TEACHING METHODOLOGY SKIING

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1 TEACHING METHODOLOGY SKIING Fall 2017 National Office / Bureau National: 32 Ancolies St., SADL, Qc J0R 1B0

2 CADS TEACHING METHODOLOGY SKIING CADS Mission CADS provides opportunities for people with disabilities to experience the joy of participating and competing in alpine snowsports. CADS achieves this by developing and promoting adaptive snowsports through partnerships, training, and instructor certification programs. CADS Vision CADS is recognized nationally and internationally for its leadership in alpine adaptive snowsports. Purpose of the CADS Technical Committee The purpose of the Technical Committee (TC) is to provide technical expertise and oversight in the delivery of training programs and certification requirements for CADS Instructors, thereby contributing to the growth and enjoyment of adaptive snowsports. 2

3 Introduction In this Teaching Methodology, specific expressions and/or terms will be used extensively and are defined here: Student: Volunteer: Candidate: Instructor: Course Conductor: A person living with a disability. A person who is not CADS Certified but who works within an adaptive snowsports program. A person pursuing a CADS Complete or Module Certification. A person holding a CADS Certification Level or Module. A person holding a CADS Level 3 Certification and who has passed the Course Conductor Evaluation at Pre-Course or is a CADS Level 4 or 4 Examiner. The Certification Standards contained in this document were developed by the Technical Committee (TC) of the Canadian Adaptive Snowsports (CADS) and approved by the CADS Board of Directors. The certification standards represent a minimum standard for Volunteers / Candidate. The Standards also offer the basis for a program of training for potential and existing instructors. The Standards for certification are based on knowledge, teaching ability and skiing ability, and are outlined in detail in a Certification Study Guide for each level. The Standards will be reviewed by the CADS Technical Committee in consultation with key stakeholders. All updated Standards must be approved by the CADS Board of Directors. 3

4 The CADS Technical Committee has gathered the basic principles which support the changes in the CADS Instruction Manual and the Certification System through consultations and surveys. The results are: Understandable Universal (Volunteer Training and Instructor Training and Certification Standards) Best Practices (Para and Able Bodied) Educational (Competencies) Affordable Achievable (Modular - at your own pace) Appealing / Attractive (No time limits between levels; Modular or Complete Training and Certification to be proud of) Meaningful (More knowledge based Volunteers, Instructors, Course Conductors, Level 4s and Level 4 Examiners) Flexible Fun (Training and Certification using an experiential learning approach) Cross Disciplinarian (Inclusive Adapted snow sports including snowboarding) Bilingual Trackable (New TC database aligned with new CADS National requirements) Address Succession Plan with vulnerable Divisions CADS Level 3 + certification needs 4

5 CADS CSIA Teaching Methodology Course Segments: The Gliding Experience Creating New Skiers The Gliding Experience works around four objectives and by using them, instructors develop skills through a variety of tactical, student-centered activities. The Gliding Experience moves away from step-based and technically focused traditions and replaces the previous Fast Track to Parallel progression. Learning activities are built around four skiing objectives: Mobility in the skiing environment Speed Management control, maintain or increase as desired Gliding with comfort and balance Direction Change for control and rhythm The Gliding Experience Terrain Assisted Development Instructors may use terrain features and contours to make a game of learning to ski. At the same time the terrain features offer specific developmental tools for the instructor. Mobility Maintain some rhythm. Speed Management: Choose and demonstrate a snow plow stance when appropriate. Show the ability to stop in a parallel stance. Modify turn shape relative to snow conditions and steepness of terrain. Gliding: Choose terrain to demonstrate gliding without braking. Adjust edge grip to show side slipping / skidded arcs. Show balanced sliding in the middle of the ski. Direction Change: Choose appropriate turn shape for student. Show efficient turn linking. 5

6 Skiing Skill Understanding: CSIA Technical Reference The CSIA Technical Reference is a set of guiding principles which describe the relationship between body and skis for efficient and effective skiing. The Technical Reference pertains to all abilities, ages, terrain and equipment and is relevant to all turn shapes, speeds and levels of performance. Use of all joints helps maintain a centered stance and provides the ability to manage forces acting on the ski and skier. o Balance is crucial for effective skiing. o A stance centered between the bindings with the correct amount of flexion in the joints will provide a centered and mobile stance. o Mobility is crucial to meet the changes and forces developing by moving on a slope. Turning is led by the lower body and the ski design. o Develop turning of the legs in the hip sockets. View the steering of the skis in a continuous arc. o View a quiet upper body. o Ski design will greatly influence the turning arc Managing upper and lower body separation allows angulations to provide grip. o Turning with the lower body will create a break with the upper body. o Angulation allows this break to continue while steering through the arc. Progressive angulation with balance will allow edge grip throughout the arc of the turn. Coordinated movement patterns direct the forces acting on the skis and the momentum of the skier from turn to turn. o Flow is the goal. o A coordinated movement pattern (flexion, extension, lateral, inclination, angulation) at the correct time and place will yield a continuous edged turning arc and demonstrate a flow to the skier moving down the slope. 6

7 Pole Plant The pole plant takes place at the end of the turn to establish balance over the edges Pole basket should move forward on an arc as the arc is progressing so that it is ready to plant The pole can have some weight on it to stabilize the upper body and prevent rotation Once planted, ski past the pole and then ready it to move forward into the next arc The pole movement will assist rhythm TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT Performance Criteria General performance criteria for Intermediate Parallel on groomed intermediate terrain: CSIA Level 1 & 2 Skiing Criteria: Objective: Maintain intermediate speeds Blend skills to achieve a steered, skidded arc Maintain consistent turn shape relative to speed and terrain Technique: Lead the turning effort with the lower body Utilize the ski design for efficient turning Manage separation for angulation to provide grip Use all joints to maintain a centered stance Coordinate movement patterns for efficient turn linking Demonstrations: (maintaining technical performance criteria above): Show a centered stance and mobility in joints while pushing with poles Balance laterally from foot to foot while skating Show edge grip through climbing or side stepping 7

8 The 5 Skills Stance & Balance Stacking the joints so that there is flexion in the ankle, knee and hip which allows the skier to balance over the BOS. Pivot The act of turning the skis across the direction of travel by rotating the leg in the hip socket so as to create a new steering angle and therefore a change of direction of the skis. Edging The act of tipping the skis onto their sides (edges). Pressure Control Regulation of forces acting on the base of the skis. Timing and Coordination / Flow Blending of the previous four skills at the correct time and place flow. Tactics The Development Tools to achieve the Technical Reference are tactics which utilize the following skills. The skills, however, must be understood and implemented by the Candidate when selecting the proper tactics. Stance and Balance - Tactics Proper stance for balance includes flexed ankle, knee and hip, hands forward and to the side (holding a large beach ball). When performed correctly, the skier should achieve nose over toes. Stance is not static flex / extend while moving hop or step through the arc for balance. If sitting back on heels hands on knees, pole tips dragging at front binding. If leaning uphill (weight on uphill ski) reach down and touch side of boot on downhill(outside) ski; holding pole like a sword, reach downhill and drag pole basket on snow. 8

9 Pivot - Tactics The act of pivoting the skis is achieved by turning the leg in the hip socket. Watch that tip and tail move equally in opposite directions. Use small flexion and extension to pivot skis. Pivot is accomplished when ski is flat and not on edge. Edging - Tactics When the ski is tipped over the ski, the edge will engage. A wedge turn will give the feel of edging. Hockey stops, sideslip. Pressure Control - Tactics Ski over rolls or moguls to feel pressure build up and decrease; controlled by flexing and extending the body. Timing and Coordination / Flow Tactics Ski synchro on easy groomed terrain; play with pole plant. 9

10 Teaching Instructor must understand and have knowledge of Teaching Methodology. Basic Teaching Methodology The priority is the skier s overall experience as the instructor engages clients and uses situations and fun activities for improvement. 1 - The starting point for all decisions is the learning contract shared by the instructor and learner. By considering the learner s experience, objectives, and physical and psychological factors, the instructor builds student-centered activities tailored to each learner. The AOT in the CADS session creates the learning contract. The Candidate will look for areas in need of improvement and institute a tactic for improvement and development. The Candidate will provide easy to see and follow demonstrations while explaining what the student should feel. The Candidate will provide positive feedback during teaching sequences and seek out student input. The Candidate will demonstrate clear, concise verbal communication of ideas required in the teaching sequence. 2 - The situation is always a factor in decision- making. Terrain, conditions and a safe learning environment must be constant considerations for the instructor. Naturally occurring and man-made terrain features provide opportunities for terrain assisted development. The Candidate will demonstrate and state issues of safety during class sequences. The Candidate will choose appropriate terrain for success. The Candidate will demonstrate class organization and movement about the hill with proper verbal directions. 10

11 3 - Learning activities are built around four skiing objectives, prioritized according to student needs and changing situations. This focuses on managing the skiing environment instead of technical aspects. The Candidate will define and demonstrate their ability to teach a skiing objective based on the student and situation. The objectives are: Mobility in the skiing environment Gliding with comfort and balance Direction change for control and rhythm Speed management control, maintain or increase as desired 4 -Motor skill development guides the choice and use of activities. Through observation (AOT), the instructor or candidate determines tasks for the learner, decides how much repetition and practice time is needed, and uses their situational and technical knowledge to vary tasks for fun and learning. The Candidate will create an appropriate task for the skill level to be achieved. 11

12 Background Information The following information is provided to assist the Candidate to more fully understand the CSIA Technique and Methodology. Tasks The developmental tools needed to achieve the Technical Reference are tactics which incorporate the following skills. The skills themselves, however, are not taught specifically but rather the skills must be fully understood by the Candidate in order to select the proper tactics. Below are tasks which the Candidate may use during the lesson. They are by no means the only tasks to be employed in a given situation. Candidates are encouraged to compile their own list for use in teaching scenarios. Use poles, swiffers, brushes, and cones in slalom course for direction change. Serpentine turns. Minimum slope maximum speed minimum number of turns to increase speed. Hopping, picking up uphill (inside) ski for balance. Hands on knees, on outside of downhill knee, flex and extend while turning all for balance and edge awareness. Skiing backwards on gentle slope then move to intermediate slope. Flex and extend using rolls, humps etc., for feelings of pressure. Encourage small jumps over small rollers for balance. Use side hills to ski on for edging. Use 360 turns for balance and edge awareness. Reach down on outside ski to boot tops and feel ski edges engaging. 12

13 Technical Basics Understanding Terminology COM Centre of Mass average position of mass of a body usually inside a body but not always e.g. a donut COM is in the hole not a fixed point changes with shape based on body shape (males usually located around the area of the navel (belly button) female usually lower toward the hips). BOS Base of Support basic stance wide stance more stable than narrow stance pole plant increases size of BOS use BOS for changes while skiing (feet). Forces in skiing: o Gravity as in life it is vertical but on a slope, is both vertical and parallel to the slope. o Friction caused by the movement of two surfaces rubbing together skis and snow. o Centrifugal an object moving in an arc wants to move out of the arc e.g. ball on a string swung round the head undo the string and the ball moves away from the intended arc. Steering angle angle between where the ski is going and where one wants the ski to go created by pivoting the ski to a new direction. Counter rotation created by turning the legs under the hip and upper body so that the skis continue to move on the arc while the upper body faces the tangent of the arc. Edge angle angle created between the ski and the snow by tipping the ski on edge. Pivot the act of turning the leg(s) in the hip socket which turns the ski to a new steering angle. Pressure the forces acting on the bottom of the skis relieved and controlled by flexing and extending the body. Timing & Coordination blending the skills at the correct time and place through the turning arc. Stance and Balance the joint positions of stacking the body over the BOS. Carving turning the skis so that the tail of the ski on edge follows the exact path of the tip of the ski. Fall line located on hill the path which a basketball would follow down the hill if released many and different fall lines on a single hill. Skidded skis skis that are slightly on edge but are allowed to move across the snow sideways. Steering the act of directing the skis through a continuous arc steering is a combination of pivoting, edging and pressure control through an arc. Wedge skis are placed with tips together and tails apart as they move on the slope. Linking referred to turns as in going from one turn immediately to the next. Inclination leaning of the body against external forces. Angulation angles formed between body segments such as ankle, knee and hip and torso. 13

14 CSIA Teaching Methodology From the Candidate s attendance at the CSIA Teaching Methodology clinic, the Candidate must exhibit the following knowledge while participating in either the CADS Complete or Module Certification. Gliding Experience and Technical Reference 5 Skills CSIA turn shape CSIA on snow teaching tactics for skill development. Ski backwards on green groomed slopes The Candidate will: Know the components of both the Gliding Experience and Technical Reference. Know the 5 skills and be able to discuss them. Know where the 5 skills fit into the Gliding Experience and Technical Reference. Demonstrate where they apply in the turn shape of a parallel skidded turn. Be able to perform parallel skidded turns on appropriate groomed runs. Be able to utilize some tactics as presented by the Course Conductor to accomplish a developmental goal during teaching the CADS portion of the CADS Certification. Be able to ski backwards on beginner terrain while linking turns in either a wedge or parallel position and be able to stop in the fall line in a backward skiing position. The complete CSIA requirement are detailed in the CADS Level 1or 2 study guide under the CSIA Teaching Methodology section. 14

15 Ski Ability (will involve the following): The Candidate needs to show knowledge and the ability to use the Gliding Experience and Technical Reference. The Candidate must demonstrate ability to use the skills in correct sequence. The Candidate shows a lack of flow in the turn sequences and may utilize increased lateral distance between turns to prepare for the upcoming turn shape but flow is evident. The Candidate needs to show speed control on appropriate groomed terrain although under conditions of stress may abandon this ability. The Candidate must perform linked turns, with edging, throughout the arc. The Candidate can utilize a pole plant at the end of the arc in preparation of the next turn. The action may be jerky and lack flow. By the end of the CSIA Session the Candidate will: Demonstrate ability to properly utilize the skills in correct order, with some flow, when skiing. Be able to select appropriate tactics to demonstrate the skills. Demonstrate their increased knowledge of the skills and balance by exhibiting a centered mobile stance, pivot and edging. Will begin to demonstrate the ability to steer with the lower body throughout the turn shape and show upper and lower body separation. Will begin to demonstrate speed control by performing constant linked turns and by completing the turn shape on an appropriate groomed slope. Demonstrate ability to provide an edged ski throughout the turn shape using angulation and balance. Demonstrate linked turns on appropriate slopes while demonstrate a level of flow. Must demonstrate their ability to ski backwards while teaching a lesson. Demonstrate the use of a pole plant at the end of a turn for preparation of the next turn. 15

16 This assessment of Ski Ability and knowledge of CSIA Gliding Experience and Technical Reference will take place throughout the CADS Certification both during warm up or free ski runs and while performing demonstrations. DEVELOPMENT SCALE TECHNICAL ABILITY ACQUISITION CSIA Level 1 The skier coordinates and executes the key components of the movement in the correct order Execution may be inconsistent and lack precision Cautious execution by skier Rough form, may lack synchronization, rhythm and flow CONSOLIDATION CSIA Level 2 CSIA Video on You Tube: CSIA Level 1 & 2 Skiing Criteria: Coordination of movements appears Controlled and rhythmical execution of task under stable conditions Some performance elements are maintained, but may be inconsistent when skier is under pressure, conditions change or demands increase 16

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