ENERGY SAVING IN THE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT FOR AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS: FOCUS ON THE POWER SUPPLY GROUP.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ENERGY SAVING IN THE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT FOR AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS: FOCUS ON THE POWER SUPPLY GROUP."

Transcription

1 ENERGY SAVING IN THE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT OR AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS: OCUS ON THE POWER SUPPLY GROUP. Massmo Borgh, Barbara Zardn, rancesco Pntore, Engneerng Department Enzo errar, Unversty of Modena and Reggo Emla Abstract: Ths work ams to analyze a complete hydraulc system of a medum sze agrcultural tractor, n order to perform an energy dsspaton analyss and to suggest possbly alternatve confguratons and solutons. The fuel consumpton and energy dsspaton n off road vehcles have n fact become a key feature, gven the great attenton devoted to the need of reducng pollutant emssons, n order to satsfy the future emsson lmts. In ths work the focus s on the flud power supply group and the standard archtecture of ths unt has been compared wth an alternatve soluton, called varable pump margn strategy and compared on the bass of the power consumpton to perform the same duty cycle, showng that a relevant percentage of energy may be saved wth smple modfcatons n the hydraulc power generator group. Keywords: Agrcultural Tractor, Smulaton, Power Savng, Duty Cycle 1. Introducton Ths paper s ntended to descrbe part of the work done as a research program whose fnal am s to test and verfy the effectveness of some hgh effcency hydraulc archtectures n agrculture tractors. Hydraulc crcut n md-sze tractors has dfferent key roles: feedng the auxlary utltes, the htch valve, the traler brake, the steerng, the drvelne and PTO clutches, the lubrcaton lne and the plot lnes to control the electro-hydraulc valves. Tradtonal confguraton of ths crcut nvolves the use of separate pumps to feed the auxlary utltes lne, the htch valve and the steerng on one sde and lubrcaton on another sde and fnally the clutches and plot lnes. The frst step of the research s the analyss and the evaluaton of the energy dsspaton of the auxlary utltes of a standard crcut, whch s a typcal load sensng mult-actuators system. The load sensng concept has been ntroduced n the second half of the last century and t s stll used n hydraulc applcatons because t has proved to be more effcent than the hydraulc power system whch entrusted power management to dsspatve components (as the tradtonal pressure relef valve). At the same tme, hydraulc load sensng systems are robust and relable (see for nstance [1], [], [3] and [4]). Nevertheless, the need to lmt pollutant emssons of agrcultural machnes has become more and more pressng n the last years. Many researchers and manufacturers have focused ther efforts on reducng the energy consumpton n the system wthout compromsng ts functonalty and ts performance. rom ths pont of vew, the combned use of smulaton tools and expermental testng represents the most promsng way to develop alternatve solutons characterzed by lower energy consumpton (see for example works from [5] to [11], whch proposes dfferent solutons spannng from ndependent meterng valves to dsplacement controlled actuators). In ths knd of system, possbltes to acheve more energy savng lay on the fact that hgh dsspatve dstrbutors are used to manage the flow to the actuators and to mantan control of multple loads eventually workng together and that the flud power group must work under a fxed pressure margn that s hgher than the maxmum workng pressure generally of about -3 MPa; ths margn of pressure has to be suffcent to overcome all the pressure losses at the maxmum flow rate that the flow come across from the pump to the actuators. Possblty to reduce power losses lay hence both on the power generaton sde and n the power utlsaton sde. In ths paper the focus s more on the power generaton group mprovement. It s noteworthy to underlne that hydraulc crcut n a tractor can serve a wde range of actuators, dependng on the equpment connected at the moment on the tractor, for example a seeder, or a loader or a harrow. The actuators can be both motors and cylnders and standardzed duty cycles for these knd of crcut do not exst at the moment. Ths requres more efforts n the analyss to be devoted at the expermental measurement of the man hydraulc varables durng a workng cycle of the tractor wth dfferent equpment. On the bass of prevous analyss ([1], [13]), here t was chosen to adopt a standard duty cycle created analysng the whole lfe and average use of a md-sze power tractor. The alternatve solutons evaluated and compared wth the standard archtecture are bult through the adopton of electroncally controlled varable dsplacement pumps. In the future, the logcal followng step of ths work wll be to select the best solutons from the smulaton results and to realze them on the vehcle, expermentally testng on vehcle the ablty of new solutons of mantanng the vehcle performances besde the ntroducton of energy savng. The Standard Load Sensng Hydraulc System and ts Modellng Gven the complexty of the hydraulc crcut of the agrcultural tractor, t s convenent to use a top-down approach that dvdes the entre crcut n dfferent operatonal sectons. The hydraulc crcut s composed by a flud power supply grou and a complex whole of hydraulc actuators (hgh and low pressure users) and control valves. The power supply unt represents the heart of the tractor. Ths s composed of two pumps (a charge pump of the gerotor type and an axal pston pump) that generate the operatng flow rate requred by the users. The power supply unt s a typcal load sensng opencrcut group that nvolves the use of local pressure and flow compensators. Advantages and crtcal aspects of these knd of systems have been thoughtfully analyzed n lterature, for example n [14] and [15].When speakng of the energy dsspaton of these systems, the crtcal aspect s that they work at the pump delvery wth an hgher pressure level than the one requred by the load. These pressure dfference (pump margn) s regulated n order to be able to guarantee the maxmum flow rate request at the actuators and t strctly depends on the losses that flow encounters n the passage from the pump delvery to the user. In the standard hydraulc pum ths pressure dfference s fxed, even f t could be reduced when the flow request s not at ts maxmum level, thus reducng dsspaton. A prorty valve s placed after the hydraulc power supply unt; ths valve has the task of ensurng the proper operaton of the three man users of the agrcultural tractor: steerng system, traler brake and agrcultural equpment whose actuators are controlled wth auxlary dstrbutors. 9

2 The prorty valve, consstng of two sectons that work n parallel, sets lmts of operatng pressure and n emergency condtons guarantee a level of flow and pressure to the users wth a specfc prorty. In connecton wth the prorty valve are the followng utltes: steerng, traler brake valve and auxlary dstrbutor, wth ther respectve lnes of load pressure sensng. Dependng on the load detected, the valves n the prorty block are used to adjust the flow rate and the pressure comng from the power supply unt, ensurng a prorty order n the functons of power steerng, traler brake and auxlary utltes. The traler brake valve has the task of managng the pressure sgnal generated by the brake pedals n the cab and the pressure to be provded for the parkng brake of the machne. The auxlary actuators may work together hence local pressure compensators are ntroduced on each secton of the auxlary dstrbutor to guarantee the correct flow sharng. These elements, because of the geometry complexty ntroduced on the dstrbutor secton and of the multple ol passages needed to perform the control and to guarantee the flow, are crtcal for the dsspaton ntroduced ([16]). To complete the hydraulc crcut of the agrcultural tractor, the man accessory components are the flter and the heat exchanger. The hydraulc crcut of the tractor n ts standard confguraton s represented n gure 1, by means of a functonal representaton n whch the blocks descrbed before are recognzable. These blocks contan the mathematcal models that defne the components behavour, developed n LMS Imagne.Lab AMESm and AMESet, followng a lumped parameters approach (gure 1). A detaled hydraulc model s nstead realzed for the auxlary dstrbutors, snce they have shown from prevous analyss ([1]) to be qute dsspatve elements. The hydraulc model nvolve also the flter and lubrcaton secton not shown n gure 1. ocussng on the flud power grou n the followng a detaled descrpton s gven of the man pum the varable dsplacement swashplate axal pstons pump. The hydraulc model realzed n LMS Imagne. Lab AMESm envronment s an evoluton of the model presented by the authors n [17], consstng manly of three man sectons: -rotatng group of axal pston pum ncludng the pstons movng wthn the cylnder block, the valve plate, the swashplate -actuator that perform the adjustment of the dsplacement of the machne -flow and pressure compensators: t mplements the modellng of the 3 way valves that contrbute n the determnaton of the control pressure wthn the actuator chamber. The model allows the determnaton of the pressure transents n the pston chambers, the nstantaneous forces exerted between the movable parts of the pum the torques at the swashplate and at the shaft and the nstantaneous flow. The basc module s represented by the pston chamber whch s a typcal control volume that communcates wth hgh and low pressure ports through varable orfces, opportunely controlled n order to replcate the openng and closng of the flow areas due to the cylnder blocks and valve plate nterposton. or each control volume contnuty equaton can be wrtten under the hypothess of an ncompressble flud and consderng sothermal flow: dp B dv Qk, 1... N dt V k dt dp B d V k dv d Qk d dt (1) In equaton (1), B s the Bulk Modulus of the flud, Q k represents the generc flow comng n or out the pston chamber.the pston chamber volume s defned as a functon of the angular poston of the machne shaft θ and of the swashplate β, as n equaton () where V 0 s the dead volume of the chamber, R the cylnder block radus, β the swashplate angle, D p pston dameter, θ the angular poston of the pston and ω the angular speed. gure 1: Standard Hydraulc Crcut of a medum szed tractor The lumped parameters model s dvded n three man sectons. The frst one (orange block n the gure 1 named LUID POWER SUPPLY UNIT), ncludes the detaled model of the axal pston pump of the tractor, together wth the flow and pressure compensators, and the model of the charge pump. The nstantaneous pressure at the axal pston pump delvery and sucton, the flow rate and the torque transents are typcal output varables of ths block. The second secton (red block), named Prorty & Traler Brake Valve, ncludes the detaled model of the prorty valve and a functonal model for the traler brake valve. These models ensure the correct pressure settngs and flows-sharng towards the users. The green blocks contan the hydraulc models of the man users of the agrcultural tractor. The steerng user and traler user are modelled by means of varable orfces, sutably controlled and calbrated. V V0 R 1 cos tan D p 4 dv R 1 cos D sn tan p 4 d cos The flow through the valve plate ports s determned usng the equaton of flow through an orfce havng geometrcal passage equal to A: p Q Cd A sgnp In equaton (3) C d represents the dscharge coeffcent, varable as a functon of the Reynolds number as descrbed n equaton (4), where D h hydraulc dameter of the orfce, υ knematc vscosty e the flud densty; R ec the value assumed by the Reynolds number where the transton between lamnar and turbulent flow happens; C s the value of the dscharge coeffcent n fully turbulent flow condton across the orfce. () (3) 30

3 D p C C h d tanh( Re ), Re Rec Partcular care has also been devoted to the descrpton of the leakages through the lubrcatng gaps whose geometry (heght) s constant and has been defned on the bass of expermental and numercal comparson of data regardng the average flow, swashplate torque and shaft torque for dfferent operatng condtons. Equaton (5) s used to calculate the leakages across the slpper bearngs-swashplate gap; R ext and R nt represents the external and nternal slpper rad, the flud absolute vscosty, p nt and p ext the pressure values at the external and nternal radus of the slpper. 3 h pnt pext q 6 Rext ln Rnt A smlar expresson s used for the leakage across the pston ball jont-slpper ga consderng axally-smmetrc geometry and agan constant gap heght. Equaton (6) descrbe the leakage across the cylnder blockvalve plate ga where leakage may flow both to dran and to the adjacent pstons chambers. Equvalent geometrc dmensons have been defned to descrbe the ga the length l and the wdth b cy, and agan a constant hegth h cy (dstance between the cylnder block and the valve plate) has been consdered. 3 cy bcy h q 1 l p p D nally, equaton (7) expresses the flow across the gap between the pstons and the cylnder block, consderng a zero eccentrcty pston poston. In equaton (7) h p s as usual the gap hegth, l e the s length of the gap and P the pston speed: 3 p Dp h q 1 le D p p pd hp s P The pston-slpper assembly force, due to the chamber pressure, nerta, vscous frcton, determnes one of the contrbuton of the torques actng on the swashplate; the swashplate, modelled as a rotary nerta, receves also the contrbuton of the sprng and of the control actuator. The varaton of the swashplate poston s nstantaneously conveyed to the pston elements and all the cnematc varables are updated as a consequence. The man geometrcal parameters descrbng the valve plate, the cylnder block, the pstons are defned through a pre-processor module. Equatons (8) shows the dsplacement s p, speed and acceleraton of the pston: they are functon of the shaft angular poston and of the swashplate angular poston, calculated for a certan constant angular speed ω. s s s R R R R 1 cos tan R 1 cos sn tan cos cos tan sn R 1 cos R 1 cos cos tan Pston-slpper assembly undergoes the acton exerted from the pressure wthn the chamber, from the nerta contrbuton m,, from the vscous frcton that arses n the pston-cylnder block gap v,i, from the swashplate reacton R z,. (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) m, v, R p Dp 4 m s, z, D ple s h p m, v, 0 Equaton (10) descrbes the swashplate dynamc moton: I the moment of nerta, T c s the torque due to the actuator acton and sprng, T sw s the torque of the pston slpper assembles on the swashplate, as shown n equaton (11), T ν the vscous frcton torque, as expressed n equaton (1) where c s the vscous frcton coeffcent. I T T T T l sw, T sw slsw, N 1 R c T sw, cos c sw cos R z, 1 N cos slsw, l sw (10) (9) (11) (1) gure rame of reference and schematc vew of an axal pston swashplate pump. nally, detaled modellng of the flow and pressure compensators and of the control and bas actuators are added to the model of pump n order to be able to descrbe the dynamc varaton of the machne dsplacement durng pump operaton. 3 Alternatve Archtectures Varable Pump Margn (VPM) The load-sensng varable dsplacement pump s a very known and studed component, but n recent years t s undergong substantal changes for the ntroducton of advanced electronc for the control of the hydraulc power generaton. The electronc control allows an nfnte range of adjustments and controls, but a good ntegraton wth flud power components has to be studed and developed n order to guarantee the performances and robustness of the system. In a typcal LS power supply unt, the pump operates at a fxed pressure level hgher than the pressure actually requred by the user. Ths addtonal pressure, also called Pump Margn, s always fxed by the sprng preload of the flow compensator, gvng rse to energy losses, dependng on the duty cycle or the operaton carred out. 31

4 Here, the nomnal value of.5 MPa assgned to Pump Margn s the mnmum possble value of system pressure n the standard confguraton n order to overcome the losses caused by valves and the actuators connected to t when the flow rate s at ts maxmum value. gure 3: Contrbuton to buld up the pump margn The estmaton of the Pump Margn, as shown n the gure 3, s due to two fundamental components of the hydraulc crcut: the prorty valve and the local pressure compensator of the auxlary dstrbutors. The resultng energy losses are due to an hgh pressure drop across the two valves prorty & auxlary dstrbutors. The VPM strategy s based on the reducton of the pressure dfference between the delvery pressure of the pump and the actual pressure of the generc actuator, by adjustng the sprng preload of the flow compensator that equps the axal pston pum usng a solenod valve and an opportune strategy on the ECU (Electronc Control Unt) to control t. gure 4 Varable Pump Margn Concept Let's consder a request of flow rate Q L correspondng to a pressure p L, f the regulaton of the sprng preload of the pump flow compensator s equal to p M pressure, the man pump s workng at pressure p S gven by the sum of p L and p M. The power dsspated n standard workng condtons, s represented by the area ABCD between the levels of pressure p S and p L. Under pressure saturaton condton and consderng the maxmum pressure p max allowed n the system, the power loss s represented by the area EGH, between pressure levels p max and p max -p M. or the mplementaton of the VPM control strategy, t was decded to use a commercal valve, called Ex (Ex s a commercal valve that replace the flow compensator for the axal pston pump. or related and detaled note refer to whch replaces the hydraulc compensator wth an electro-hydraulcally flow compensator controlled by a specfc control unt. The pressure margn can vary between.5 MPa to 1.5 MPa due to the acton of ths valve. The VPM control strategy provdes two types of control that can be mplemented on the ECU: fxed pont strategy and dynamc varaton strategy. The fxed pont strategy s based on the settng of a sngle value of reduced pump margn for the pump to be regulated when possble and wthout any possblty of dynamc adjustment. Ths strategy s possble only n the case of standby condton of the machne: n fact, n a generc operatng condton the lowerng of the pressure mposed by the VPM fxed pont strategy to the mnmum level, wll not be able to meet the flow requests comng from the auxlary and other users connected. A second control strategy for the VPM s ntroduced: through the use of pressure sensors (dslocated on the dscharge lne of the pump and on the man workng lnes)and readng va CAN net the control sgnals at the auxlary drectonal valves, t s possble to create an operatng map for the control unt (ECU). or a frst analyss, a lnear dependence has been used between the total requred capacty (easly obtanable through the Electro Hydraulc sgnals of the auxlary dstrbutors avalable va CAN network) and the current that has to be provded to the solenod for the dynamc varaton of the Pump Margn. The VPM dynamc strategy, allows to obtan a contnuous varaton of the Pump Margn as a functon of the requred flow and pressure from by the users. The dynamc varaton of the pressure, allows to ncrease the energy savng of the system n all the duty cycle stages, mmedately adaptng the Pump Margn to the new condtons of load. Despte ths soluton seems qute promsng, the mnmum level of Pump Margn assgnable n dynamc condtons, s lmted by the presence of the prorty valve. Hence a combned optmzaton process wll have to be developed to obtan the maxmum energy savng contrbuton from ths soluton. Electronc Dsplacement Control - EDC A further alternatve soluton related to flud power supply grou s based on the use of bgger pumps coupled wth the nternal combuston engne, n order to beng able to delver the same flow at lower speed, thus optmzng the pump-engne couplng and havng the chance of a more flexble management of the power and torque characterstcs of the engne. To do ths, an electro-hydraulc valve s ntroduced, able to set a lmt of the maxmum swash plate angle of the axal pston pump. The valve s screwed drectly nto the seat of the actuator control of the swashplate and through the regulaton current allows to vary the maxmum value of the stroke of the swash plate, thereby adjustng the maxmum flow suppled by the man pump. gure 5 Electronc Dsplacement Control Concept Usng ths concept, the EDC soluton allows to obtan the same flow, delvered by the power supply unt, at dfferent speeds of rotaton of the combuston engne connected to the power supply. 3

5 Settng the level of flow n the standard condtons, a rotatonal speed n 1 of the pump s obtaned. ollowng the lnear characterstcs of the machnes, the requred flow Q REQ can be acheved at a lower engne speed, equal to n, usng the machne wth hgher dsplacement and the EDC valve. Ths may for example allow to swtch from the maxmum power to the maxmum torque operatng condton. 4 Duty Thanks to the collaboraton between the Unversty of Modena and Reggo Emla and the manufacturer CNH Industral S.p.a, collecton of data from the feld has led to the defnton of a duty cycle that descrbes the usage of the tractor durng ts average lfe, dentfyng four man phases of work: transport, standby, work n low speed & work at hgh speed. Wth reference to the tractor lfe, the duty cycle defnes four man phases of work that occupy the whole lfetme of the tractor as descrbed n the followng: 5% transport, 0% standby, 5% work wth low engne speed and 30% work wth hgh engne speed. The followng subsectons wll descrbe the detals of how each work phase has been defned and then smulated wth the model. Transport In ths phase the portons of the hydraulc crcut that are workng, besde the flud power grou are the steerng system and eventually the traler system; the value of pressure and flow rate taken as reference n each workng phase are non-dmensoned wth respect to the maxmum pressure and flow of the hydraulc system: - steerng phase: the drver acts contnuously on the steerng to make correctons of the vehcle trajectory whle drvng. or ths reason, the steerng s qute stressed and t s consdered that ts usage covers the whole transport phase (100%). The operatng condtons n terms of flow rate and pressure level at the steerng are: flow rate 14 %Q max ; pressure 4 %p max. - traler system: durng transport, a traler may be attached to the agrcultural tractor. rom expermental data however the usage of the traler s qute lmted and covers only 1.5% of the transport phase under operatng condtons equal to: flow rate 1 %Q max ; pressure level 87 % p max. The tractor speed durng transport s consdered varyng between 1 and 40 km/h. Standby In ths work phase actually the system s not workng wth the hydraulc actuators, the axal pston pump s at ts mnmum dsplacement, delverng only the flow needed to compensate leakages and to allow regulaton of the flow and pressure compensators. The operatng condtons n terms of flow rate and pressure level are: flow rate 4%Q max, Pressure 1% p max. The engne speed s at ts mnmum value. Work at hgh engne speed The work phase at hgh engne speed nvolves the smultaneous use of the hydraulc actuators controlled by the auxlary dstrbutors and the steerng system: -steerng: n ths case the tractor s workng on feld, hence the contact between the tres and the ground s sgnfcantly dfferent from the transport phase. As a consequence, the duty cycle nvolves hgher pressure level and flow rate as operatng condtons: flow rate 14%Q max ; pressure 38% p max. The usage of the steerng system occupes the 50% of the phase of work at hgh engne speed. - auxlary users: the auxlary dstrbutors are ones of the most dsspatve components of the system and are used for approxmately the 7.5% of the phase of work at hgh engne speed, also consderng the smultaneous workng of more than one actuator. The operatng condtons are: flow rate 100%Q max ; pressure 48% p max. The tractor speed durng ths phase s varyng between 5 and 14 km/h. Work at low engne speed Also n ths phase, a smultaneous usage of auxlary dstrbutors and steerng s consdered but the operatng condtons are changed. -steerng: the use of the steerng system covers the 0% of the phase under the followng operatng condtons: flow rate 14%Q max ; pressure 48% p max. -auxlary users: the auxlary dstrbutors work occupes the 7.5% of ths phase, the operatng condtons are equal to the prevous ones: flow rate 14%Q max ; pressure 48% p max. The tractor speed durng ths phase s varyng between 0.05 and 5 km/h. The gure 6 shows the duty cycle subdvson just descrbed. gure 6 Duty Cycle specfcaton 5 Results The alternatve confguratons ntroduced n the prevous sectons have been modelled n LMS Imagne.Lab AMESm envronment and compared wth the standard confguraton. The comparson has been done usng the duty cycle prevously descrbed, chosen accurately and representatve of the average lfe cycle of an agrcultural tractor. Results are presented makng reference to the power consumpton at the flud power generator group shaft n percentage, vewed as the power consumpton of the alternatve archtecture wth respect to the power consumpton of the standard archtecture (100%); the power savng s the dfference between the percentage power consumpton of the standard verson and the percentage power consumpton of the alternatve archtectures. Varable Pump Margn - VPM The power savng acheved by the VPM fxed pont strategy n the standby phase s very low and does not justfy the nstallaton on the vehcle. As can be seen from the gure 7 the power savng achevable by ths confguraton s about 0.13%, whch s rrelevant for the chosen duty cycle. Ths s due to the fact that n the standby phase the flow dscharged by the pump s low and the ncdence of lowerng the pump margn s very lttle. 33

6 gure 7 Power consumpton: VPM fxed pont strategy In order to ncrease the amount of power saved, the best soluton reles on usng the control strategy wth dynamc varable pump margn. To show ths, a duty cycle where only the auxlary dstrbutors are workng has been supposed. The auxlary dstrbutors have been proportonally opened n order to gradually rse the flow request tll the maxmum value. the gure 8 shows the correspondent percentage of power savng as functon of the flow rate. gure 9 Power consumpton durng tractor lfetme: VPM Soluton The EDC strategy allows to ntroduce n the system an addtonal degree of freedom n order to provde the effcency of the nternal combuston engne-pump couplng. The user may decde to lmt the dsplacement of the man pump n order to get the same flow rate of workng flud at dfferent engne speeds. Generally, the ntroducton of a larger pump whch rotates at a lower engne speed, to keep fxed the flow, nvolves a reducton n the effcency of the same pump. The lowerng of effcency of the man pump can be consdered relatvely low compared to the possble benefts comng from an optmzed management of the engne speed. However, wth ths partcular duty cycle the power savng was about 1-%. gure 8 VPM Dynamc Soluton Usng the lnear mappng performed n the control unt (ECU), the maxmum avalable power savng s acheved at ntermedate flow rate request. or hgh flow rates all the avalable pump margn pressure s needed and therefore there s no possblty of obtanng a beneft wth respect to the standard confguraton. Wth reference to the duty cycle defned prevously, gure 9 shows there s no apprecable dfference between the control strategy wth VPM fxed pont (VPM standby) and the standard verson, whle obtanng a power savng of 19% n the case of usng a dynamc VPM adjustment. Durng the transport phase, the pressure and flow rate requests are ntermedate, so t s possble to acheve the maxmum power savng, as shown n gure 9. In all other work phases, pressure and flow rate levels are such as to mnmze the power saved adoptng of the VPM strategy. 6 Conclusons And uture Work The motvaton of ths work derves from the need to reduce energy consumpton n hydraulc crcut of agrcultural tractors. To do ths an ntense research work to evaluate the actual stuaton has been carred out and from the results obtaned suggestons for the mprovement of the hydraulc energy producton and usage n the vehcle are expected. In the target vehcle analyzed the hydraulc crcut has a typcal hydraulc load sensng mult-users archtecture where hydraulc power s provded by a group of fxed and varable dsplacement pumps and n ths paper the attenton has been focused on the varable dsplacement pump. A detaled lumped parameter model has been developed for the whole hydraulc crcut of the tractor, focusng n ths paper n partcular on the analyss of the pumps together wth the flow compensator. The study of the standard hydraulc layout hghlghted that many crtcal ssues are represented by the excessve pressure drop across the valves and an mproper management of the pressure levels between the man pump and the prnal loads. Some alternatve solutons are hence suggested. The standard archtecture of the flud power supply group n the tractor has been compared n terms of power consumpton wth some smple alternatves whch nvolve the mplementaton of an electronc control of the varable dsplacement pump. In relaton to the flud power supply unt, the alternatve soluton proposed s based on the analyss of the pump margn pressure of the axal pston pump. The ntellgent management of ths addtonal pressure between pump and load, leads to an energetc mprovement of the entre system: adoptng a dynamc varaton of the pump margn as functon of the requested flow rate by means of an electronc flow compensator, t s possble to acheve the maxmum energy savng. Wth the am of defnng a term of comparson of the standard and alternatve archtectures, an actual duty cycle has been defned consderng the entre lfe of the vehcle. rom the comparson, dependng on the type of the flow rate request and followng a lnear characterstc wthn the ECU, t s possble to reach the maxmum energy savng for the ntermedate pressure and flow rate levels by usng the Dynamc VPM strategy (19%). 34

7 In case of use of the Dynamc VPM strategy a crtcal aspect s the dffculty n some operatng condtons to ensure the correct flow rate levels: to solve ths problem a new archtecture, nvolvng a flexble prorty valve, able to mantan the correct pressure levels and flow rate levels request by the users, s under nvestgaton. These alternatve soluton of the flud power supply unt wll be expermentally tested on a prototype vehcle thanks to the manufacturer CNH Industral SpA. Bblography 1. Wu, D., Schoenau, G., Burton, R., Btner, D., 005, Model and Expermental Valdaton of a Load Sensng System wth a Crtcally Lapped regulator Spool, Internatonal Journal of flud Power, Volume 6, Number 3, November 005. ISSN Shenouda, A., Brook, W., 005, Energy Savng Analyss usng a four ndependent meterng confguraton controllng a hydraulc cylnder, SAE Paper , SAE Commercal Vehcle Congress and Exhbton, ISBN , Shenouda, A., 006, Quas-Statc Hydraulc Control Systems and Energy Savngs Potental Usng Independent Meterng our-valve Assembly, Ph.D. Thess, Woodruff School of Mechancal Engneerng, Georga Insttute of Technology, August 006. Of An Agrcultural Tractor, Proceedngs of the Bath/ASME Symposum on lud Power & Moton Control (PMC 010), 15th- 17th September 010, Bath, UK. 13. Borgh, M., Zardn, B., Mancarella,., Speccha, E., 010, Energy Consumpton of the Hydraulc Crcut of a Md-Sze Power Tractor, Proceedngs of 7th Internatonal lud Power Conference, Aachen 010. ISBN Bonanno A.; Paoluzz R., Gess S.011. Global Smulaton Envronment for the Global Effcency Improvement n Agrcultural Tractors, Proceedngs of The Twelfth Scandnavan Internatonal Conference on lud Power, SICP11, May 18-0, 011, Tampere, nland, Vol. 4. :, Wu D Modellng and expermental evaluaton of a load sensng and pressure compensated hydraulc system, Ph.D. Thess, Department of Mechancal Engneerng, Unversty of Saskatchewan. 16. Borgh, M., Zardn, B.,Pntore,., Belluzz,.,014, Energy Savngs n the Hydraulc Crcut of Agrcultural Tractors, Energy Proceda, Volume 45, pp , ISSN Pntore,., Zardn, B., Borgh, M., 01, lud Power Supply Unt or Agrcultural Tractors: Towards Energy Savng Through Smulaton. Accepted for 7th Ph.D. Symposum on lud Power, Reggo Emla, 7-30 June Erksson, B., Larsson, J., Palmberg, J.-O., 006, Study on ndvdual pressure Control n energy effcent Cylnder drves, Proc. of the 4th Ph.D. Symposum, Sarasota, lorda. 5. Lnjama, M., Huova, M., Vlenus, M., 007, On Stablty and Dynamc Characterstcs of Hydraulc Drves wth Dstrbuted Valves, /ASME Symposum on lud Power and Moton Control. 6. Huova, M., Karvonen, Ahola, V., Lnjama, M., Vlenus, M., 010, Energy Effcent Control of Multactuator Dgtal Hydraulc Moble Machne, Proceedngs of 7th Internatonal lud Power Conference, Aachen 010. ISBN Maran, P., Ansalon, G., Paoluzz, R., 008, Load Sensng wth Actve Regeneraton System, Proceedngs of the 7th JPS Internatonal Symposum on lud Power, TOYAMA Rahmfeld, R., Ivantysynova, M., Weber, J., 004, Dsplacement Controlled Wheel Loader - A Smple and Clever Soluton, 4th Internatonal lud Power Conference - Dresden, Wllamson, C., Zmmerman, J. and Ivantysynova, M., 008. Effcency Study of an Excavator Hydraulc System Based on Dsplacement- Controlled Actuators, Bath/ASME Symposum on lud Power and Moton Control. 10. Heybroek, K., Larsson, J., Palmberg, J.-O., 006, Open Crcut Soluton or Pump Controlled Actuators, Proc. of the 4th Ph.D. Symposum, Sarasota, lorda. 11. Erksson, B., Palmberg, J.-O., 010, How to Handle Auxlary unctons n Energy Effcent Sngle Pum low Sharng Moble Systems, Proceedngs of 7th Internatonal lud Power Conference, Aachen 010. ISBN Borgh, M., Zardn, B., Mancarella,., 010, Energy Dsspaton Of The Hydraulc Crcut Of Remote Auxlary Utltes 35

Evaluation of a Center Pivot Variable Rate Irrigation System

Evaluation of a Center Pivot Variable Rate Irrigation System Evaluaton of a Center Pvot Varable Rate Irrgaton System Ruxu Su Danel K. Fsher USDA-ARS Crop Producton Systems Research Unt, Stonevlle, Msssspp Abstrat: Unformty of water dstrbuton of a varable rate center

More information

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PFH-mini

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PFH-mini Product Informaton PFH-mn PFH-mn Loadable. Flexble. Relable. PFH-klen long-stroke grpper 2-fnger parallel grpper wth large jaw stroke for large parts and / or a broad range of parts Feld of applcaton clean

More information

Dynamic Analysis of the Discharge Valve of the Rotary Compressor

Dynamic Analysis of the Discharge Valve of the Rotary Compressor Purdue Unversty Purdue e-pubs Internatonal Compressor Engneerng Conference School of Mechancal Engneerng 8 Dynamc Analyss of the Dscharge Valve of the Rotary Compressor Bo Huang Shangha Htach Electrcal

More information

A Prediction of Reliability of Suction Valve in Reciprocating Compressor

A Prediction of Reliability of Suction Valve in Reciprocating Compressor Purdue Unversty Purdue e-pubs nternatonal Compressor Engneerng Conference School of Mechancal Engneerng 1996 A Predcton of Relablty of Sucton Valve n Recprocatng Compressor W. H. You Samsung Electroncs

More information

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PSH 42

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PSH 42 Product Informaton PSH 42 PSH Compact. Flexble. Fully encapsulated. PSH long-stroke grpper 2-fnger parallel grpper wth long jaw stroke and drt-resstant round gudance Feld of applcaton n contamnated work

More information

Product Information. Radial gripper PRG 52

Product Information. Radial gripper PRG 52 Product Informaton PRG More flexble More powerful. Slm. PRG unversal grpper 180 radal grpper wth powerful 1-shft slotted lnk gear and oval pston. Feld of applcaton For areas of applcaton whch, n addton

More information

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG-plus

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG-plus Product Informaton Grpper for small components MPG-plus MPG-plus Grpper for small components More powerful. Faster. Longer fngers. MPG-plus grpper for small components 2-fnger parallel grpper wth smooth

More information

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG 50

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG 50 Product Informaton MPG 50 MPG Precse. Compact. Relable. MPG grpper for small components 2-fnger parallel grpper wth smooth roller gudes of the base jaws Feld of applcaton Grppng and movng of small to medum-szed

More information

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG 80

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG 80 Product Informaton MPG 80 MPG Precse. Compact. Relable. MPG grpper for small components 2-fnger parallel grpper wth smooth roller gudes of the base jaws Feld of applcaton Grppng and movng of small to medum-szed

More information

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG 32

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG 32 Product Informaton MPG 32 MPG Precse. Compact. Relable. MPG grpper for small components 2-fnger parallel grpper wth smooth roller gudes of the base jaws Feld of applcaton Grppng and movng of small to medum-szed

More information

Reduced drift, high accuracy stable carbon isotope ratio measurements using a reference gas with the Picarro 13 CO 2 G2101-i gas analyzer

Reduced drift, high accuracy stable carbon isotope ratio measurements using a reference gas with the Picarro 13 CO 2 G2101-i gas analyzer Reduced drft, hgh accuracy stable carbon sotope rato measurements usng a reference gas wth the Pcarro 13 CO 2 G2101- gas analyzer Chrs Rella, Ph.D. Drector of Research & Development Pcarro, Inc., Sunnyvale,

More information

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PHL

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PHL Product Informaton PHL PHL Flexble. Precse. Powerful. PHL long-stroke grpper 2-fnger parallel grpper wth large jaw stroke for large parts and / or a broad range of parts Feld of applcaton Optmum standard

More information

Product Information. Universal gripper PZN-plus

Product Information. Universal gripper PZN-plus Product Informaton Unversal grpper PZN-plus PZN-plus Unversal grpper Relable. Robust. Flexble. PZN-plus unversal grpper Unversal 3-Fnger Centrc Grpper wth hgh grppng force and maxmum moments due to mult-tooth

More information

Gripping force, O.D. gripping. MPZ 20 / 4 bar MPZ 20 / 6 bar. MPZ 20-AS / 4 bar MPZ 20-AS / 6 bar. Gripping force, I.D. gripping

Gripping force, O.D. gripping. MPZ 20 / 4 bar MPZ 20 / 6 bar. MPZ 20-AS / 4 bar MPZ 20-AS / 6 bar. Gripping force, I.D. gripping SCHUNK Grppers pneumatc 3-Fnger Centrc Grppers Small Components Grpper Grppng force, O.D. grppng Fnger load Grppng force 50 MPZ 20 / 4 bar MPZ 20 / 6 bar MPZ 20-AS / 4 bar MPZ 20-AS / 6 bar 40 30 20 10

More information

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PHL 63

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PHL 63 Product Informaton PHL Flexble. Precse. Powerful. PHL 2-fnger parallel grpper wth long jaw stroke for large parts and/or a broad range of parts Feld of applcaton Optmum standard soluton for many felds

More information

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PHL 40

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PHL 40 Product Informaton PHL Flexble. Precse. Powerful. PHL 2-fnger parallel grpper wth long jaw stroke for large parts and/or a broad range of parts Feld of applcaton Optmum standard soluton for many felds

More information

Engineering Analysis of Implementing Pedestrian Scramble Crossing at Traffic Junctions in Singapore

Engineering Analysis of Implementing Pedestrian Scramble Crossing at Traffic Junctions in Singapore Engneerng Analyss of Implementng Pedestran Scramble Crossng at Traffc Junctons n Sngapore Dr. Lm Wee Chuan Eldn Department of Chemcal & Bomolecular Engneerng, Natonal Unversty of Sngapore, 4 Engneerng

More information

High Speed 128-bit BCD Adder Architecture Using CLA

High Speed 128-bit BCD Adder Architecture Using CLA Hgh Speed 128-bt BCD Archtecture Usng CLA J.S.V.Sa Prasanth 1, Y.Yamn Dev 2 PG Student [VLSI&ES], Dept. of ECE, Swamy Vvekananda Engneerng College, Kalavara, Andhrapradesh, Inda 1 Assstant Professor, Dept.

More information

Fully encapsulated. Reliable. Precise. DPZ-plus Sealed Gripper

Fully encapsulated. Reliable. Precise. DPZ-plus Sealed Gripper DPZ-plus Fully encapsulated. Relable. Precse. DPZ-plus Sealed Grpper Despte the hgh moment load of the base jaws, ths sealed 3-fnger centrc grpper satsfes the requrements of IP67 and does not permt any

More information

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG-plus 40

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG-plus 40 Product Informaton MPG-plus 40 MPG-plus More powerful. Faster. Longer fngers. MPG-plus grpper for small components 2-fnger parallel grpper wth smooth roller gudes of the base jaws Feld of applcaton Grppng

More information

Planning of production and utility systems under unit performance degradation and alternative resource-constrained cleaning policies

Planning of production and utility systems under unit performance degradation and alternative resource-constrained cleaning policies 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Plannng of producton and utlty systems under unt performance degradaton

More information

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PHL 50

Product Information. Long-stroke gripper PHL 50 Product Informaton PHL 50 PHL Flexble. Precse. Powerful. PHL long-stroke grpper 2-fnger parallel grpper wth large jaw stroke for large parts and / or a broad range of parts Feld of applcaton Optmum standard

More information

A comparison study on the deck house shape of high speed planing crafts for air resistance reduction

A comparison study on the deck house shape of high speed planing crafts for air resistance reduction csnak, 2014 Int. J. Nav. Archt. Ocean Eng. (2014) 6:867~875 http://dx.do.org/10.2478/ijnaoe-2013-0218 pissn: 2092-6782, eissn: 2092-6790 A comparson study on the deck house shape of hgh speed planng crafts

More information

Study on coastal bridge under the action of extreme wave

Study on coastal bridge under the action of extreme wave Study on coastal brdge under the acton of extreme wave Bo Huang Bng Zhu Jawe Zhang School of Cvl Engneerng, Southwest Jaotong Unversty, Chengdu 610031, Chna Abstract In order to research the catastrophc

More information

Product Information. Universal gripper PZN-plus 40

Product Information. Universal gripper PZN-plus 40 Product Informaton PZN-plus 40 PZN-plus Relable. Robust. Flexble. PZN-plus unversal grpper Unversal 3-Fnger Centrc Grpper wth hgh grppng force and maxmum moments due to mult-tooth gudance Feld of applcaton

More information

OPTIMIZATION OF PRESSURE HULLS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

OPTIMIZATION OF PRESSURE HULLS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS OPTIMIZATION OF PRESSURE HULLS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS J.Franco a, A.Corz a*.a.peña b a Materal Composte Group. Unversdad de Cadz. Avda/Ramon Puyol s/n. 11205 Algecras (Span) *alcorz@caltech.es b Calpe

More information

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG-plus 32

Product Information. Gripper for small components MPG-plus 32 Product Informaton MPG-plus 32 MPG-plus More powerful. Faster. Longer fngers. MPG-plus grpper for small components 2-fnger parallel grpper wth smooth roller gudes of the base jaws Feld of applcaton Grppng

More information

Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of The Flow Analysis Of The Water-Saving Safety Valve

Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of The Flow Analysis Of The Water-Saving Safety Valve Expermental And Numercal Investgaton Of The Flow Analyss Of The Water-Savng Safety Valve Muhammed Safa KAMER s PhD Student n Department of Mechancal Engneerng n Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam Unversty, Turkey.

More information

First digit of chosen number Frequency (f i ) Total 100

First digit of chosen number Frequency (f i ) Total 100 1 4. ANALYSING FREQUENCY TABLES Categorcal (nomnal) data are usually summarzed n requency tables. Contnuous numercal data may also be grouped nto ntervals and the requency o observatons n each nterval

More information

A Climbing Robot based on Under Pressure Adhesion for the Inspection of Concrete Walls

A Climbing Robot based on Under Pressure Adhesion for the Inspection of Concrete Walls A Clmbng Robot based on Under Pressure Adheson for the Inspecton of Concrete Walls K. Berns, C. Hllenbrand, Robotcs Research Lab, Department of Computer Scence, Techncal Unversty of Kaserslautern P.O.

More information

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus 80

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus 80 Product Informaton PGN-plus 80 PGN-plus Relable. Robust. Flexble. PGN-plus unversal grpper Unversal 2-Fnger Parallel Grpper wth large grppng force and hgh maxmum moments due to mult-tooth gudance. Feld

More information

Piston Ring Assembly for a New Natural Gas Vehicle Symmetrical Multistage Wobble-Plate Compressor

Piston Ring Assembly for a New Natural Gas Vehicle Symmetrical Multistage Wobble-Plate Compressor Pston Rng Assembly for a New Natural Gas Vehcle Symmetrcal Multstage Wobble-Plate Compressor Andrl Arafat, Zar Asrar Ahmad, Ardyansyah Syahrom, Nor Ilham Mohd Anon, Md. Nor Musa, Anullotf Abdul-Latf, Wan

More information

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus 40

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus 40 Product Informaton PGN-plus Relable. Robust. Flexble. PGN-plus unversal grpper Unversal 2-Fnger Parallel Grpper wth large grppng force and hgh maxmum moments due to mult-tooth gudance. Feld of applcaton

More information

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus 160

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus 160 Product Informaton PGN-plus 160 PGN-plus Relable. Robust. Flexble. PGN-plus unversal grpper Unversal 2-Fnger Parallel Grpper wth large grppng force and hgh maxmum moments due to mult-tooth gudance. Feld

More information

Development of Accident Modification Factors for Rural Frontage Road Segments in Texas

Development of Accident Modification Factors for Rural Frontage Road Segments in Texas Development of Accdent Modfcaton Factors for Rural Frontage Road Segments n Texas Domnque Lord* Zachry Department of Cvl Engneerng & Center for Transportaton Safety Texas Transportaton Insttute Texas A&M

More information

Internal Wave Maker for Navier-Stokes Equations in a Three-Dimensional Numerical Model

Internal Wave Maker for Navier-Stokes Equations in a Three-Dimensional Numerical Model Journal of Coastal Research SI 64 511-515 ICS2011 (Proceedngs) Poland ISSN 0749-0208 Internal Wave Maker for Naver-Stokes Equatons n a Three-Dmensonal Numercal Model T. Ha, J.W. Lee and Y.-S. Cho Dept.

More information

ITRS 2013 Silicon Platforms + Virtual Platforms = An explosion in SoC design by Gary Smith

ITRS 2013 Silicon Platforms + Virtual Platforms = An explosion in SoC design by Gary Smith ITRS 2013 Slcon Platforms + Vrtual Platforms = An exploson n SoC desgn by Gary Smth 2013 2013 Gary Gary Smth Smth EDA, EDA, Inc. Inc. All All Rghts Rghts Reserved. Reserved. 1 The Fve Desgn Constrants

More information

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus-P 100

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus-P 100 Product Informaton PGN-plus-P 100 PGN-plus-P Relable. Robust. Flexble. PGN-plus-P unversal grpper Unversal 2-Fnger Parallel Grpper wth permanent lubrcaton, large grppng force and hgh maxmum moments thanks

More information

Terminating Head

Terminating Head Termnatng Head 58246-1 Instructon Sheet for MTA- 100 Receptacle Connectors 408-6929 Usng Dscrete Wre 07 APR 11 Locatng Pawl Feed Slde Tool Base Wre Inserter Adjuster (Inserton Rod) Mass Termnaton Assembly

More information

For models: 660 EF/EFO

For models: 660 EF/EFO Installaton Instructons Gas converson kts For models: 660 EF/EFO Part no. 660NGKIT/660LPKIT Warnng: Ths kt must be nstalled by a qualfed nstaller n accordance wth these nstructons and all applcable codes

More information

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus 200

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus 200 Product Informaton PGN-plus 200 PGN-plus Relable. Robust. Flexble. PGN-plus unversal grpper Unversal 2-Fnger Parallel Grpper wth large grppng force and hgh maxmum moments due to mult-tooth gudance. Feld

More information

Mass Spectrometry. Fundamental GC-MS. GC-MS Interfaces

Mass Spectrometry. Fundamental GC-MS. GC-MS Interfaces Mass Spectrometry Fundamental GC-MS GC-MS Interfaces Wherever you see ths symbol, t s mportant to access the on-lne course as there s nteractve materal that cannot be fully shown n ths reference manual.

More information

Available energy assessment in water supply systems

Available energy assessment in water supply systems Avalable energy assessment n water supply systems Helena Ramos, Dída Covas 2, Luz Araujo 3, Mara Mello 4 Professor, Cvl Eng. Dept., Insttuto Superor Técnco, Av. Rovsco Pas, 49- Lsbon, Portugal (Tel: +35

More information

M.H.Ahn, K.J.Lee Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology 335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon , Republic of Korea

M.H.Ahn, K.J.Lee Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology 335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon , Republic of Korea The Methodology on Exposure Dose Evaluaton Modelng Related to Arbtrary Accdent n the Temporary Storage Faclty for Low and Intermedate Level Waste - 9133 M.H.Ahn, K.J.Lee Korea Advance Insttute of Scence

More information

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus 300

Product Information. Universal gripper PGN-plus 300 Product Informaton PGN-plus 300 PGN-plus Relable. Robust. Flexble. PGN-plus unversal grpper Unversal 2-Fnger Parallel Grpper wth large grppng force and hgh maxmum moments due to mult-tooth gudance. Feld

More information

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR ISU SYNCHRONIZED SKATING TECHNICAL CONTROLLERS AND TECHNICAL SPECIALISTS

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR ISU SYNCHRONIZED SKATING TECHNICAL CONTROLLERS AND TECHNICAL SPECIALISTS A ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR ISU SYNCHRONIZED SKATING TECHNICAL CONTROLLERS AND TECHNICAL SPECIALISTS DIFFICULTY GROUPS OF FEATURES 1 DEFINITIONS: Change of Rotaton: Refers to TURNS or LINKING STEPS rotatng

More information

Investigation on Hull Hydrodynamics with Different Draughts for 470 Class Yacht

Investigation on Hull Hydrodynamics with Different Draughts for 470 Class Yacht Proceedngs Investgaton on Hull Hydrodynamcs wth Dfferent Draughts for 470 Class Yacht Yong Ma 1, *, Shje Ln 1,2, Yangyng He 1, Xaoshan Le 1,2 and Song Zhang 1,2 1 School of Sports Engneerng and Informaton

More information

Product Information. Universal gripper PZN-plus 64

Product Information. Universal gripper PZN-plus 64 Product Informaton Unversal grpper PZN-plus 64 PZN-plus Unversal grpper Relable. Robust. Flexble. PZN-plus unversal grpper Unversal 3-Fnger Centrc Grpper wth hgh grppng force and maxmum moments due to

More information

Availability assessment of a raw gas re-injection plant for the production of oil and gas. Carlo Michelassi, Giacomo Monaci

Availability assessment of a raw gas re-injection plant for the production of oil and gas. Carlo Michelassi, Giacomo Monaci 16 th IMEKO TC4 Symposum Explorng New Fronters of Instrumentaton and Methods for Electrcal and Electronc Measurements Avalablty assessment of a raw gas re-njecton plant for the producton of ol and gas

More information

GAS-LIQUID INTERFACIAL AREA IN OXYGEN ABSORPTION INTO OIL-IN-WATER EMULSIONS

GAS-LIQUID INTERFACIAL AREA IN OXYGEN ABSORPTION INTO OIL-IN-WATER EMULSIONS AS-LIQUID INTERFACIAL AREA IN OXYEN ABSORPTION INTO OIL-IN-WATER EMULSIONS ómez-díaz, D. a, omes, N. b, Texera, J.A. b, Belo, I. b a Department of Chemcal Engneerng, Unversty of Santago de Compostela,

More information

Mechanical Engineering Journal

Mechanical Engineering Journal 56789 Bulletn of the JSME Mechancal Engneerng Journal Vol., o., 6 Measurement of three-dmensonal orentaton of golf club head wth one camera Wataru KIMIZUKA* and Masahde OUKI* * DULOP SPORTS CO. LTD. Waknohama-cho

More information

Response based sea state estimation for onboard DSS Safe and Efficient Marine Operations

Response based sea state estimation for onboard DSS Safe and Efficient Marine Operations Response based sea state estmaton for onboard DSS Safe and Effcent Marne Operatons Ulrk Dam Nelsen AMOS Workshop, NTNU, Trondhem, 13 th and 14 th November, 2014 Contents Introducton: Context Montorng and

More information

Research and Application of Work Roll Contour Technology on Thin Gauge Stainless Steel in Hot Rolling

Research and Application of Work Roll Contour Technology on Thin Gauge Stainless Steel in Hot Rolling Send Orders for Reprnts to reprnts@benthamscence.ae The Open Mechancal Engneerng Journal, 215, 9, 111-116 111 Open Access Research and Applcaton of Work Roll Contour Technology on Thn Gauge Stanless Steel

More information

Numerical Analysis of Rapid Gas Decompression in Pure Nitrogen using 1D and 3D Transient Mathematical Models of Gas Flow in Pipes

Numerical Analysis of Rapid Gas Decompression in Pure Nitrogen using 1D and 3D Transient Mathematical Models of Gas Flow in Pipes Internatonal Journal of Chemcal and Bologcal Engneerng 6 01 Numercal Analyss of Rapd as Decompresson n Pure Ntrogen usng 1D and 3D Transent Mathematcal Models of as Flow n Ppes Evgeny Burlutsky Abstract

More information

Evolutionary Sets of Safe Ship Trajectories: Evaluation of Individuals

Evolutionary Sets of Safe Ship Trajectories: Evaluation of Individuals Internatonal Journal on Marne Navgaton and Safety of Sea Transportaton Volume 6 Number 3 September 2012 Evolutonary Sets of Safe Shp Trajectores: Evaluaton of Indvduals R. Szlapczynsk Gdansk Unversty of

More information

Proceedings of the ASME nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE2013 June 9-14, 2013, Nantes, France

Proceedings of the ASME nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE2013 June 9-14, 2013, Nantes, France Proceedngs of the ASME nd Internatonal Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctc Engneerng OMAE June 9-,, Nantes, France OMAE-6 ROLL DAMPING COEFFICIENTS ASSESSMENT AND COMPARISON FOR ROUND BILGE AND HARD

More information

Pneumatic level indicator Unitel

Pneumatic level indicator Unitel Pneumatc level ndcator Untel Reference ponter for easy consumpton montorng Zero correcton possble Page 28 pplcaton For contnuous level measurement n tanks contanng fuel ol, desel fuel and ranwater. For

More information

CS 2750 Machine Learning. Lecture 4. Density estimation. CS 2750 Machine Learning. Announcements

CS 2750 Machine Learning. Lecture 4. Density estimation. CS 2750 Machine Learning. Announcements CS 75 Machne Learnng Lecture 4 ensty estmaton Mlos Hauskrecht mlos@cs.ptt.edu 539 Sennott Square CS 75 Machne Learnng Announcements Homework ue on Wednesday before the class Reports: hand n before the

More information

SECOND-ORDER CREST STATISTICS OF REALISTIC SEA STATES

SECOND-ORDER CREST STATISTICS OF REALISTIC SEA STATES SECOND-ORDER CREST STATISTICS OF REALISTIC SEA STATES MARIOS CHRISTOU Shell Internatonal Exploraton and Producton, 2288 GS Rjswjk, The Netherlands. E-mal: maros.chrstou@shell.com PETER TROMANS Ocean Wave

More information

Investigation on Rudder Hydrodynamics for 470 Class Yacht

Investigation on Rudder Hydrodynamics for 470 Class Yacht Proceedngs Investgaton on Rudder Hydrodynamcs for 470 Class Yacht She Ln 1,, Yong Ma, *, Wetao Zheng, Song Zhang 1,, Xaoshan Le 1, and Yangyng He 1, 1 Graduate School of Wuhan Sports Unversty, Wuhan 430079,

More information

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Price and Yield Risk Management Products in Reducing. Revenue Risk for Southeastern Crop Producers * Todd D.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Price and Yield Risk Management Products in Reducing. Revenue Risk for Southeastern Crop Producers * Todd D. Evaluatng the Effectveness of Prce and Yeld Rsk Management Products n Reducng Revenue Rsk for Southeastern Crop Producers * Todd D. Davs ** Abstract A non-parametrc smulaton model ncorporatng prce and

More information

ST70+ User Reference Manual. Document reference: Date: January 2009

ST70+ User Reference Manual. Document reference: Date: January 2009 ST70+ User Reference Manual Document reference: 85024-1 Date: January 2009 Autohelm, HSB, RayTech Navgator, Sal Plot, SeaTalk and Sportplot are UK regstered trademarks of Raymarne UK Lmted. Pathfnder and

More information

English Premier League (EPL) Soccer Matches Prediction using An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for

English Premier League (EPL) Soccer Matches Prediction using An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for Englsh Premer League (EPL) Soccer Matches Predcton usng An Adaptve Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for Amadn, F. I 1 and Ob, J.C. 2 Department of Computer Scence, Unversty of Benn, Benn Cty. Ngera.

More information

Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(5): Research Article

Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(5): Research Article Avalable onlne www.jocpr.com Journal of Chemcal and Pharmaceutcal Research, 204, 6(5): 520-526 Research Artcle ISS : 0975-7384 CODE(USA) : JCPRC5 Dgtal Electrcal Resstance Tomography System and ts Expermental

More information

Numerical Study of Occupants Evacuation from a Room for Requirements in Codes

Numerical Study of Occupants Evacuation from a Room for Requirements in Codes Numercal Study of Occupants Evacuaton from a Room for Requrements n Codes HL MU JH SUN Unversty of Scence and Technology of Chna State Key Laboratory of Fre Scence Hefe 2300326, CHINA muhl@mal.ustc.edu.cn

More information

Risk analysis of natural gas pipeline

Risk analysis of natural gas pipeline Rsk analyss of natural gas ppelne Y.-D. Jo 1, K.-S. Park 1, J. W. Ko, & B. J. Ahn 3 1 Insttute of Gas Safety Technology, Korea Gas Safety Corporaton, South Korea Department of Chemcal Engneerng, Kwangwoon

More information

A Study on Parametric Wave Estimation Based on Measured Ship Motions

A Study on Parametric Wave Estimation Based on Measured Ship Motions 1 A Study on Parametrc Wave Estmaton Based on Measured Shp Motons Ulrk Dam NIELSEN * and Tosho ISEKI ** Abstract The paper studes parametrc wave estmaton based on the wave buoy analogy, and data and results

More information

PREDICTION OF POLYDISPERSE STEAM BUBBLE CONDENSATION IN SUB-COOLED WATER USING THE INHOMOGENEOUS MUSIG MODEL

PREDICTION OF POLYDISPERSE STEAM BUBBLE CONDENSATION IN SUB-COOLED WATER USING THE INHOMOGENEOUS MUSIG MODEL PREDICTION OF POLYDISPERSE STEAM BUBBLE CONDENSATION IN SUB-COOLED WATER USING THE INHOMOGENEOUS MUSIG MODEL C. Lfante *, T. Frank *, A.D. Burns, D. Lucas and E. Krepper * ANSYS Germany GmbH, Staudenfeldweg

More information

Multi-criteria optimization of pitch curves for screw-type vacuum pumps

Multi-criteria optimization of pitch curves for screw-type vacuum pumps Mult-crtera optzaton of ptch curves for screw-type vacuu pups Dpl.-Ing. D. Pfaller, Prof. Dr.-Ing. A. Brüer, Prof. Dr.-Ing. K. Kauder Fachgebet Fludtechnk, Technsche Unverstät Dortund, Gerany Abstract

More information

Contractor's Material and Test Certificate for Underground Piping

Contractor's Material and Test Certificate for Underground Piping UNDERGROUND PPNG 13-97 Contractors Materal and Test Certfcate for Underground Ppng PROCEDURE Upon completon of work, nspecton and tests shall be made by the contractors representatve and wtnessed by an

More information

International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 5, October Model Systems. Yang Jianjun and Li Wenjin

International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 5, October Model Systems. Yang Jianjun and Li Wenjin Internatonal Journal of Engneerng and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 5, October 2016 1 Relablty Optmzaton Desgn of Submarne Free-Runnng Model Systems Yang Janjun and L Wenjn Abstract Wth regard to the relablty

More information

Numerical Simulation on a Gas Distributor Used In Slurry Column Reactor Yating CAI

Numerical Simulation on a Gas Distributor Used In Slurry Column Reactor Yating CAI 2nd Internatonal Conference on Electrcal, Computer Engneerng and Electroncs (ICECEE 2015) Numercal Smulaton on a Gas Dstrbutor Used In Slurry Column Reactor Yatng CAI College of Chemcal Engneerng, Bejng

More information

Wave Breaking Energy in Coastal Region

Wave Breaking Energy in Coastal Region ave Breang Energy n Coastal Regon Ray-Qng Ln and Lwa Ln Dept. of Seaeepng Davd Taylor Model Basn NSCCD U.S. Army Engneer Researc and Development Center. INTERODUCTION Huang 006 suggested tat wave breang

More information

RADIAL STIFFNESS OF A BICYCLE WHEEL AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

RADIAL STIFFNESS OF A BICYCLE WHEEL AN ANALYTICAL STUDY ADIAL TIFFE OF A BICYCLE WHEEL - A AALYTICAL TUDY José aría ínguez Dpto. de Físca Aplcada II Facultad de Cenca y Tecnología Unversdad del País Vasco Aptdo. 644 488 Blbao PAI Emal: osemara.mnguez@ehu.es

More information

Nonlinear Risk Optimization Approach to Gas Lift Allocation Optimization

Nonlinear Risk Optimization Approach to Gas Lift Allocation Optimization pubs.acs.org/iecr Nonlnear Rsk Optmzaton Approach to Gas Lft Allocaton Optmzaton Mahd Khshvand and Ehsan Khamehch* Faculty of Petroleum Engneerng, Amrkabr Unversty of Technology, Tehran, Iran ABSTRACT:

More information

LSSVM Model for Penetration Depth Detection in Underwater Arc Welding Process

LSSVM Model for Penetration Depth Detection in Underwater Arc Welding Process ISS 1746-7659, England, UK Journal of Informaton and Computng Scence Vol. 5, o. 4, 2010, pp. 271-278 LSSVM Model for Penetraton Depth Detecton n Underwater Arc Weldng Process WeMn Zhang 1, 2, GuoRong Wang

More information

Applications on openpdc platform at Washington State University

Applications on openpdc platform at Washington State University Applcatons on openpdc platform at Washngton State Unversty Chuanln Zhao Ebrahm Rezae Man V. Venkatasubramanan Washngton State Unversty Pullman WA WSU projects OMS - Oscllaton Montorng System Stand-alone

More information

Driver s Decision Model at an Onset of Amber Period at Signalised Intersections

Driver s Decision Model at an Onset of Amber Period at Signalised Intersections Probablty to stop 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.40 0.30 0-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 50-55 55-60 60-65 65-70 70-75 75-80 80-85 85-90 90-95 95-100 1st veh n platoon 2nd veh n platoon

More information

Service Manual 3014 / Front-Side Applicator. Made in Germany

Service Manual 3014 / Front-Side Applicator. Made in Germany Servce Manual Front-Sde Applcator 3014 / 3016 Made n Germany 2 Servce Manual 2 for the followng products Famly Type Front-Sde Applcator 3014 3016 Edton: 05/2018 - Part No. 9009529 Copyrght Ths documentaton

More information

Hydraulic DTH Fluid Hammer Drilling as a Seismic While Drilling (SWD) Source for Geothermal Exploration and Drilling Prediction

Hydraulic DTH Fluid Hammer Drilling as a Seismic While Drilling (SWD) Source for Geothermal Exploration and Drilling Prediction Proceedngs World Geothermal Congress 2015 Melbourne, Australa, 19-25 Aprl 2015 Hydraulc DTH Flud Hammer Drllng as a Sesmc Whle Drllng (SWD) Source for Geothermal Exploraton and Drllng Predcton Poletto

More information

Decomposition guide Technical report on decomposition

Decomposition guide Technical report on decomposition June 2013 Decomposton gude Techncal report on decomposton Erasmus MC Start date of project: 20 Aprl 2012 Duraton: 36 months 1 Table of contents Abstract... 4 Acknowledgements... 5 Introducton... 6 Part

More information

PRESSURE DROP ANALYSIS OF STEAM GENERATION PARABOLIC TROUGH PLANTS

PRESSURE DROP ANALYSIS OF STEAM GENERATION PARABOLIC TROUGH PLANTS PRESSURE DROP ANALYSIS OF STEAM GENERATION PARABOLIC TROUGH PLANTS Heko Schenk 1 and Tobas Hrsch 2 1 M.Sc., Researcher, Insttute of Techncal Thermodynamcs, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany),

More information

WORKING PAPER SERIES Long-term Competitive Balance under UEFA Financial Fair Play Regulations Markus Sass Working Paper No. 5/2012

WORKING PAPER SERIES Long-term Competitive Balance under UEFA Financial Fair Play Regulations Markus Sass Working Paper No. 5/2012 WORKING PAPER SERIES Impressum ( 5 TMG) Herausgeber: Otto-von-Guercke-Unverstät Magdeburg Fakultät für Wrtschaftswssenschaft Der Dekan Verantwortlch für dese Ausgabe: Otto-von-Guercke-Unverstät Magdeburg

More information

Aerator Performance in Reducing Phenomenon of Cavitation in Supercritical Flow in Steep Channel Bed

Aerator Performance in Reducing Phenomenon of Cavitation in Supercritical Flow in Steep Channel Bed Engneerng Internatonal Conference UNNES Conservaton 13 Proceedng Aerator Performance n Reducng Phenomenon of Cavtaton n Supercrtcal Flow n Steep Channel Bed Yer Sutopo 1, Bud Wgnyosukarto, Istarto, dan

More information

MODEL : LDF7810WW/ LDF7810BB/ LDF7810ST LDF7811WW/LDF7811BB / LDF7811ST LDS5811WW/ LDS5811BB/ LDS5811ST LDF6810WW/LDF6810BB / LDF6810ST

MODEL : LDF7810WW/ LDF7810BB/ LDF7810ST LDF7811WW/LDF7811BB / LDF7811ST LDS5811WW/ LDS5811BB/ LDS5811ST LDF6810WW/LDF6810BB / LDF6810ST _/ / _ III IRL III" Dshwasher MODEL : LDF7810WW/ LDF7810BB/ LDF7810ST LDF7811WW/LDF7811BB / LDF7811ST LDS5811WW/ LDS5811BB/ LDS5811ST LDF6810WW/LDF6810BB / LDF6810ST Please read ths manual carefully Retan

More information

Peak Field Approximation of Shock Wave Overpressure Based on Sparse Data

Peak Field Approximation of Shock Wave Overpressure Based on Sparse Data Peak Feld Approxmaton of Shock Wave Overpressure Based on Sparse Data Yongl Zhang, Taln Han, Yuqun Chen, Enku Zhang, and Xuan Lu Abstract To obtan the shock wave feld dstrbuton, two knds of calber weapons

More information

Comparisons of Means for Estimating Sea States from an Advancing Large Container Ship

Comparisons of Means for Estimating Sea States from an Advancing Large Container Ship Downloaded from orbt.dtu.dk on: Jan 31, 18 Comparsons of Means for Estmatng Sea States from an Advancng Large Contaner Shp Nelsen, Ulrk Dam; Andersen, Ingrd Mare Vncent; Konng, Jos Publshed n: Proceedngs

More information

Report No. FHWA/LA.13/508. University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Report No. FHWA/LA.13/508. University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering TECHNICAL REPORT STANDARD PAGE Report No. FHWA/LA.13/508 4. Ttle and Subttle A Comprehensve Study on Pavement Edge Lne Implementaton 7. Author(s) Xaoduan Sun, Ph.D., P.E. Subassh Das 9. Performng Organzaton

More information

CFD Simulation of R134a and R410A Two-Phase Flow in the Vertical Header of Microchannel Heat Exchanger

CFD Simulation of R134a and R410A Two-Phase Flow in the Vertical Header of Microchannel Heat Exchanger Purdue Unversty Purdue e-pubs Internatonal Refrgeraton and Ar Condtonng Conference School of Mechancal Engneerng 2016 CFD Smulaton of R134a and R410A Two-Phase Flow n the Vertcal Header of Mcrochannel

More information

Modelling, Design and Optimisation of a Hybrid PSA-Membrane Gas Separation Process

Modelling, Design and Optimisation of a Hybrid PSA-Membrane Gas Separation Process 17 th European Symposum on Computer-Aded Process Engneerng (ESCAPE17) (V. Plesu and P.S. Agach, Edtors) 007 Elsever B.V. All rghts reserved. 1 Modellng, Desgn and Optmsaton of a Hybrd PSA-Membrane Gas

More information

it500 Internet Thermostat

it500 Internet Thermostat T500 User Manual 16pp 025_Layout 1 03/09/2013 12:00 Page 1 T500 Internet Thermostat U S E R M A N U A L T500 User Manual 16pp 025_Layout 1 03/09/2013 12:00 Page 2 Product complance & safety nformaton These

More information

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE CO-ORDINATION DIAPHRAGMATIC AND RIB MOVEMENT IN RESPIRATION

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE CO-ORDINATION DIAPHRAGMATIC AND RIB MOVEMENT IN RESPIRATION Thorax (199),, 65. SOME OBSERVATONS ON THE CO-ORDNATON DAPHRAGMATC AND RB MOVEMENT N RESPRATON BY HERBERT HERXHEMER Surgcal Unt, Unversty College Hosptal, London Daphragm and ntercostal muscles together

More information

This document is downloaded from DR-NTU, Nanyang Technological University Library, Singapore.

This document is downloaded from DR-NTU, Nanyang Technological University Library, Singapore. Ths document s downloaded from DR-NTU, Nanyang Technologcal Unversty Lbrary, Sngapore. Ttle capacty analyss usng smulaton Author(s) Ctaton Huang, Shell Yng; Hsu, Wen Jng; He, Yuxong; Song, Tancheng; De

More information

IBIS: ATestbed for the Evolution of Intelligent Broadband Networks toward TINA

IBIS: ATestbed for the Evolution of Intelligent Broadband Networks toward TINA BS: ATestbed for the Evoluton of ntellgent Broadband Networks toward TNA Marc0 Lstant, Unversty of Roma "La Sapenza" Stefan0 Salsano, CoRTeL ABSTRACT Ths artcle analyzes a possble path for the evoluton

More information

Bubble Column Reactor Fluid-dynamic Evaluation at Pilot-plant for Residue and Extra-heavy Crude Oil Upgrading Technology

Bubble Column Reactor Fluid-dynamic Evaluation at Pilot-plant for Residue and Extra-heavy Crude Oil Upgrading Technology J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 9 (15) 176-19 do: 1.1765/1934-7375/15.3.3 D DAVID PUBISHING Bubble Column Reactor Flud-dynamc Evaluaton at Plot-plant for Resdue and Extra-heavy Crude Ol Upgradng Technology Rcardo

More information

PREDICTIONS OF CIRCULATING CURRENT FIELD AROUND A SUBMERGED BREAKWATER INDUCED BY BREAKING WAVES AND SURFACE ROLLERS. Yoshimitsu Tajima 1

PREDICTIONS OF CIRCULATING CURRENT FIELD AROUND A SUBMERGED BREAKWATER INDUCED BY BREAKING WAVES AND SURFACE ROLLERS. Yoshimitsu Tajima 1 PREDICTIONS O CIRCULATING CURRENT IELD AROUND A SUBMERGED BREAKWATER INDUCED BY BREAKING WAVES AND SURACE ROLLERS Yoshmtsu Tama 1 Ths paper develops a quas-three-dmensonal nearshore current model whch

More information

Comparative Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of Two Unsaturated Soil Slope Models after Rainfall Infiltration

Comparative Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of Two Unsaturated Soil Slope Models after Rainfall Infiltration Jordan Journal of Cvl Engneerng, Volume 11, No. 1, 2017 Comparatve Determnstc and Probablstc Analyss of Two Unsaturated Sol Slope Models after Ranfall Infltraton Manoj Kr. Sahs 1) and Partha Pratm Bswas

More information

Polyethylene flow prediction with a differential multi-mode Pom-Pom model

Polyethylene flow prediction with a differential multi-mode Pom-Pom model Korea-Australa Rheology Journal Vol. 14, No. 1, March 2002 pp. 25-32 Polyethylene flow predcton wth a dfferental mult-mode Pom-Pom model R.P.G. Rutgers*, N. Clemeur, S. Muke 1 and B. Debbaut 2 Department

More information

Stability Analysis for the Design of 5000-Tonnes Offshore Work Barge

Stability Analysis for the Design of 5000-Tonnes Offshore Work Barge Internatonal Journal of Engneerng and echnology Volume No. 9, September, Stablty Analyss for the Desgn of 5-onnes Offshore Work arge Ntonye Samson a, Ezenwa Ogbonnaya b, uve Ejabefo a a Department of arne

More information

Transportation Research Forum

Transportation Research Forum Transportaton Research Forum On the Impact of HOT Lane Tollng Strateges on Total Traffc Level Author(s): Sohel Sbdar and Mansoureh Jehan Source: Journal of the Transportaton Research Forum, Vol. 48, No.

More information