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1 Basic Instrument Scan T6BDriver.com Created: 4 Feb 2016 Updated: 28 Aug 2016

2 Information Sources Attitude Instrument Flying Control-Performance Method Scanning (Cross-check) Scanning Errors Scan Pattern Power & Attitude Combinations Transition Points Descents Overview

3 Instrument Flying Source Information NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual Chapter 17 covers Attitude Instrument Flying Information a mix of FAA instrument methods Electronically issued publication

4 Instrument Flying Source Information NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual Chapter 17 covers Attitude Instrument Flying Information a mix of FAA instrument methods Electronically issued publication Instrument Flight Training Instruction Chapter 2 covers Fundamental INAV Concepts Includes Attitude Instrument Flying & scanning Not as in-depth source as you would like

5 Instrument Flying Source Information FAA Instrument Flying Handbook Origins routed back to FAA? Chapter 4 covers Airplane Attitude Instrument flying Defines Attitude Instrument Flying: The control of an aircraft s spatial position by using instruments rather than outside visual references Defines Several methods used to scan and fly by instruments (Control- Performance / Primary & Supporting)

6 Control-Performance Method Aircraft performance achieved by controlling aircraft attitude & power

7 Control-Performance Method Aircraft performance achieved by controlling aircraft attitude & power Instrument Flight Fundamental: Power + Attitude = Performance

8 Control-Performance Method Aircraft performance achieved by controlling aircraft attitude & power Instrument Flight Fundamental: Power + Attitude = Performance Three categories of instruments:

9 Control-Performance Method Aircraft performance achieved by controlling aircraft attitude & power Instrument Flight Fundamental: Power + Attitude = Performance Three categories of instruments: Control Instruments Display immediate attitude and power indications Calibrated to permit adjustments in precise amounts

10 Control-Performance Method Aircraft performance achieved by controlling aircraft attitude & power Instrument Flight Fundamental: Power + Attitude = Performance Three categories of instruments: Control Instruments Display immediate attitude and power indications Calibrated to permit adjustments in precise amounts Performance Instruments Indicate the aircraft s actual performance Not always instantaneous

11 Control-Performance Method Aircraft performance achieved by controlling aircraft attitude & power Instrument Flight Fundamental: Power + Attitude = Performance Three categories of instruments: Control Instruments Display immediate attitude and power indications Calibrated to permit adjustments in precise amounts Performance Instruments Indicate the aircraft s actual performance Not always instantaneous Navigation Instruments Indicate position of aircraft in relation to navigation facility/fix Learn to incorporate in I22XX block of training

12 Setting Controls Control-Performance Method

13 Control-Performance Method Setting Controls Gives Known Performance

14 Control-Performance Method Adjust Setting Controls Gives Known Performance

15 Control-Performance Method Adjust Setting Controls Gives Known Performance Power Attitude Trim

16 Control-Performance Method Adjust Setting Controls Gives Known Performance PAT Principle Power Attitude Trim

17 Control-Performance Method Adjust Setting Controls Gives Known Performance PAT Principle Power Torque Attitude Trim

18 Control-Performance Method Adjust Setting Controls Gives Known Performance PAT Principle Power Torque Attitude Pitch & Bank Trim

19 Control-Performance Method Adjust Setting Controls Gives Known Performance PAT Principle Power Torque Attitude Pitch & Bank Trim Ail/Elev/Rudder

20 Control-Performance Method Adjust Setting Controls Gives Known Performance PAT Principle Power Torque Attitude Pitch & Bank Trim Ail/Elev/Rudder 200 KIAS SRT 150 KIAS SRT -20% Rule of thumb for approximate AOB (max of 30 AOB) Airspeed SRT 200 KIAS KIAS 25

21 Control-Performance Method Adjust Setting Controls Gives Known Performance PAT Principle Power Torque Attitude Pitch & Bank Trim Ail/Elev/Rudder Altitude -20% Rule of thumb for approximate AOB (max of 30 AOB) Airspeed SRT 200 KIAS KIAS 25

22 Control-Performance Method Adjust Setting Controls Gives Known Performance PAT Principle Power Torque Attitude Pitch & Bank Trim Ail/Elev/Rudder Altitude Airspeed -20% Rule of thumb for approximate AOB (max of 30 AOB) Airspeed SRT 200 KIAS KIAS 25

23 Control-Performance Method Adjust Setting Controls Gives Known Performance PAT Principle Power Torque Attitude Pitch & Bank Trim Ail/Elev/Rudder Altitude Airspeed Slip-Skid & Turn Rate -20% Rule of thumb for approximate AOB (max of 30 AOB) Airspeed SRT 200 KIAS KIAS 25

24 Control-Performance Method Adjust Setting Controls Gives Known Performance PAT Principle Power Torque Attitude Pitch & Bank Trim Ail/Elev/Rudder Altitude Airspeed Slip-Skid & Turn Rate Heading -20% Rule of thumb for approximate AOB (max of 30 AOB) Airspeed SRT 200 KIAS KIAS 25

25 Most basic skill in attitude instrument flying Scanning

26 Scanning Most basic skill in attitude instrument flying Also referred to as Cross-check

27 Scanning Most basic skill in attitude instrument flying Also referred to as Cross-check Scanning is not just looking

28 Scanning Most basic skill in attitude instrument flying Also referred to as Cross-check Scanning is not just looking Scanning incorporates: Knowing where to look & when to look Interpreting (reading) the instrument Calculating deviation from desired performance Going back to set correction on control instruments Re-checking performance instruments to ensure correction working

29 Scanning Most basic skill in attitude instrument flying Also referred to as Cross-check Scanning is not just looking Scanning incorporates: Knowing where to look & when to look Interpreting (reading) the instrument Calculating deviation from desired performance Going back to set correction on control instruments Re-checking performance instruments to ensure correction working Various BI maneuvers help improve scan All maneuvers work basic scan rhythm (where & when) & deviations (corrections) Timed Turns & S1 Works deviation recognition & corrections to precise levels Steep Turns Works speed of scan GCA & App Pattern Work basic transitions & setting known Pwr/Attitude combo

30 Scanning Errors Improper Scan Looking at/emphasizing the wrong instrument during a maneuver (omission) Beginning to scan from control instruments before the controls are set Moving eyes between instruments but not reading or making corrections to deviations

31 Scanning Errors Improper Scan Looking at/emphasizing the wrong instrument during a maneuver (omission) Beginning to scan from control instruments before the controls are set Moving eyes between instruments but not reading or making corrections to deviations Slow Scan Eye movement from scanned area to area is slow due to reading instrument or unfamiliarity of pattern Delays returning to controls causing deviations to grow before corrections

32 Scanning Errors Improper Scan Looking at/emphasizing the wrong instrument during a maneuver (omission) Beginning to scan from control instruments before the controls are set Moving eyes between instruments but not reading or making corrections to deviations Slow Scan Eye movement from scanned area to area is slow due to reading instrument or unfamiliarity of pattern Delays returning to controls causing deviations to grow before corrections Stagnating Scan/Fixation Tendency to stare at one instrument for too long causing a breakdown in scan pattern & efficiency Occurs reading instruments, trying to calculate deviations, trying to be too precise on performance instruments

33 Scanning Errors Improper Scan Looking at/emphasizing the wrong instrument during a maneuver (omission) Beginning to scan from control instruments before the controls are set Moving eyes between instruments but not reading or making corrections to deviations Slow Scan Eye movement from scanned area to area is slow due to reading instrument or unfamiliarity of pattern Delays returning to controls causing deviations to grow before corrections Stagnating Scan/Fixation Tendency to stare at one instrument for too long causing a breakdown in scan pattern & efficiency Occurs reading instruments, trying to calculate deviations, trying to be too precise on performance instruments Chasing Performance Instruments Making movements with the controls while looking at a performance instrument vice setting new controls Common error because grades are given of errors from the performance instruments

34 Scan Pattern Need to spend approx. 80% (50% FTI) of time on control instruments

35 Scan Pattern Need to spend approx. 80% (50% FTI) of time on control instruments Hub-Spoke is most common Center of scan is the control instruments Quick scans out to performance instruments & then back to control instruments Others include: Selected Radial, Inverted-V, Rectangular, circular cross-checks Glass cockpit makes scan easier than steam gauges

36 Power & Attitude Combinations Need to know what controls to set for desired performance

37 Power & Attitude Combinations Need to know what controls to set for desired performance Identify performance areas that are common and then figure control combination (reverse engineering)

38 Power & Attitude Combinations Need to know what controls to set for desired performance Identify performance areas that are common and then figure control combination (reverse engineering) Memorize these combinations to make scanning easier Chapter 2 Table Chapter 5 Table Power w/i 3% (power variable due to atmosphere or altitude)

39 Power & Attitude Combinations Need to know what controls to set for desired performance Identify performance areas that are common and then figure control combination (reverse engineering) Memorize these combinations to make scanning easier Chapter 2 Table Chapter 5 Table Power w/i 3% (power variable due to atmosphere or altitude) FTI differences pointed out in this briefing and videos Some number variance Look at a pitch picture vice a number

40 Power & Attitude Combinations Controls Controls Controls Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Cruise Climb 180 KIAS/clean Basic App Config (BAC) 120 KIAS/Gear /Flaps TO S FPM Max Rate Climb 140 KIAS/clean Precision App Final (ILS/PAR) 600 FPM /BAC S FPM Normal Cruise 200 KIAS/clean Non Precision App Final (LOC, VOR, GPS, ASR) FPM /BAC 45 Steep Turn Slow Cruise/Holding 60 Steep Turn

41 Power & Attitude Combinations Controls Controls Controls Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance 100% Cruise Climb 180 KIAS/clean Basic App Config (BAC) 120 KIAS/Gear /Flaps TO S FPM 8-10 NH (8 FTI) Max Rate Climb 140 KIAS/clean Precision App Final (ILS/PAR) 600 FPM /BAC S FPM Normal Cruise 200 KIAS/clean Non Precision App Final (LOC, VOR, GPS, ASR) FPM /BAC 45 Steep Turn Slow Cruise/Holding 60 Steep Turn

42 Power & Attitude Combinations Controls Controls Controls Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance 100% Cruise Climb 180 KIAS/clean Basic App Config (BAC) 120 KIAS/Gear /Flaps TO S FPM 8-10 NH (8 FTI) 100% Max Rate Climb 140 KIAS/clean Precision App Final (ILS/PAR) 600 FPM /BAC S FPM 15 NH Normal Cruise 200 KIAS/clean Non Precision App Final (LOC, VOR, GPS, ASR) FPM /BAC 45 Steep Turn Slow Cruise/Holding 60 Steep Turn

43 Power & Attitude Combinations Controls Controls Controls Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance 100% Cruise Climb 180 KIAS/clean Basic App Config (BAC) 120 KIAS/Gear /Flaps TO S FPM 8-10 NH (8 FTI) 100% Max Rate Climb 140 KIAS/clean Precision App Final (ILS/PAR) 600 FPM /BAC S FPM 15 NH 50% + Alt Normal Cruise 200 KIAS/clean Non Precision App Final (LOC, VOR, GPS, ASR) FPM /BAC 45 Steep Turn 0 NH Slow Cruise/Holding 60 Steep Turn

44 Power & Attitude Combinations Controls Controls Controls Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance 100% Cruise Climb 180 KIAS/clean Basic App Config (BAC) 120 KIAS/Gear /Flaps TO S FPM 8-10 NH (8 FTI) 100% Max Rate Climb 140 KIAS/clean Precision App Final (ILS/PAR) 600 FPM /BAC S FPM 15 NH 50% + Alt Normal Cruise 200 KIAS/clean Non Precision App Final (LOC, VOR, GPS, ASR) FPM /BAC 45 Steep Turn 0 NH 31% (33% FTI) Slow Cruise/Holding 60 Steep Turn 2 NH (3 FTI)

45 Power & Attitude Combinations Controls Controls Controls Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance 100% Cruise Climb 180 KIAS/clean Basic App Config (BAC) 120 KIAS/Gear /Flaps TO S FPM 8-10 NH (8 FTI) 100% Max Rate Climb 140 KIAS/clean Precision App Final (ILS/PAR) 600 FPM /BAC S FPM 15 NH 50% + Alt Normal Cruise 200 KIAS/clean Non Precision App Final (LOC, VOR, GPS, ASR) FPM /BAC 45 Steep Turn 0 NH 170 KIAS 31% (33% FTI) Slow Cruise/Holding 60 Steep Turn 2 NH (3 FTI)

46 Power & Attitude Combinations Controls Controls Controls Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance 100% Cruise Climb 180 KIAS/clean 37% (42% FTI) Basic App Config (BAC) 120 KIAS/Gear /Flaps TO S FPM 8-10 NH (8 FTI) 2.5 NH (3 FTI) 100% Max Rate Climb 140 KIAS/clean Precision App Final (ILS/PAR) 600 FPM /BAC S FPM 15 NH 50% + Alt Normal Cruise 200 KIAS/clean Non Precision App Final (LOC, VOR, GPS, ASR) FPM /BAC 45 Steep Turn 0 NH 170 KIAS 31% (33% FTI) Slow Cruise/Holding 60 Steep Turn 2 NH (3 FTI)

47 Power & Attitude Combinations Controls Controls Controls Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance 100% Cruise Climb 180 KIAS/clean 37% (42% FTI) Basic App Config (BAC) 120 KIAS/Gear /Flaps TO S FPM 8-10 NH (8 FTI) 2.5 NH (3 FTI) 100% Max Rate Climb 140 KIAS/clean 24% Precision App Final (ILS/PAR) 600 FPM /BAC S FPM 15 NH 0 NH 50% + Alt Normal Cruise 200 KIAS/clean Non Precision App Final (LOC, VOR, GPS, ASR) FPM /BAC 45 Steep Turn 0 NH 170 KIAS 31% (33% FTI) Slow Cruise/Holding 60 Steep Turn 2 NH (3 FTI)

48 Power & Attitude Combinations Controls Controls Controls Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance 100% Cruise Climb 180 KIAS/clean 37% (42% FTI) Basic App Config (BAC) 120 KIAS/Gear /Flaps TO S FPM 8-10 NH (8 FTI) 2.5 NH (3 FTI) 100% Max Rate Climb 140 KIAS/clean 24% Precision App Final (ILS/PAR) 600 FPM /BAC S FPM 15 NH 0 NH 50% + Alt Normal Cruise 200 KIAS/clean 15% Non Precision App Final (LOC, VOR, GPS, ASR) FPM /BAC 45 Steep Turn 0 NH 170 KIAS 2 NL (1 FTI) 31% (33% FTI) Slow Cruise/Holding 60 Steep Turn 2 NH (3 FTI)

49 Power & Attitude Combinations Controls Controls Controls Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance 100% Cruise Climb 180 KIAS/clean 37% (42% FTI) Basic App Config (BAC) 120 KIAS/Gear /Flaps TO 15% S FPM 8-10 NH (8 FTI) 2.5 NH (3 FTI) 2 NL (0 FTI) 100% Max Rate Climb 140 KIAS/clean 24% Precision App Final (ILS/PAR) 600 FPM /BAC 55% 50% Low S FPM 15 NH 0 NH 6 NH 50% + Alt Normal Cruise 200 KIAS/clean 15% Non Precision App Final (LOC, VOR, GPS, ASR) FPM /BAC 45 Steep Turn 0 NH 170 KIAS 2 NL (1 FTI) 31% (33% FTI) Slow Cruise/Holding 60 Steep Turn 2 NH (3 FTI)

50 Power & Attitude Combinations Controls Controls Controls Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance Power Attitude Performance 100% Cruise Climb 180 KIAS/clean 37% (42% FTI) Basic App Config (BAC) 120 KIAS/Gear /Flaps TO 15% S FPM 8-10 NH (8 FTI) 2.5 NH (3 FTI) 2 NL (0 FTI) 100% Max Rate Climb 140 KIAS/clean 24% Precision App Final (ILS/PAR) 600 FPM /BAC 55% 50% Low S FPM 15 NH 0 NH 6 NH 50% + Alt Normal Cruise 200 KIAS/clean 15% Non Precision App Final (LOC, VOR, GPS, ASR) FPM /BAC 45% 40% Low 45 Steep Turn 0 NH 170 KIAS 2 NL (1 FTI) 3 NH 31% (33% FTI) Slow Cruise/Holding 60% 55% Low 60 Steep Turn 2 NH (3 FTI) 5 NH (4 FTI)

51 Transition Points Used during scan to mark point at which you return to the controls to reset the power & attitude for the next performance requirement Defined for Airspeed, Altitude, & Heading:

52 Transition Points Used during scan to mark point at which you return to the controls to reset the power & attitude for the next performance requirement Defined for Airspeed, Altitude, & Heading: Airspeed: 5 KIAS prior to desired Airspeed

53 Transition Points Used during scan to mark point at which you return to the controls to reset the power & attitude for the next performance requirement Defined for Airspeed, Altitude, & Heading: Airspeed: Altitude: 5 KIAS prior to desired Airspeed 50 prior ( 1,000 FPM) / 100 prior (descent) 200 prior (climb) / 10% VVI (max rate climb)

54 Transition Points Used during scan to mark point at which you return to the controls to reset the power & attitude for the next performance requirement Defined for Airspeed, Altitude, & Heading: Airspeed: Altitude: Heading: 5 KIAS prior to desired Airspeed 50 prior ( 1,000 FPM) / 100 prior (descent) 200 prior (climb) / 10% VVI (max rate climb) 1/3 AOB Rule of Thumb -Start with 10 prior -Most use 5 prior -Use bracket technique -Use side of Hdg Box for ref

55 Descents Enroute Descent Used when descending from higher enroute structure where speed & alt loss is not a big factor (note: 250 KIAS below 10,000 MSL) See NATOPS appendix A for max range descents and other descent profiles FTI procedure calls for KIAS & 4,000 FPM descent rate

56 Descents Enroute Descent Used when descending from higher enroute structure where speed & alt loss is not a big factor (note: 250 KIAS below 10,000 MSL) See NATOPS appendix A for max range descents and other descent profiles FTI procedure calls for KIAS & 4,000 FPM descent rate Terminal Descent Used in Terminal Area where speed is constant to maintain predictability during vectoring FTI procedure calls for maintaining current airspeed (200 KIAS) & descent rate as required

57 Descents Enroute Descent Used when descending from higher enroute structure where speed & alt loss is not a big factor (note: 250 KIAS below 10,000 MSL) See NATOPS appendix A for max range descents and other descent profiles FTI procedure calls for KIAS & 4,000 FPM descent rate Terminal Descent Used in Terminal Area where speed is constant to maintain predictability during vectoring FTI procedure calls for maintaining current airspeed (200 KIAS) & descent rate as required Enroute Descent: Terminal Descent: Airspeed KIAS Current Speed (200 KIAS) VSI 4,000 FPM As Req

58 Descents Enroute Descent Used when descending from higher enroute structure where speed & alt loss is not a big factor (note: 250 KIAS below 10,000 MSL) See NATOPS appendix A for max range descents and other descent profiles FTI procedure calls for KIAS & 4,000 FPM descent rate Terminal Descent Used in Terminal Area where speed is constant to maintain predictability during vectoring FTI procedure calls for maintaining current airspeed (200 KIAS) & descent rate as required Enroute Descent: Terminal Descent: Airspeed KIAS Current Speed (200 KIAS) VSI 4,000 FPM As Req

59 Descents Power Attitude Airspeed VSI Enroute Descent:

60 Descents Power Attitude Airspeed VSI Enroute Descent: 10% 10 NL

61 Descents Power Attitude Airspeed VSI Enroute Descent: 10% 10 NL 220 KIAS 4,000 FPM

62 Descents Power Attitude Airspeed VSI Enroute Descent: 10% 10 NL 220 KIAS 4,000 FPM Terminal Descent: 20% 5 NL

63 Descents Power Attitude Airspeed VSI Enroute Descent: 10% 10 NL 220 KIAS 4,000 FPM Terminal Descent: 20% 5 NL 200 KIAS 2,000 FPM

64 Descents Power Attitude Airspeed VSI Enroute Descent: 10% 10 NL 220 KIAS 4,000 FPM Terminal Descent: 20% 5 NL 200 KIAS 2,000 FPM ** 5% Torque = 1 Pitch change **

65 Descents Power Attitude Airspeed VSI Enroute Descent: 10% 10 NL 220 KIAS 4,000 FPM Terminal Descent: 20% 5 NL 200 KIAS 2,000 FPM 15% 6 NL 10% 7 NL 5% 8 NL IDLE% 11 NL ** 5% Torque = 1 Pitch change **

66 Descents Power Attitude Airspeed VSI Enroute Descent: 10% 10 NL 220 KIAS 4,000 FPM Terminal Descent: 20% 5 NL 200 KIAS 2,000 FPM 15% 6 NL 200 KIAS 2,300 FPM 10% 7 NL 200 KIAS 2,700 FPM 5% 8 NL 200 KIAS 3,200 FPM IDLE% 11 NL 200 KIAS 4,600 FPM ** 5% Torque = 1 Pitch change **

67 Descents Power Controls (PAT) Attitude Airspeed VSI Enroute Descent: 10% 10 NL 220 KIAS 4,000 FPM Terminal Descent: 20% 5 NL 200 KIAS 2,000 FPM 15% 6 NL 200 KIAS 2,300 FPM 10% 7 NL 200 KIAS 2,700 FPM 5% 8 NL 200 KIAS 3,200 FPM IDLE% 11 NL 200 KIAS 4,600 FPM ** 5% Torque = 1 Pitch change **

68 Descents Power Controls (PAT) Attitude Airspeed Performance VSI Enroute Descent: 10% 10 NL 220 KIAS 4,000 FPM Terminal Descent: 20% 5 NL 200 KIAS 2,000 FPM 15% 6 NL 200 KIAS 2,300 FPM 10% 7 NL 200 KIAS 2,700 FPM 5% 8 NL 200 KIAS 3,200 FPM IDLE% 11 NL 200 KIAS 4,600 FPM ** 5% Torque = 1 Pitch change **

69 Information Sources Attitude Instrument Flying Control-Performance Method Scanning (Cross-check) Scanning Errors Scan Pattern Power & Attitude Combinations Transition Points Descents Summary

70 Basic Instrument Scan T6BDriver.com

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