# Review of gas frac9ons in atmospheric air 2/2/16. Metabolic Calculations of Indirect Calorimetry. Expired gas analysis.

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1 Metabolic Calculations of Indirect Calorimetry Understanding atmospheric air and gas volumes Calcula9ng VO2 The Haldane Transforma9on Calcula9ng VCO2 Calcula9ng RER Calcula9ng caloric expenditure Expired gas analysis 4 key variables of measurement 1. VE = expired volume 2. VI = inspired volume 3. FEO2 = frac9on of expired O2 4. FECO2 = frac9on of expired CO2 Review of gas frac9ons in atmospheric air Gas Conditions Inspired and expired gas condi9ons are influenced by: Gas temperature colder reduces volume Gas pressure lower pressure increases volume Water vapor content depends on temperature We need to standardize these condi9ons! 1

2 Understanding ATPS and STPD ATPS = Atmospheric Temperature and Pressure, Saturated ATPS Actual air temp (degrees C) STPD Standard temp (0 degrees C) Measured air temp ( C) Measured Pressure (mmhg) Rela9ve humidity (100%) Atmospheric Pressure (mmhg) Standard atmospheric pressure (760 mmhg) STPD = Standard Temperature and Pressure, Dry 100% Rela9ve humidity (RH) 0% Rela9ve humidity (RH) 273 K = 0 C Sea level = 760 mmhg Rela9ve humidity (0%) Water vapor pressure (depends on temp) 0 mmhg water vapor pressure 15.5 Water vapor pressures for fully saturated air RH = 100% Converting ATPS to STPD We measure expired volume, air temperature, barometric pressure, and use our water vapor pressure chart VE STPD = VE ATPS * (273 / (273 + T room )) * ((P B P H2O ) / 760) Measured VE Temp in ⁰C Use chart Measured mmhg 2

3 What are the major factors that impact gas volume? What is the difference between ATPS and STPD? Why do we use STPD for indirect calorimetry calcula9ons? Expired gas analysis calculations 1. Convert ATPS to STPD 2. Calculate VO2 3. Calculate VCO2 4. Calculate RER 5. Calculate caloric expenditure Calculating VO2 VO2 = inspired O2 expired O2 VO2 = (VI x FIO2) (VE x FEO2) We know FIO2 = VO2= (VI x.2095) (VE x FEO2) 3

4 Calculating VCO2 VCO2 = expired CO2 inspired CO2 VCO2 = (VE x FECO2) (VI x FICO2) We know FICO2 = VCO2 = (VE x FECO2) (VI x ) How do we calculate VI?? Calculating VI We measure VE, FEO2, FECO2, and calculate VI how? HALDANE TRANSFORMATION We must use the Haldane transforma1on to solve for VI! Haldane Transformation Haldane Transformation Nitrogen is an inert gas It is NOT physiologically ac9ve FEN2 + FEO2 + FECO2 = 1 FEN2 = 1 (FEO2 + FECO2) FEN2 = (FEO2 + FECO2) Rare gases correc9on 4

5 Solving for Inspired Volume (VI) We know (VI x FIN2) = (VE x FEN2) Thus VI = VE (FEN2/FIN2) Solving for VI We know FIN2 = And FEN2 = (FE02 + FECO2) Thus, if VI = VE (FEN2/FIN2) VI = VE ( (FEO2 + FECO2)) / FEN2 FIN2 Let s go back to VO2! Calculate VO2 Remember VO2 = (VI x.2095) (VE x FEO2) Subs9tute Haldane Transforma9on for VI VO2 = ((VE( (FEO2 + FECO2))/.7808) x.2095) (VE x FEO2) We have all our variables! 5

6 Calculate VCO2 Remember VCO2 = (VE x FECO2) (VI x FICO2) VCO2 = (VE x FECO2) (VI x ) Calculate RER Aper you calculate VO2 and VCO2, calculate RER RER = VCO2/VO2 Use the values from the VO2 equa9on for VI, and then subs9tute VE, and FECO2 Calculation Steps 1. Change ATPS to STPD 2. Calculate VO2 3. Calculate VCO2 4. Calculate RER 5. Calculate caloric expenditure Computation Examples in Indirect Calorimetry Tr = 24.0 C; P B = 635 mmhg; RH = 100% Time VE (ATPS) FEO2 FECO2 (min)

7 Step 1: Convert ATPS to STPD T room = 24.0 C; P B = 635 mmhg; RH = 100% VE ATPS = 9.35; FEO2 = ; FECO2 = VE STPD = VE ATPS * (273 / (273 + T room )) * ((P B P H2O ) / 760) VE STPD = 9.35 * (273 / ( )) * (( ) / 760) VE STPD = 9.35 * (0.919) * (0.806) VE STPD = 6.93 L/min Step 2: Calculate VO2 VO2 = (VI x.2095) (VE x FEO2) Subs9tute Haldane Transforma9on for VI VO2 = ((VE x ( (FEO2 + FECO2)) /.7808) x.2095) (VE x FEO2) VO2 = ((6.93 x ( ( )) /.7808) x.2095) (6.93 x ) VO2 = (6.974 x.2095) (6.93 x ) VO2 = L/min Step 3: Calculate VCO2 VCO2 = (VE x FECO2) (VI x ) VCO2 = (6.93 x ) (6.974 x ) VCO2 = VCO2 = L/min Step 4: Calculate RER RER = VCO2 / VO2 RER = / RER =

8 One more step! Step 5 Calculate Caloric Expenditure Calculating Energy Expenditure To calculate energy expenditure most accurately, you need to know the following: 1. VO 2 2. RER 3. RER caloric equivalent 4. Exercise dura9on Kcal= VO 2 (L/min) x RER caloric equivalent x 9me (min) Let s calculate caloric expenditure! We can also examine fuel utilization! VO 2 = L/min RER = 0.86 Dura9on = 2.0 min Kcal = (L/min) x x 2.0 (min) = kcal in 2 min kcal CHO = x kcal CHO FAT = x kcal FAT 8

9 Computation Examples in Indirect Calorimetry Tr = 24.0 C; P B = 635 mmhg; RH = 100% Time VE (ATPS) FEO2 FECO2 (min) Step 1: Convert ATPS to STPD T room = 24.0 C; P B = 635 mmhg; RH = 100% VE ATPS = 35.14; FEO2 = ; FECO2 = VE STPD = VE ATPS * (273 / (273 + T room )) * ((P B P H2O ) / 760) VE STPD = * (273 / ( )) * (( ) / 760) VE STPD = * (0.919) * (0.806) VE STPD = L/min Step 2: Calculate VO2 VO2 = (VI x.2095) (VE x FEO2) Subs9tute Haldane Transforma9on for VI VO2 = ((VE x ( (FEO2 + FECO2)) /.7808) x.2095) (VE x FEO2) VO2 = ((26.04 x ( ( )) /.7808) x.2095) (26.04 x ) VO2 = (26.04 x.2095) (26.04 x ) VO2 = L/min Step 3: Calculate VCO2 VCO2 = (VE x FECO2) (VI x ) VCO2 = (26.04 x ) (26.04 x ) VCO2 = VCO2 = L/min 9

10 Step 4: Calculate RER RER = VCO2 / VO2 RER = / RER = Step 5: Calculate Caloric Expenditure VO 2 = L/min RER = Dura9on = 4.0 min Kcal = (L/min) x x 4.0 (min) = kcal in 4 min kcal Fuel Utilization CHO = x kcal CHO FAT = x kcal FAT Assignment Finish the rest of the calcula9ons in your handout Answers to each ques9on will be posted online Show all of your work 10

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