Circulatory And Respiration

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1 Circulatory And Respiration

2 Composition Of Blood

3 Blood

4

5 Heart 200mmHg 120mmHg Aorta Artery Arteriole 50mmHg Capillary Bed Venule Vein Vena Cava Heart

6

7 Differences Between Arteries and Veins Veins transport blood away from the heart Veins are low pressure vessels Veins have valves

8 Arteries and Veins

9

10

11 Coronary artery Plaque

12 Arteriosclerosis HDL s: Carry cholesterol away from cell to liver LDL s: Carry cholesterol to tissues including coronary artery

13

14 High blood pressure can rupture blood vessels in the brain causing a hemorrhagic stroke.

15 Normal Blood Pressure Systolic Pressure Maximum pressure during ventricular contraction Diastolic Pressure Minimum pressure during ventricular relaxation Textbook Values: SP 120 mmhg DP 80 mmhg

16 Hypertension = High Blood Pressure Ruptured blood vessels in the retina associated with hypertension

17 The Sinoatrial Node

18 The Cardiac Cycle Atrial emptying Ventricular Ventricular filling emptying

19 The Respiratory System

20 The Equation for Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP (Energy)

21 Prevents food from entering air passageways The Respiratory System Common passageway for food and air Voice box Food transport tube Wind pipe Transports air to right and left lung Functional part of lung Site of gas exchange

22 Anatomical Dead Space Anatomical Dead Space Holds 150 ml air

23

24 Alveoli: The site of gas exchange

25 Daltons Law The total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the individual pressures (partial pressures) of each of the different gases in the mixture. Atmospheric Pressure (patm) = 760 mm Hg at sea level Note: Atmospheric Pressure can be referred to as Barometric Pressure

26 Dalton s Law patm at sea level = 760 mm Hg Air 78 % N 2 21 % O 2 po 2 = (Percent O 2 in air) X (patm) po 2 =.21 X 760mmHg = 158 mm Hg

27 An increase in elevation results in a decrease in atmospheric (barometric) pressure. Mount Everest: 29,142 feet patm = 245 mm Hg po 2 =.21 X 245 mmhg = 51mm Hg

28 View Of Whitney: 14,495 feet; patm = 400 mm Hg po 2 =.21 X 400 = 84 mm Hg Mount Whitney

29 Effects of Elevation Mt. Everest: 29,142 ft. patm = 245 mm Hg po 2 at the top of Mt. Everest po 2 =.21 X 245 = 51mm Hg Mt. Whitney 14,495 ft.

30 What will happen to the size of this balloon if you carry it from sea level up a mountain? What happens to the distance between oxygen molecules as you carry the balloon up a mountain?

31 Sea Level Sea Level versus the Top of Mount Everest Mount Everest patm is Molecules are higher than Everest closer together patm is much lower than sea level Molecules are further apart

32 Hypoxia = Low Blood Oxygen The top of Red Slate Mountain Humans experience hypoxia at high elevation

33

34 Gas Diffusion po 2 = 100mmHg po 2 = 40mmHg pco 2 = 45mmHg Blood entering alveolar capillaries pco 2 = 40mmHg Blood leaving alveolar capillaries po 2 in tissues is 40mmHg pco 2 in tissues is 45mmHg

35 Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve What happens to the Saturation of Hemoglobin when po 2 increases?

36 What happens to po 2 as elevation increases?

37 Factors that affect the partial pressure of oxygen ---- Normal body temperature What happens to body the saturation of hemoglobin when body temperature rises?

38 Factors that affect the saturation of hemoglobin

39 Boyles Law A: Normal volume and pressure B: Volume is decreased resulting in increased pressure C: Volume is increased resulting in decreased pressure

40 Rib cage expands when external intercostals contract Rib cage gets smaller when external intercostals relax

41 Ventilation of the Lungs

42 Ventilation: Moving Air in and Out of Lungs Contract external intercostals Contract Diaphragm Volume of Thoracic Cavity Pressure of Thoracic cavity patm is greater than air pressure in thoracic cavity AIR MOVES IN (INHALATION)

43 Respiratory Rate and Tidal Volume Respiratory rate = Number of breaths you take per minute Textbook value = 12 breaths per minute Tidal Volume Volume of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing The volume of air inhaled or exhaled in a normal resting breath Textbook value = 500 ml per breath

44 Pulmonary Ventilation (PV) Pulmonary Ventilation (PV) The volume of air that moves in out of the lungs in one minute PV = Respiratory Rate X Respiratory Volume Resting PV = Respiratory Rate X Tidal Volume 12 breaths/min 500 ml /breath = X = 6,000 ml/min

45 Regulation of Respiratory Rate The primary factor that controls respiratory rate is the amount of CO 2 in the blood. Increased CO 2 causes a/an in respiratory rate Decreased CO 2 causes a/an in respiratory rate Hyperventilation blood CO 2 levels Holding your breath blood CO 2 levels An increase in blood CO 2 has what effect on blood ph?

46 Regulation of Respiratory Rate CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 -

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