( in all practical terms) forced to use the manufacturer QC Limits. Assessments have shown that these are often much wider than the RCPA QAP Allowable Limits This extends to cartridge based BG Analysers (eg) ABL90 & GEM Premier. It is either not possible or totally impractical to change these limits This means that QAP Performances may be outside of the allowable limits when Int.QC is in the acceptable Ranges Troubleshooting BG QAP for these devices is complex & a nightmare! Getting a quantitative understanding of how different labs manage the issues as a collective may help us improve our lot.
i-stat TECHNICAL BULLETIN Tris Materials for Liquid QC and OVERVIEW As part of the READi initiative (Responds, Enhances, And Delivers innovations), Abbott Point of Care (APOC) has released a new set of
12mm Dissolved Oxygen Sensor Care and Use Instructions How Dissolved Oxygen Sensors Work Your Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Probe is a galvanic electrochemistry device; i.e. it does not require power from your
HemoCue Hb 201 + Procedure Template PURPOSE The HemoCue Hb 201 + System is used for the quantitative determination of hemoglobin in blood using a specially designed analyzer, HemoCue Hb 201 +, and specially
Quality Management Determined from Risk Assessment Bruce Thomadsen University of Wisconsin and The Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences Disclosure I am the President of the Center for the
Boyle s Law: Pressure-Volume Relationship in Gases The primary objective of this experiment is to determine the relationship between the pressure and volume of a confined gas. The gas we will use is air,
Question 1: Define vital capacity. What is its significance? Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration. It is about 3.5 4.5 litres in the human body. It
Improve pipetting results in pharmaceutical formulation by using MICROMAN E Application Note LT805005 Nadège Belhadj, Gilson, France email@example.com In pharmaceutical formulation, properties of used
Respiratory Gases Exchange Dr Badri Paudel, M.D. 2 I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange 3 Partial pressure The pressure exerted by each type of gas in a mixture Diffusion of gases through liquids Concentration
Quantitative Analysis of Hydrocarbons by Gas Chromatography Introduction Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) accomplishes a separation by partitioning solutes between a mobile gas phase and a stationary liquid
Pipette specifications according to ISO 8655 Chapter 5 5.1 The ISO 8655 standard gives the accuracy and precision limits as both absolute and relative values. Specifications will depend on the technique
Applied Physics Topics 2 Dr Andrey Varvinskiy Consultant Anaesthetist Torbay Hospital, UK EDAIC Paper B Lead and Examiner TOPICS 2 Gas Laws Other Laws: Dalton, Avogadro Critical temperature Critical pressure
How Does a Trapped Gas Behave? Teacher Information Objective Students investigate the effect of changes in the volume of a confined gas on pressure at constant temperature. Using the pressure sensor, students
Automated Determination of Dissolved Gases in Water Anne Jurek Abstract: Tapping the natural gas reservoirs throughout the United States has long been a viable solution for energy independence; however
Model DSP-Ex Portable Dewpoint Meter Instruction Manual Alpha Moisture Systems Alpha House 96 City Road Bradford BD8 8ES England Tel: +44 1274 733100 Fax: +44 1274 733200 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web:
Competency Record for Sonic Cleaning Name: Competency Achieved: (Date) Evaluator: Learner: Comments: Background information on sonic testing ST 79; 2009A section 22.214.171.124 states this on weekly testing Mechanical
Respiration - Human 1 At the end of the lectures on respiration you should be able to, 1. Describe events in the respiratory processes 2. Discuss the mechanism of lung ventilation in human 3. Discuss the
! Read this first Zetasizer nano series Self installation and Quick start guide I N S T R U M E N T S MRK825-02 Zetasizer Nano series Self installation and Quick start guide MAN0383 Issue 1.1 July 2007
Tensiometer For the measurement of surface and interfacial tension Precise measuring instruments for research and industry Precision, flexibility, and reliability LAUDA Scientific offers proven solutions
Physiology of Oxygen Transport PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial I was told that there would be no math! INTRODUCTION Christopher Carroll, MD Although cells rely on oxygen for aerobic metabolism and viability,
Application Note Rapid performance verification of AZURA systems with refractive index detector Method Keywords ID HPLC Quality control, system verification, refractive index, AZURA Analytical HPLC Plus
Int. J. Metrol. Qual. Eng. 5, 303 (2014) c EDP Sciences 2014 DOI: 10.1051/ijmqe/2014012 Gas flow calibrations performed at the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA) D. Jonker and E.P. Tarnow
BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY Dr.R.Selvakumar.M.D.D.A.DNB Professor of Anaesthesiology, K.A.P.Viswanatham Govt medical college, Trichy. The current practice of Anaesthesiology demands knowledge
Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing Overview of Pulmonary Circulation o Diffusion of Gases o Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide o Transport of Gases in the Blood
TM COULTER A C T diff Analyzer Operator s Guide diff PN 4237416DB (March 2016) Beckman Coulter, Inc. 250 S. Kraemer Blvd. Brea, CA 92821 U.S.A. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS READ ALL PRODUCT MANUALS AND CONSULT
Lung Volumes and Capacities Normally the volume of air entering the lungs during a single inspiration is approximately equal to the volume leaving on the subsequent expiration and is called the tidal volume.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Capital District Health Authority Nova Scotia TITLE: POCT IL Gem 4000 Operation and Maintenance Procedure Doc #: 21038 Section: \\Management System\PLM\Point
Lab Skills Practice: Pipetting Small Volumes B3 Summer Science Camp at Olympic High School 2016 Pipetter types Serological and micropipettes are used to accurately transfer small liquid volumes (micro-liter
Retention Time Locking: Concepts and Applications Application Gas Chromatography December 1997 Authors Vince Giarrocco Bruce Quimby Matthew Klee Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2850 Centerville Road Wilmington,
Video Notes LC Troubleshooting Series Retention Time Shifts Introduction John Henderson is an Applications Scientist for Agilent Chemistries and Supplies Division. Maureen Joseph is the HPLC Columns Product
Rapid and Reliable Detection of Dissolved Gases in Water Andrea Caruso and Massimo Santoro Thermo Fisher Scientific, Milan, Italy Application Note 005 Key Words Chromeleon CDS, Environmental, Fracking,
Vapor Pressure of Liquids Computer 10 In this experiment, you will investigate the relationship between the vapor pressure of a liquid and its temperature. When a liquid is added to the Erlenmeyer flask
Experiment 9: Gas Laws VC 09 Abstract In this laboratory activity, you will experimentally confirm Boyle s Law, determine absolute zero from Gay-Lussac's Law, and determine the molecular weight of acetone,
Respiratory physiology II. Learning objectives: 29. Pulmonary gas exchange. 30. Oxygen transport in the blood. 31. Carbon-dioxide transport in the blood. 1 Pulmonary gas exchange The transport mechanism
Agilent Auxiliary Gas Module AGM 2 User s Guide Notices Agilent Technologies, Inc. 1992, 1996, 1999, 2010 No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form or by any means (including electronic storage
GC Troubleshooting We can help you. 1. Observation: no peaks no peaks missing peaks too small peaks increasing retention decreasing retention declining baseline rising baseline bleeding plateaus interfering
Page 1 of 19 : SOP of INNOVA 1412 Photoacoustic Multi-Gas Monitor Description and Principle of Operation The photoacoustic multi-gas monitor (INNOVA 1412, Innova AirTech Instruments, Denmark) is a highly
Air Displacement Pipetting Modules Total Integrated Liquid Handling Intelligent Liquid Handling For Better Results MOVING LIQUID IS EASY; PRECISION LIQUID HANDLING IS HARD Instrument manufacturers frequently
Pipette Theory and Maintenance LTC Carmen A. Bell Chief, Laboratory Operations USAMC-AFRIMS email@example.com +6602-696-2725 1 References Pharma Express: http://pharma.financialexpress.com/2008063
CLARIFICATIONS AND RESPONSES IN THE PRE BID MEETING HELD ON 19 TH AUGUST 2013 IN OUR COMMITTEE ROOM FOR THE PROCUREMENT OF DIOXIN ANALYSER (GC-MS/MS) File No : PUR/IMP/178/14 Description of Item : DIOXIN
CALCULATING THE SPEED OF SOUND IN NATURAL GAS USING AGA REPORT NO. 10 Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy JPS Measurement Consultants, Inc Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc (CEESI) 13002 Walnut Lake
Report Session 1: Introduction of Respiratory System Student 1 name: Student 2 name: Questionnaire Please, after a carefully reading of given references, answer the following questions: (1) How gas exchange
Automatic Permeability Testing: The Challenges and Solutions Author: Alyce Hartvigsen, PBI-Dansensor A/S, Ringsted, Denmark In recent years, numerous product developments and major changes in the distribution
CH2250: Techniques in Laboratory Chemistry Outline Measuring Mass Measuring Volume Significant figures Mass Measurement Mass Measurement Measure mass not weight Mass is measured with a balance (a scale
COULTER LH 500 HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER TRAINING MODULES This document is not intended to replace the information in your instrument Instructions for Use manual (IFU). Information in the Instructions for Use
DISSOLVED OXYGEN SENSOR BT34i USER S GUIDE CENTRE FOR MICROCOMPUTER APPLICATIONS http://www.cma-science.nl Short description The CMA Dissolved Oxygen (DO) sensor BT34i measures the concentration of dissolved
Chem 2115 Experiment # 8 The Ideal Gas Constant OBJECTIVE: This experiment is designed to provide experience in gas handling methods and experimental insight into the relationships between pressure, volume,
By Adam Hollingworth Table of Contents Oxygen Cascade... 2 Diffusion... 2 Laws of Diffusion... 2 Diffusion & Perfusion Limitations... 3 Oxygen Uptake Along Pulmon Capillary... 4 Measurement of Diffusing
lorer /Eppendorf N) t Xplorer plus Register your instrument! www.eppendorf.com/myeppendorf Eppendorf Xplorer / Eppendorf Xplorer plus Adjustment Copyright 2015 Eppendorf AG, Germany. All rights reserved,
Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D. OBJECTIVES: After studying this lecture, the student should understand: 1. Application of the gas laws to pulmonary physiology. 2. How to
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD IEC 60567 Third edition 2005-06 Oil-filled electrical equipment Sampling of gases and of oil for analysis of free and dissolved gases Guidance This English-language version is derived
Operating instructions for For visualization of your measurements FermVis operating instructions Important message In the interest of preventing operator errors and incorrect measurement results, you must
LEAP CO 2 Laboratory CO 2 mixtures test facility THE PROJECT AIM CO 2 flows made available by several capture techniques are contaminated with impurities and this affects the design and operations of the
Application Note CB 06/2016 EasyWarePro Message Numbers Important note: this application note is only valid beginning from EOPC V126.96.36.199 and EOP / Lab V188.8.131.52. Compared to the previous released version
Inquiry Module 1: Checking the calibration of a micropipette 1. Introduction Larger volumes (1mL and more) are usually measured using pipets or measuring cylinders. Such cylinders and pipets are labelled
Chapter 2 Pipetting techniques 16 Guide to Pipetting 2.1 Adjust the volume display CHAPTER 2 Reading and adjusting the volume The volume is shown on the volumeter Hold the body of the micropipette in one
CORESTA RECOMMENDED METHOD Nº 67 DETERMINATION OF WATER IN THE MAINSTREAM SMOKE OF CIGARS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS (November 2005) 1. FIELD OF APPLICATION The method is applicable to the particulate
Instruction Bulletin Addendum For Pressure-Balanced In Situ Oxygen Probes Instruction Bulletin Addendum IB PB1000 Part no. Serial no. Order no. Oxymitter 4000 Applicability: Used with pressure-balancing
PROCEDURE (TASK): ROUTINE VENTILATOR CHECK I. KEY PERFORMANCE ELEMENTS Procedural Element (Step): Description of Performance: 5. Verifies current ventilator Insures correspondence between physician's settings
Abstract Determining the Oxygen Transmission Rate of Carton Packages Ellinor Folkeson Verification & Validation, Package & Distribution Solutions, Carton Bottle, Tetra Pak Department of Chemical Engineering,
Work Method Statement Prepared for: The Bolton NHS Foundation Trust Prepared by: Mark Fentiman Date: 06.03.2014 Detailed Work Plan The Bolton NHS Foundation Trust Date: 06.03.2014 1 Contents: 1. The Deprox
Airox Supportair Ventilator A versatile hospital ventilator with a titration platform that enables a smooth transition to the patient s home care ventilator Titration Platform The Supportair ventilator
Chemistry 1020 Identification of an Unknown Liquid Objective To identify a pure liquid substance using the physical properties of solubility, density, and boiling point. Text reference solubility, density,
Part I. Clinical Applications Name: Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16 Lab Day/Time: 1. A person with ketoacidosis may hyperventilate. Explain why this occurs, and explain why this hyperventilation
66 LAB 7 HUMAN RESPIRATORY LAB Assignments: Due before lab: Quiz: Three Respiratory Interactive Physiology Animations pages 69 73. Complete the charts on pgs. 67 and 68 and read directions for using BIOPAC
SF 6 Product Guide Gas Analysis Instruments and Accessories Cambridge Sensotec Ltd specialises in the design and manufacture of gas analysis equipment under the Rapidox brand name. Based in the UK, the
DAT Biology - Problem Drill 12: The Respiratory System Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which statement about the partial pressure of oxygen inside the lungs is correct? Question #01 (A) The partial pressure in
RayBio Human TNF-alpha ELISA Kit Catalog #: ELH-TNFa User Manual Last revised April 15, 2016 Caution: Extraordinarily useful information enclosed ISO 13485 Certified 3607 Parkway Lane, Suite 100 Norcross,
Experiment HE-5: Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) Before Starting 1. Read the procedures for the experiment completely before beginning the experiment. Have a good understanding of how to perform the experiment
1516L Experiment 2 SOLUBILITY OF A SOLID IN WATER Objectives In this experiment you will determine the solubility of potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ) in water at various temperatures. You will prepare a plot
SUGGESTED POLICY FOR THE MONITORING OF THE CLEANING EFFICIENCY OF AN ULTRASONIC CLEANERS( SONIC & TOSI) WEEKLY SUBJECT: ULTRASONIC CLEANER MONITORING WEEKLY DEPARTMENT: Central Service APPROVED BY: EFFECTIVE:
Performance Verification of BioTek s Precision 2000 using Artel s Multichannel Volume Verification (MVV ) System Authors: Paul Held 1, John Bradshaw 2, Jason Greene 1, Alex Rogers 2, and Tanya Knaide 2
Some starting precautions: 1. Vacuum filter all buffers. Removes any large particles/debris that may clog your column De-gases the buffers 2. Clarify lysates first by centrifugation and then filtration
A Journal of Practical and Useful Vacuum Technology From By Phil Danielson Thermal Conductivity Gauges Thermal conductivity pressure gauges are extremely common in vacuum technology, but an understanding
Experiment 8 GAS LAWS FV 6/25/2017 MATERIALS: Amontons Law apparatus, Boyle s Law apparatus, Avogadro s Corollary apparatus, four beakers (2 L), warm-water bath, ice, barometer, digital thermometer, air
Sampling Considerations for Equilibrium Dissolved Oxygen [DO] Sensors Abstract Boiler water in the low parts per billion dissolved oxygen concentration range can be significantly contaminated by oxygen
46 Experiment GC : Analysis of BTEX by GC-FID Learning Goals: Familiarity with gas chromatography Gain experience in temperature programming and method development Correctly use an internal standard, and
Experiment HE-5: Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) Before Starting 1. Read the procedures for the experiment completely before beginning the experiment. Have a good understanding of how to perform the experiment
6890 GC Site Preparation (a16011) This document is believed to be accurate and up-to-date. However, Agilent Technologies, Inc. cannot assume responsibility for the use of this material. The information
Chapter 23 Gas Exchange and Transportation What is air? Mixture of gasses 78.6 % nitrogen 20.9% oxygen 0.04% carbon dioxide 0 4% water vapor depending on temperature and humidity and minor gases argon,
CTB3365x Introduction to Water Treatment D4b Aeration Doris van Halem Did you know that there are not just gasses in your glass of sparkling coke, but also in the tap water you drink? Welcome to the water