TECHNICAL ARTICLE STUNT KITE AERODYNAMICS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "TECHNICAL ARTICLE STUNT KITE AERODYNAMICS"

Transcription

1 TECHNICAL ARTICLE STUNT KITE AERODYNAMICS Written March 16, 1998 Updated January 26, 2010 By DOUGLAS K. STOUT "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" 50 OLD STAGE COACH ROAD ANDOVER, NEW JERSEY (973)

2 1.0 INTRODUCTION This document provides the first technical article, which is entitled Technical Paper, Stunt Kite Aerodynamics. This technical article will allow you to calculate the basic aerodynamic platform of your stunt kite and evaluate your current bridle. 1.1 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE The purpose of this stunt kite aerodynamics technical article is to: Teach stunt kite enthusiasts the principals of aerodynamics as they apply to stunt kites; Introduce standard aerodynamic terminology so that stunt kite enthusiasts may discuss the aerodynamic platform of their stunt kite designs; Teach stunt kite enthusiasts how to calculated the aerodynamic platform of their stunt kite designs; and Enlighten stunt kite enthusiasts on how to optimize their stunt kite designs. The objective of this stunt kite aerodynamics technical article is to present a foundation of stunt kite aerodynamics so stunt kite enthusiasts may expand stunt kite designs to the next level of superior performance. 1.2 DISCLAIMER The information presented in this technical article is solely based on my knowledge of aerodynamics and associated experience. I gained this experience while flying and designing aerodynamic platforms for various hobby/sports, over a span of 40 years, as indicated in my biography presented in Section 6.0 of this article. One of my hobby/sports is designing stunt kites for my kite company, Falcon Aero Designs. Since these technical articles are related to stunt kites, some references to design features developed for Falcon Aero Designs are made to clarify aerodynamic principles. Falcon Aero Designs and I admit no liability from the use or misuse of the information presented in these technical articles. 1.3 ARTICLE ORGANIZATION The following provides the sections and associated titles included in this technical article: Introduction Aerodynamic Centers Center of Gravity and Static Margin Rate of Turn and Bridling Conclusions Biography Aerodynamic terms that are relevant to each section of the technical article will be introduced and defined. Each section builds on the principles presented in the previous section. "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 1

3 2.0 AERODYNAMIC CENTER The aerodynamic center of a stunt kite is the location where all the forces imposed on your stunt kite can be mathematically represented by one point. The aerodynamic center also is the reference point used to measure these forces. In this section, we will discuss the components that are used to calculate the aerodynamic center of a stunt kite. Stunt kites ranging from simple geometric shapes, such a diamonds and rectangles to complex geometric shapes, such as dart style stunt kites with curved leading and trailing edges. Figure 1 provides a labeled diagram for three example stunt kites with different geometric shapes. To evaluate the aerodynamics of a stunt kite, we calculate the aerodynamic center for either the left or right side, defined as the panel aerodynamic center. Since most stunt kites are symmetrical in shape, the left panel aerodynamic center is equal to the right panel aerodynamic center during forward flight. FIGURE 1 "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 2

4 2.1 PROJECT SAIL AREA The projected sail area of a stunt kite is the effective area used for lift and forward flight. The projected sail area can be represented as the area of the sail you see while flying. The project sail area also can be visualized as the shadow your stunt kite projects on the ground with the sun directly overhead, after you place your stunt kite face down on the ground with the standoffs pointing up. Place your assembled stunt kite face down on a large piece of paper. Carefully trace the outline of your stunt kite. The shape you have transferred to the paper is the projected sail area. The projected sail area is the area that provides lift to the stunt kite. The projected sail area is not the area of the sail when placed your stunt kite flat on the ground without spreaders and standoffs. This area is defined as the construction area or total sail area. The area of the sail that you see when looking down from the nose or top of the stunt kite, or the side of a stunt kite provides stability and maneuverability. In future technical articles, we may discuss how the top and side areas of the sail affect performance. 2.2 SUBPANEL AERODYNAMIC CENTERS Now that you have traced the outline of your stunt kite, we will focus on the right half, from the center spine to the tip, to calculate the right panel aerodynamic center. To calculate the panel aerodynamic center, we have to break the project sail area of the stunt kite into unique geometric shapes, called sub panels. Each sub panel must have vertical sides that are parallel to the center spine, with reasonably straight leading and trailing edges. The leading edge is the part of the sail the air would touch first in flight. An example would be the nose and the edge of the stunt kite sail that contains the wing spars. The trailing edge is the part of the sail the air would touch last in flight. With the rectangular and the triangular stunt kites presented in Figure 1, only one sub panel is required for the right side. The dart style stunt kite presented in Figure 1 is our Falcon. Our Falcon, along with our other stunt kites, were designed using 10 sub panels per side. The following sections will allow you to determine the horizontal and vertical location of the aerodynamic center for a sub panel. Horizontal Sub Panel Aerodynamic Center To calculate the horizontal location of a sub panel aerodynamic center from the center spine, we use the following equation: (RC + 2 X TC) (SPS) SPAC H = X + DS (RC + TC) 3 SPAC H = Horizontal Sub Panel Aerodynamic Center (inches) RC = Root Chord (inches) TC = Tip Chord (inches) SPS = Sub panel Span (inches) DS = Delta Span (inches) "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 3

5 The root chord (RC) is the vertical length of the sub panel, from the leading to the tailing edge, on the side of the sub panel closest to the center spine. For the rectangular and triangular stunt kites presented in Figure 1, the root chord is the vertical length of the sail material covering the center spine. The tip chord (TC) is the vertical length of the panel, from the leading to the tailing edge, on the side of the panel farthest from the center spine. With the rectangular and triangular stunt kites presented in Figure 1, the tip chord is the tip of the stunt kite. The root and tip chords are equal for the rectangular kite. The tip chord for the triangular stunt kite is zero. The sub panel span (SPS) is the horizontal distance from the root chord to the tip chord, perpendicular to the center spine. For the rectangular and triangular stunt kites presented in Figure 1, the panel span is the horizontal distance from the center spine to the tip of the stunt kite. The delta span (DS) is the distance from the center spine to the root chord of the sub panel. For the rectangular and triangular stunt kites presented in Figure 1, the delta span is zero since the root chord is at the center spine. Vertical Sub Panel Aerodynamic Center To calculate the vertical location of a sub panel aerodynamic center from the leading edge of the nose of the stunt kite, we use the following equation: SPAC V = (RC + 2 X TC) X LS X (RC 2 + RC X TC + TC 2 ) + RS 3 X (RC + TC) SPAC V = Vertical Sub Panel Aerodynamic Center (inches) RC = Root Chord (inches) TC = Tip Chord (inches) LS = Leading Edge Sweep (inches) RS = Root Chord Sweep (inches) The leading edge sweep (LS) is the distance the leading edge at the tip chord is vertically below the leading edge at root chord of the sub panel. The root chord sweep (RS) is the distance the leading edge at the root chord of the sub panel is vertically below the nose of the sail. For the rectangular and triangular stunt kites presented in Figure 1, the root chord sweep is zero since the leading edge of the root chord is the nose of the stunt kite. The distance the sub panel aerodynamic center is below the leading edge corresponds with the quarter chord line of the sub panel. The quarter chord line of the sub panel is calculated by dividing the root and tip chords by four, then measure these distances from the leading edge of the respective chord. As presented in Figure 1, one quarter of the sub panel area will be above this line, while three quarters of the sub panel area will be below. 2.3 CALCULATING SUBPANEL, PANEL AND PROJECTED SAIL AREAS We will now calculate various areas of a stunt kite, which will be used in Section 2.5 to calculate the right panel aerodynamic center. To calculate the area of a sub panel, we use the following equation: "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 4

6 SPA = (RC + TC) 2 X SPS SPA = Sub Panel Area (square inches) RC = Root Chord (inches) TC = Tip Chord (inches) SPS = Sub panel Span (inches) To calculate the area of the right panel of the sail, we simply add all the sub panel areas together. The following provides the equation used for this calculation: PA = SPA 1 + SPA 2 + SPA SPA N PA = Panel Area (square inches) SPA 1 = Area of the First Sub Panel (square inches) SPA 2 = Area of the Second Sub Panel (square inches) SPA 3 = Area of the Third Sub Panel (square inches) SPA N = Area of the Last Sub Panel (square inches) To calculate the project sail area of the sail, we multiply the panel area by two. The following provides the equation used for this calculation: SA = PA X 2 SA = Project Sail Area (square inches) PA = Panel Area (square inches) 2.4 MEAN AERODYNAMIC CHORD AND ASPECT RATIO The mean aerodynamic chord is the average width of the projected sail area from the leading edge to the trailing edge. If the stunt kite sail was shaped like a rectangle, then the mean chord is the same as the width of the sail, at any location along the span of the sail. If the stunt kite sail shape was complex, the mean chord is a mathematical representation of the average width of the sail as a rectangle that could not be measured. The mean aerodynamic chord will be used in Section 3.0 to calculate the static margin of the sail. To calculate the mean aerodynamic chord, we must calculate the panel span using the following equation: "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 5

7 PS = SPS 1 + SPS 2 + SPS SPS N PS = Panel Span (inches) SPS 1 = Span of the First Sub Panel (inches) SPS 2 = Span of the Second Sub Panel (inches) SPS 3 = Span of the Third Sub Panel (inches) SPS N = Span of the Last Sub Panel (inches) Now that we have the panel span, we can calculate the mean aerodynamic chord using the following equation: MC = PA PS MC = Mean Aerodynamic Chord (inches) PA = Panel Area (square inches) PS = Panel Span (inches) To calculate the wingspan of the stunt kite, we simply multiply the panel span by two. The wingspan is the distance from the extreme tips of the stunt kite when assembled. The following provides the equation used for this calculation: WS = PS X 2 WS = Wing Span (inches) PS = Panel Span (inches) With the above information, we also can calculate an interesting aerodynamic measurement, the aspect ratio. The aspect ratio is the ratio of the wingspan divided by the mean chord. Using a rectangular stunt kite with a wingspan of 10 feet and a mean chord of 2 feet, the aspect ratio is 5 to 1. The aspect ratio of a stunt kite sail is one measure of the sail's efficiency, stability and maneuverability. To calculate the aspect ratio of a stunt kite, we can use one of the following two equations: WS 2 WS AR = or to 1 SA MC AR = Aspect Ratio (unit less) WS = Wing Span (inches) SA = Total Project Sail Area (square inches) MC = Mean Aerodynamic Chord (inches) "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 6

8 Aspect ratios for stunt kites range from 1 to 1, for some diamond stunt kites, to greater than 10 to 1, for large inflatable traction stunt kites. Most stunt kites have aspect ratios ranging from 6-8 to 1. Our Falcon and Talon were designed with aspect ratios of 7.75 to 1 and 7.0 to 1, respectively. In simplified terms, with a lower the aspect ratio, the stunt kite is more stable, but less efficient. With a higher aspect ratio, the stunt kite is more efficient, but less stable. 2.5 PANEL AERODYNAMIC CENTER We will now calculate the panel aerodynamic center for a stunt kite using the data collected for or calculated from the previous sections. Horizontal Panel Aerodynamic Center To calculate the horizontal location of the panel aerodynamic center from the center spine, we use the following equation: PAC H = SPAC H1 X SPA 1 + SPAC H2 X SPA SPAC HN X SPA N PA PAC H = Horizontal Aerodynamic Center (inches) SPAC H1 = Horizontal Aerodynamic Center for the First Sub Panel (inches) SPAC H2 = Horizontal Aerodynamic Center for the Second Sub Panel (inches) SPAC HN = Horizontal Aerodynamic Center for the Last Sub Panel (inches) SPA 1 = Area of the First Sub Panel (square inches) SPA 2 = Area of the Second Sub Panel (square inches) SPA N = Area of the Last Sub Panel (square inches) PA = Panel Area (square inches) The horizontal location of the panel aerodynamic center (PAC H ) is the location where the sail area from the center spine to the PAC H is equal to the sail area from the PAC H to the tip. For the rectangular stunt kite presented in Figure 1, the PAC H is in the center of the right panel. For the triangular stunt kite presented in Figure 1, the PAC H is 1/3 of the panel span, measured from the center spine. For the dart style stunt kite presented in Figure 1, you need the above equation to calculate the PAC H. To compare stunt kites with different wing spans, the horizontal location of the panel aerodynamic center is made unit less by using the following equation: PAC H Percent PAC H = X 100% PS Percent PAC H = Horizontal Aerodynamic Center (percent) PAC H = Horizontal Aerodynamic Center (inches) PS = Panel Span (inches) "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 7

9 For the rectangular, triangular and dart style stunt kites presented in Figure 1, the percent PAC H is 50%, 33% and 26.9%, respectively. The turn of a stunt kite is directly related to the wingspan and percent PAC H. For a specific wingspan, the lower the percent PAC H, the smaller the diameter of the turn. This is why the dart style stunt kites turn so sharply and are preferred for aggressive aerobatics. Vertical Panel Aerodynamic Center The vertical panel aerodynamic center is below the nose of stunt kite at a location where the projected sail area can be split so 25 percent of the sail area is above this line, while 75 percent of the sail area is below this line. Using a rectangular stunt kite with a wingspan of 10 feet, a mean chord of 2 feet, and no sweep in the leading edge, the quarter-chord line is 6 inches below the leading edge of the sail. To calculate the vertical location of the panel aerodynamic center from the nose of the stunt kite, we use the following equation: SPAC V1 X SPA 1 + SPAC V2 X SPA SPAC VN X SPA N PAC V = PA PAC V = Vertical Aerodynamic Center (inches) SPAC V1 = Vertical Aerodynamic Center for the First Sub Panel (inches) SPAC V2 = Vertical Aerodynamic Center for the Second Sub Panel (inches) SPAC VN = Vertical Aerodynamic Center for the Last Sub Panel (inches) SPA 1 = Area of the First Sub Panel (square inches) SPA 2 = Area of the Second Sub Panel (square inches) SPA N = Area of the Last Sub Panel (square inches) PA = Panel Area (square inches) For the rectangular stunt kite presented in Figure 1, the PAC V is 1/4 of the mean chord below the nose. For the triangular and dart style stunt kites presented in Figure 1, you need the above equation to calculate the PAC V. 2.6 AERODYNAMIC CENTER AND NEUTRAL POINT The location where all the forces of the wind can be represented by one point is called the aerodynamic center. At this location all the forces of the wind are in balance at a specific flying speed. The aerodynamic center is located along the center of the stunt kite where the projected sail area is equal on each side of the center of the stunt kite. For most stunt kites, the aerodynamic center is the same as the neutral point for aerodynamic platforms with only one lifting surface. To calculate the horizontal and vertical locations of the aerodynamic center, we use the following equations: AC H = 0 Since the center spine of the kite is the reference point for horizontal measurements. AC V = PAC V "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 8

10 AC H = Horizontal Aerodynamic Center (inches) AC V = Vertical Aerodynamic Center (inches) PAC V = Vertical Panel Aerodynamic Center Using a rectangular stunt kite with a wingspan of 10 feet, the aerodynamic AC is at the center of the sail. If you fold your stunt kite in half so the leading edges match, the fold of the sail would represent the horizontal center of the stunt kite. If you cut your stunt kite in half along this fold each half would now have a panel span of 5 feet and be equal in area. The center of pressure moves above and below the aerodynamic center during various stages of flight. The aerodynamic center is used to represent the center of pressure during static conditions. In the next section, we will use the aerodynamic center and measure the center of gravity to determine the static margin of the stunt kite. "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 9

11 3.0 CENTER OF GRAVITY AND STATIC MARGIN In this section we will determine the center of gravity and calculate the static margin, building on the principles presented in Section CENTER OF GRAVITY The center of gravity of a stunt kite is the location where the mass of your stunt kite can be represented by one point. The center of gravity is measured from the nose of the stunt kite along the center spine. With your stunt kite fully assembled, position the stunt kite so the center spine is parallel to the ground. The nose and tail of the stunt kite must be the same distance to the ground. The tips of the stunt kite also must be the same distance to the ground. Balance your stunt kite on your thumbnail, along the center spine, so your stunt kite is parallel to the ground. If the tail is lower, move your thumb towards the tail of the stunt kite. If the nose is lower, move your thumb towards the nose of the stunt kite. The distance from the nose to your stunt kite to your thumbnail is the distance we measure to determine the center of gravity location for your stunt kite. Another way to locate the center of gravity is to suspend your stunt kite by the center spine by using a small section of flying line. The flying line would be attached to your ceiling and tied to the center spine. This will allow you to adjust the position of the flying line on the center spine to assure the nose and tail are the same distance from the floor. In traditional non-tethered flying platforms, the center of gravity is along the center, between the leading edge and the neutral point of the platform. The neutral point is the aerodynamic center for aerodynamic platforms with only one lifting surface. We provided the equations to calculate the aerodynamic center in Section 2.0. With tethered flying platforms, such as stunt kites, the center of gravity is below, and sometimes at a significant distance, from the neutral point. This is why stunt kites cannot fly without flying lines and why non-tethered platforms do not fly very well when tethered like stunt kites. This is a very important concept when applying traditional aerodynamic concepts and equations, such as the calculation of the static margin, to tethered flying platforms. With the center of gravity is close, but below the neutral point, the stunt kite is very stable, but the turning performance and the wind window are drastically reduced. With the center of gravity is away and below the neutral point, the stunt kite will have an increase in turning performance and a larger wind window, but the stability will be reduced. There is a point when the center of gravity can be too far below the neutral point. At and below this point the stunt kite will not perform appropriately or even fly. 3.2 STATIC MARGIN The static margin is a unit less measurement of the static stability of flying platforms. The following provides the equations to calculate the static margin for non-tethered and tethered flying platforms. Non-Tethered Flying Platforms To calculate the static margin for non-tethered flying platforms, which usually have the center of gravity in front of the neutral point, we use the following equation: "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 10

12 NP - CG SM C = X 100% MC SM C = Static Margin of non-tethered flying platforms (percent) NP = Neutral Point (inches) CG = Center of Gravity (inches) MC = Mean Aerodynamic Chord (inches) The neutral point (NP) is the same as the aerodynamic center (AC V ), which is measured in the center, from the leading edge of the flying platform wing, for tailless flying platforms. The center of gravity (CG) is measured in the center, from the leading edge of the flying platform wing. Section 2.0 presented the equations required to determine the mean aerodynamic chord of a flying platform. For non-tethered flying platforms, the larger the static margin, the more stable the flying platform. Conventional flying platforms, such as airplanes, usually have static margins ranging between 5 and 20 percent. Tethered Flying Platforms such as Stunt Kites To calculate the static margin for tethered flying platforms, which have the center of gravity behind or below the neutral point, we use the following equation: CG - NP SM T = X 100% MC SM T = Static Margin of tethered flying platforms (percent) NP = Neutral Point (inches) CG = Center of Gravity (inches) MC = Mean Aerodynamic Chord (inches) The neutral point (NP) is the same as the aerodynamic center (AC V ), which is measured from the nose of the stunt kite, along the center spine. The center of gravity (CG) is measured from the nose of the stunt kite, along the center spine. Section 2.0 presented the equations required to determine the mean aerodynamic chord of your stunt kite. If the static margin is small, the stunt kite is very stable, but the turning performance and the wind window are drastically reduced. If the static margin is large, but below 50%, the stunt kite will have an increase in turning performance and a larger wind window, but the stability will be reduced. If the static margin is at or greater than 50%, the stunt kite will not perform appropriately or even fly. Stunt kites that have been available on the market have static margins ranging from 30 to 49.5 percent. Most of the competition stunt kites have static margins between 40 and 49.5 percent. Good team/precision stunt kites have static margins ranging from 40 to 48.5 percent. Our team kite, the Talon, has a static margin of 48.1 percent. Good ballet stunt kites have higher static margins, ranging "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 11

13 from 45 to 49.5 percent. Our first stunt kite, the Falcon, has a static margin of 48.5 percent. Good stunt kites used to compete in both precision and ballet have static margins ranging from 45 to 48.5 percent. If you stunt kite has a two-piece center spine, you can move the joiner of the center spine to change the center of gravity. If the joiner was near the tail, when you move the joiner towards the nose, the center of gravity will move about 1/4 inches closer to the nose, which will reduce the static margin by about one to two percent. This will make your stunt kite more stable, but less responsive. If the joiner was near the nose, when you move the joiner towards the tail, the center of gravity will move about 1/4 inches away from the nose, which will increase the static margin by about one to two percent. This will make your stunt kite more responsive, but less stable. Be careful not to increase your static margin above 50 percent. Stunt kites with static margins near 50 percent have a tendency to over steer and do not track out of 90- degree turns. This tendency also can be caused by the sail stalling at the tip during a tight turn. In future technical articles, we may discuss the aspects of the tip stall and how to correct and/or tune for this problem. "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 12

14 4.0 RATE OF TURN AND BRIDLING In this section will discuss how the panel aerodynamic center affects the rate of turn and how to adjust the bridles of your kite. 4.1 RATE OF TURN For a specific wingspan, the panel aerodynamic center location from the center of the sail determines your turning radius. The further the panel aerodynamic center is from the center spine, the wider the turn will be with the correct bridle lines. As discussed in Section 2.0, the distance the panel aerodynamic center is from the center of the sail can be expressed as a percentage of the panel span. A rectangular sail panel will have a panel aerodynamic center equal to 50 percent of the panel span. A triangular sail panel will have a panel aerodynamic center equal to 33 percent of the panel span. A complex dart style sail will have a panel aerodynamic center ranging from 25 to 30 percent of the panel span. Based on this percentage you can see that for a given wing span, a rectangular sail will have the widest turn while a complex dart style sail will have the smallest turn. The size of the kite in relation to the length of your arms also controls the rate of turn. The length of your arms is fixed, at least the last time I checked, mine were. So let us compare two sails, each with a panel aerodynamic center of 30 percent, but one has a wingspan of 7 feet while the other one has a wingspan of 8 feet. You move your arms 1 foot apart to turn the sail with a wingspan of 8 feet. You will only have to move your arms 7/8 of a foot apart to turn the sail with the wingspan of 7 feet the same relative turn as the sail with the wingspan of 8 feet. Relative turn is defined as the radius of the turn divided by the wingspan. The larger the sail, the greater the distance between the panel aerodynamic centers, the more arm movement you will need to turn the stunt kite. 4.2 BRIDLING Bridle lines are used because we cannot connect our flying lines directly to a point which is at the horizontal panel aerodynamic centers, slightly above the center of gravity. The reference location for the bridle clips from the center of the sail is over each horizontal panel aerodynamic center. This will allow the rate of turn over the range of wind speeds for the stunt kite to be consistent and controllable. The radius of turn is fixed by the panel aerodynamic centers and the center of gravity. A moment arm that the bridle clips can cause is defined as the distance to the bridle clip from the center of the sail minus the distance to the panel aerodynamic center from the center of the sail times the force of the wind. A moment arm is defined as a force applied at a specific distance. If the force or distance is zero, the moment arm is zero. Since the distance to the bridle clip is the same as the distance to the panel aerodynamic center, the moment arm will be zero or no impact on the rate of turn. In future technical articles, we may discuss the impact of the vertical and horizontal center of gravity locations on forward flight, turns and landings. To determine the distance the bridle clips should be from the sail, you measure the angle of two bridle lines. These two bridle lines are the length of bridle line that goes from the center spine to the bridle clip and the length of the bridle line that is goes from the lower wing spar/spreader joiner to the bridle clip. The angle for these two lines should be 90 degrees. If the bridle clips are further away from the stunt kite frame, with an angle of less than 90 degrees, the bridle clips will have a tendency to swing and retard your input for turns. This is due to how the geometry of the bridles divides up the forces imposed by the wind, through the "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 13

15 tension of the flying lines on each bridle clip. If the bridle clips are closer to the stunt kite frame, with an angle greater than 90 degrees, the bridle clips will be very sensitive to adjusting the angle of attack. The bridle clip should be between 2 to 6 degrees above the center of gravity. The specific angle to achieve the desired flying angle of attack depends the depth of the sail through the use of standoffs. To locate the correct angle of attack, move the bridle clips by performing the following trimming techniques. Fly your stunt kite to a position directly overhead, then dive your stunt kite directly downwind. When you are about 10 feet above the ground, perform a 90-degree push-pull turn to the left or right. If your stunt kite decreases line tension during the 90-degree turn, then your angle of attack is too small because the bridle clips are set too high. Land your stunt kite and lower the bridle clips no more than 1/16 of an inch at a time. If your stunt kite increases line tension during the 90-degree turn, then your angle of attack is too large because the bridle clips are set too low. Land your stunt kite and raise the bridle clips no more than 1/16 of an inch at a time. Be sure that both bridle clips are the same distance from the upper spreader. Once you have located the ideal angle of attack, you will rarely move the bridle clips again. Changes in line drag, such as changing the line length and/or weight, will alter the angle of attack. You will need to conduct the 90-degree pushpull turn to confirm the correct angle of attack when you change line weight and/or length. If the bridle clips are between the center of the sail and the panel aerodynamic center or inside the panel aerodynamic center, the force of the wind will retard the stunt kite rate of turn. Since the distance to the bridle clip is less than the distance to the panel aerodynamic center, the moment arm will be negative causing a slower rate of turn. The stronger the wind, the higher the negative moment arm force, the slower the rate of turn. Some stunt kites turn fair in low winds, but very slow in high winds. If the bridle clip is just inside the panel aerodynamic center, the kite is a little more forgiving, but there will be a noticeable delay going into and out of turns in higher winds. If the bridle clips are between the panel aerodynamic center and the tip of the sail or outside the panel aerodynamic center, the force of the wind will accelerate the rate of turn. Since the distance to the bridle clip is greater than the distance to the panel aerodynamic center, the moment arm will be positive causing an accelerated rate of turn. The stronger the wind, the higher the positive moment arm force, the faster the rate of turn. That is why some stunt kites turn fair in light air, but are uncontrollable in high winds. If the bridle clip is just outside the panel aerodynamic center the kite is a little more aggressive, but the stunt kite may want to jump into and out of turns. If you are not satisfied with the way your stunt kite is turning, make a set of bridles with the bridle clips over the panel aerodynamic center. This will allow you to evaluate the performance capabilities of the sail. If the rate of turn is too slow with the bridle clips over the panel aerodynamic center, then the panel aerodynamic center is too close to the tip of the sail. You should move the bridle clips out past the panel aerodynamic center until you achieve the desired rate of turn. If the rate of turn is too fast, then the panel aerodynamic center is too close to the center of the sail. You should move the bridle clips in from the panel aerodynamic center until you achieve the desired rate of turn. "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 14

16 5.0 CONCLUSIONS The following silent team kite technical information is provided to illustrate the technical information covered in this article for our Talon : Wing Span - 96 inches Panel Span - 48 inches Leading Edge Sweep inches or degrees (Average) Construction or Total Sail Area - 1,524 square inches Project Sail Area - 1,317 square inches Aspect Ratio - 7 to 1 Mean Chord inches Panel Aerodynamic Center from Center inches or 28 percent Panel Aerodynamic Center from Nose inches or quarter chord Center of Gravity from Nose inches Static Margin percent The ideal setting for precision and team flying with the above technical information is with the bridle clips located 0 to 0.5 inches or 0 to 1 percent outside of the panel aerodynamic center. The ideal setting for ballet is with the bridle clips located 1 to 1.5 inches or 2 to 3 percent outside the panel aerodynamic center. In future technical articles, we may discuss how the various materials used to construct stunt kites interact with the horizontal and vertical center of gravities of the stunt kite, and influence forward flight, turning and landings. In future technical articles, we may discuss how the top and side areas of the sail affect performance. "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 15

17 6.0 BIOGRAPHY Have been flying model aircraft and kites since Interest in aerodynamics started in 1974, while designing and building the Precision Aerobatics Control Line Stunt Aircraft, the Apparition. Was fortunate to place second in 1974 and first in 1975 in the Senior Class flying the Apparition at the Academy of Model Aeronautics National Championships. Also judged the precision aerobatics event for the Open Class at the 1974, 1975, and 1976 Model Airplane National Championships. Competed in 1979 with Apparition -II for the team to represent the United States in Was fortunate to place ninth in the United States at the 1979 team selection process. Became interested in using aerodynamic modeling in the design of a canard (tail first) precision acrobatic prototype called ISIS. Interest in aerodynamic modeling continued with the design of various Radio Control Sailplanes. Designed the Super Mirage, Falcon and Falcon -2M Radio Controlled Sailplanes using the aerodynamic computer program called Geosail. Develop a high lift/low drag airfoil call the DS This airfoil was used on the Falcon, Falcon -2M and other North Jersey Soaring Society (NJSS) sailplanes. Geosail was developed for members of the NJSS to evaluate and design complex radio control sailplanes for competition. Started the NJSS in 1982 and also was the representative for Soaring in District II of the Academy of Model Aeronautics from 1986 through Started flying stunt kites during the summer of 1986 in Stone Harbor, New Jersey with the purchase of a triple pack of Peter Powell Stunt Kites. Started flying and modifying dart style stunt kites in Adapted Geosail for stunt kites in the summer of 1990 and renamed it Geokite. A Research and Development Program was conducted from September 1990 until May 1991 to refine Geokite and to develop a computer engineered, designed, balanced, and drafted stunt kite. Was the first to incorporate the leach line used in sailing to control trailing edge flutter. With a curved leading edge and a fully floating leach line, was able to make a completely silent stunt kite. Started Falcon Aero Designs in February of The first stunt kite contest was the 1991 East Coast Stunt Kite Championships, held on the Memorial Day Weekend, in Wildwood, New Jersey. Was fortunate to place first in Intermediate Individual Precision with the Falcon pre-production model. Developed various models of the Falcon using Geokite in 1992 and Geokite was highly modified by during 1993 to develop the next generation of silent stunt kites for precision and team competition. The Team Silence Talon was developed using the new version of Geokite and introduced to the kiting community at the Norwalk, Connecticut Kite Festival in the fall of Competed at various Eastern League events in 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 and Was fortunate to receive various awards while flying various models of the Falcon and Talon in Experienced Individual Precision. Competed in Master Individual Precision and Ballet events with various models of the Team Silence Talon. Geokite was highly modified by during 1995 to develop the next generation of silent stunt kites for precision and ballet competition. The Total Silence Raptor was developed using the new version of Geokite and introduced to the kiting community at the 1996 East Coast Stunt Kite Championships, held on Memorial Day Weekend, in Wildwood, New Jersey. "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 16

18 Competed at various Eastern League events in 1996 and Was fortunate to receive various awards while flying various models of the Raptor in Master Individual Precision and Ballet. Competed in Master Individual Precision and Ballet events with various models of the Total Silence Raptor. Retired from stunt kite competition in 1997, but continued to fly stunt kites on a recreational basis. Based on a request from a close friend who I have flown with since the mid 1990s, began designing the next version of my stunt kites in Developed a smaller prototype of the Bird of Prey in 2003 to test the concept of the new design. Constructed the full size version of the Bird of Prey in October 2009, which is the currently under evaluation. "DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE" Page 17

Chapter 6: The Magician's Tools: High Performance Tuning

Chapter 6: The Magician's Tools: High Performance Tuning Chapter 6: The Magician's Tools: High Performance Tuning How your kite is tuned determines how it flies. You can leave it set on the regular performance marks provided by the factory and probably have

More information

WHAT IS GLIDER? A light engineless aircraft designed to glide after being towed aloft or launched from a catapult.

WHAT IS GLIDER? A light engineless aircraft designed to glide after being towed aloft or launched from a catapult. GLIDER BASICS WHAT IS GLIDER? A light engineless aircraft designed to glide after being towed aloft or launched from a catapult. 2 PARTS OF GLIDER A glider can be divided into three main parts: a)fuselage

More information

Aero Club. Introduction to Flight

Aero Club. Introduction to Flight Aero Club Presents Introduction to RC Modeling Module 1 Introduction to Flight Centre For Innovation IIT Madras Page2 Table of Contents Introduction:... 3 How planes fly How is lift generated?... 3 Forces

More information

Flying Wings. By Henry Cole

Flying Wings. By Henry Cole Flying Wings By Henry Cole FLYING WINGS REPRESENT THE THEORETICAL ULTIMATE IN AIRCRAFT DESIGN. USE THESE IDEAS, AVAILABLE AFTER A YEAR, OF RESEARCH, TO DEVELOP PRACTICAL MODELS. The rubber version of this

More information

PRE-TEST Module 2 The Principles of Flight Units /60 points

PRE-TEST Module 2 The Principles of Flight Units /60 points PRE-TEST Module 2 The Principles of Flight Units 1-2-3.../60 points 1 Answer the following questions. (20 p.) moving the plane (4) upward / forward. Opposed to that is 1. What are the names of the four

More information

Theory of Flight Aircraft Design and Construction. References: FTGU pages 9-14, 27

Theory of Flight Aircraft Design and Construction. References: FTGU pages 9-14, 27 Theory of Flight 6.01 Aircraft Design and Construction References: FTGU pages 9-14, 27 Main Teaching Points Parts of an Airplane Aircraft Construction Landing Gear Standard Terminology Definition The airplane

More information

BASIC AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES

BASIC AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES Slide 1 BASIC AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES The basic aircraft structure serves multiple purposes. Such as aircraft aerodynamics; which indicates how smooth the aircraft flies thru the air (The Skelton of the aircraft

More information

Flight Corridor. The speed-altitude band where flight sustained by aerodynamic forces is technically possible is called the flight corridor.

Flight Corridor. The speed-altitude band where flight sustained by aerodynamic forces is technically possible is called the flight corridor. Flight Corridor The speed-altitude band where flight sustained by aerodynamic forces is technically possible is called the flight corridor. The subsonic Boeing 747 and supersonic Concorde have flight corridors

More information

Aerobatic Trimming Chart

Aerobatic Trimming Chart Aerobatic Trimming Chart From RCU - Chip Hyde addresses his view of Engine/Motor thrust. I run almost no right thrust in my planes and use the thottle to rudd mix at 2% left rudd. to throttle at idle.

More information

Principles of glider flight

Principles of glider flight Principles of glider flight [ Lecture 2: Control and stability ] Richard Lancaster Email: Richard@RJPLancaster.net Twitter: @RJPLancaster ASK-21 illustrations Copyright 1983 Alexander Schleicher GmbH &

More information

Big News! Dick Kline Inventor of the KF AirFoil Contacts rcfoamfighters.

Big News! Dick Kline Inventor of the KF AirFoil Contacts rcfoamfighters. Big News! Dick Kline Inventor of the KF AirFoil Contacts rcfoamfighters. (Copy of Email from Dick Kline to rcfoamfighters on 3/28/09) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

DEFINITIONS. Aerofoil

DEFINITIONS. Aerofoil Aerofoil DEFINITIONS An aerofoil is a device designed to produce more lift (or thrust) than drag when air flows over it. Angle of Attack This is the angle between the chord line of the aerofoil and the

More information

Table of Contents. Career Overview... 4

Table of Contents. Career Overview... 4 Table of Contents Career Overview.................................................. 4 Basic Lesson Plans Hot-Air Balloons Activity 1 Your First Hot-Air Balloon.... 5 Activity 2 Surface Area and Volume...

More information

TLC Technology Education Draft

TLC Technology Education Draft TLC Technology Education Draft Title: Airplane Design, Construction, and Flight State Standards: C Explore current transportation technologies and their impacts on society and the environment. C Explore

More information

A Different Approach to Teaching Engine-Out Glides

A Different Approach to Teaching Engine-Out Glides A ifferent Approach to Teaching Engine-Out Glides es Glatt, Ph., ATP/CFI-AI, AGI/IGI When student pilots begin to learn about emergency procedures, the concept of the engine-out glide is introduced. The

More information

KaZoon. Kite Kit. User Guide. Cautionary and Warning Statements

KaZoon. Kite Kit. User Guide. Cautionary and Warning Statements KaZoon Kite Kit User Guide Cautionary and Warning Statements 56799 V0717 This kit is designed and intended for educational purposes only. Use only under the direct supervision of an adult who has read

More information

Homework Exercise to prepare for Class #2.

Homework Exercise to prepare for Class #2. Homework Exercise to prepare for Class #2. Answer these on notebook paper then correct or improve your answers (using another color) by referring to the answer sheet. 1. Identify the major components depicted

More information

Lift for a Finite Wing. all real wings are finite in span (airfoils are considered as infinite in the span)

Lift for a Finite Wing. all real wings are finite in span (airfoils are considered as infinite in the span) Lift for a Finite Wing all real wings are finite in span (airfoils are considered as infinite in the span) The lift coefficient differs from that of an airfoil because there are strong vortices produced

More information

JAR-23 Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter Category Aeroplanes \ Issued 11 March 1994 \ Section 1- Requirements \ Subpart C - Structure \ General

JAR-23 Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter Category Aeroplanes \ Issued 11 March 1994 \ Section 1- Requirements \ Subpart C - Structure \ General JAR 23.301 Loads \ JAR 23.301 Loads (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed

More information

Jet Propulsion. Lecture-17. Ujjwal K Saha, Ph. D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Jet Propulsion. Lecture-17. Ujjwal K Saha, Ph. D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati Lecture-17 Prepared under QIP-CD Cell Project Jet Propulsion Ujjwal K Saha, Ph. D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 1 Lift: is used to support the weight of

More information

Induced Drag Reduction for Modern Aircraft without Increasing the Span of the Wing by Using Winglet

Induced Drag Reduction for Modern Aircraft without Increasing the Span of the Wing by Using Winglet International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:10 No:03 49 Induced Drag Reduction for Modern Aircraft without Increasing the Span of the Wing by Using Winglet Mohammad Ilias

More information

The Definite Guide to Optimist Trim

The Definite Guide to Optimist Trim The Definite Guide to Optimist Trim by Martin Gahmberg & the WB-Sails team The purpose of this tuning guide is to help you trim your WB sail optimally by learning the effects of the controls: How to change

More information

Aircraft - Very Heavy Lift at Very Low Cost

Aircraft - Very Heavy Lift at Very Low Cost Aircraft - Very Heavy Lift at Very Low Cost Stephen Funck This is a span loader for standard shipping containers. The design goal is the lowest cost per ton / mile. Low wing loading allows for low flight

More information

1 Korean-American Scientists and Engineers Association National Mathematics and Science Competition. 1. Raft Rally

1 Korean-American Scientists and Engineers Association National Mathematics and Science Competition. 1. Raft Rally 1 Korean-American Scientists and Engineers Association 1. Raft Rally GOAL The goal of raft rally contest is to understand the concept of buoyancy and apply it to the design of a mini boat that can hold

More information

It isn t hard to imagine where some of these hot tricks and techniques came from.

It isn t hard to imagine where some of these hot tricks and techniques came from. Chapter 8: Magical Illusions and Hot Tricks It isn t hard to imagine where some of these hot tricks and techniques came from. A flier jerks on the line to try and relaunch a downed kite. The kite rolls

More information

ACTIVITY 1: Buoyancy Problems. OBJECTIVE: Practice and Reinforce concepts related to Fluid Pressure, primarily Buoyancy

ACTIVITY 1: Buoyancy Problems. OBJECTIVE: Practice and Reinforce concepts related to Fluid Pressure, primarily Buoyancy LESSON PLAN: SNAP, CRACKLE, POP: Submarine Buoyancy, Compression, and Rotational Equilibrium DEVELOPED BY: Bill Sanford, Nansemond Suffolk Academy 2012 NAVAL HISTORICAL FOUNDATION TEACHER FELLOWSHIP ACTIVITY

More information

Objective: To launch a soda bottle rocket, achieve maximum time of flight, and safely land a payload (tennis ball).

Objective: To launch a soda bottle rocket, achieve maximum time of flight, and safely land a payload (tennis ball). Bottle Rocket Project 2016-17 Objective: To launch a soda bottle rocket, achieve maximum time of flight, and safely land a payload (tennis ball). Materials: 2 liter plastic soda bottle (carbonated beverage

More information

II.E. Airplane Flight Controls

II.E. Airplane Flight Controls References: FAA-H-8083-3; FAA-8083-3-25 Objectives Key Elements Elements Schedule Equipment IP s Actions SP s Actions Completion Standards The student should develop knowledge of the elements related to

More information

A103 AERODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES

A103 AERODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES A103 AERODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES References: FAA-H-8083-25A, Pilot s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, Chapter 3 (pgs 4-10) and Chapter 4 (pgs 1-39) OBJECTIVE: Students will understand the fundamental aerodynamic

More information

Optimist Tuning Guide

Optimist Tuning Guide Optimist Tuning Guide Sail Care: To help you re new racing sail stay in top condition as long as possible here is some tips - Try not to crease your sail, some creases can cause MIT tears in your sail

More information

AEROSPACE MICRO-LESSON

AEROSPACE MICRO-LESSON AIAA Easily digestible Aerospace Principles revealed for K-12 Students and Educators. These lessons will be sent on a bi-weekly basis and allow grade-level focused learning. - AIAA STEM K-12 Committee.

More information

Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a Series of Flying Wings With Sweep Angles of 50

Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a Series of Flying Wings With Sweep Angles of 50 NASA Technical Memorandum 464 Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a Series of Flying Wings With Sweep Angles of 5 Scott P. Fears Lockheed Engineering & Sciences

More information

AIRMOUNT VIBRATION ISOLATION

AIRMOUNT VIBRATION ISOLATION MOUNT VIBRATION ISOLATION SELECTION AND ISOLATION FORMULA Refer to the selection guide on page 33 for Airmount load and isolation capabilities. Follow this procedure: 1. LOAD CAPACITY Select one or two

More information

ANALYSIS OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL FOR LOW SPEED AIRCRAFT

ANALYSIS OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL FOR LOW SPEED AIRCRAFT ANALYSIS OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL FOR LOW SPEED AIRCRAFT P.Sethunathan 1, M.Niventhran 2, V.Siva 2, R.Sadhan Kumar 2 1 Asst.Professor, Department of Aeronautical Engineering,

More information

S0300-A6-MAN-010 CHAPTER 2 STABILITY

S0300-A6-MAN-010 CHAPTER 2 STABILITY CHAPTER 2 STABILITY 2-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the stability of intact ships and how basic stability calculations are made. Definitions of the state of equilibrium and the quality of stability

More information

SEMI-SPAN TESTING IN WIND TUNNELS

SEMI-SPAN TESTING IN WIND TUNNELS 25 TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES SEMI-SPAN TESTING IN WIND TUNNELS S. Eder, K. Hufnagel, C. Tropea Chair of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Darmstadt University of Technology

More information

Twist Distributions for Swept Wings, Part 2

Twist Distributions for Swept Wings, Part 2 On the Wing... #162 Twist Distributions for Swept Wings, Part 2 Having defined and provided examples of lift distributions in Part 1, we now move on to describing the stalling patterns of untwisted and

More information

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS K. RAMAJEYATHILAGAM

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS K. RAMAJEYATHILAGAM AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS K. RAMAJEYATHILAGAM To invent an airplane is nothing To build one is something But to fly is everything Lilienthal DAY 1 WHAT IS AN AIRCRAFT? An aircraft is a vehicle,

More information

Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment. Principles of Flight

Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment. Principles of Flight Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment Principles of Flight Principles of Flight Learning Outcome 1: Know the principles of lift, weight, thrust and drag and how a balance of forces affects an aeroplane

More information

Arrow. This plane is easy to fold and flies straight and smooth. Add a small amount of up elevator for long level flights.

Arrow. This plane is easy to fold and flies straight and smooth. Add a small amount of up elevator for long level flights. Arrow This plane is easy to fold and flies straight and smooth. Add a small amount of up elevator for long level flights. Orient the template with the UP arrow at the top of the page. Then, flip the paper

More information

Improved Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aerofoil Shaped Fuselage than that of the Conventional Cylindrical Shaped Fuselage

Improved Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aerofoil Shaped Fuselage than that of the Conventional Cylindrical Shaped Fuselage International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 4, Issue 1, January-213 1 Improved Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aerofoil Shaped Fuselage than that of the Conventional Cylindrical Shaped

More information

CIRCLING THE HOLIGHAUS WAY -

CIRCLING THE HOLIGHAUS WAY - CIRCLING THE HOLIGHAUS WAY - OR DO YOU REALLY WANT TO KEEP THE YAW STRING CENTERED? BY RICHARD H. JOHNSON ANSWERS: 1. During Straight Flight - YES, that minimizes drag and maximizes the sailplane's performance.

More information

Front Cover Picture Mark Rasmussen - Fotolia.com

Front Cover Picture Mark Rasmussen - Fotolia.com Flight Maneuvers And Stick and Rudder Skills A complete learn to fly handbook by one of aviation s most knowledgeable and experienced flight instructors Front Cover Picture Mark Rasmussen - Fotolia.com

More information

THEORY OF WINGS AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING OF A NACA 2415 AIRFOIL. By Mehrdad Ghods

THEORY OF WINGS AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING OF A NACA 2415 AIRFOIL. By Mehrdad Ghods THEORY OF WINGS AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING OF A NACA 2415 AIRFOIL By Mehrdad Ghods Technical Communication for Engineers The University of British Columbia July 23, 2001 ABSTRACT Theory of Wings and Wind

More information

My Background. Joe Wurts 1

My Background. Joe Wurts 1 My Background Flying RC sailplanes since 1976 First competition 1977 US Nationals, placed 2 nd Only pilot to win world champion for both FAI recognized soaring disciplines FAI world record holder for declared

More information

PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS. AILERONS Ailerons control roll about the longitudinal axis. The ailerons are attached to the outboard trailing edge of

PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS. AILERONS Ailerons control roll about the longitudinal axis. The ailerons are attached to the outboard trailing edge of Aircraft flight control systems are classified as primary and secondary. The primary control systems consist of those that are required to safely control an airplane during flight. These include the ailerons,

More information

Fighter aircraft design. Aerospace Design Project G. Dimitriadis

Fighter aircraft design. Aerospace Design Project G. Dimitriadis Fighter aircraft design Aerospace Design Project 2017-2018 G. Dimitriadis General configuration The elements of the general configuration are the following: Wing Wing placement Airfoil Number of engines

More information

parts of an airplane Wing Design BOX Museum Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate in a Series National Aeronautics and Space Administration

parts of an airplane Wing Design BOX Museum Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate in a Series National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Aeronautics and Space Administration GRADES K-12 Wing Design Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate parts of an airplane Museum in a BOX Series www.nasa.gov MUSEUM IN A BOX (Photo courtesy of

More information

CASE STUDY FOR USE WITH SECTION B

CASE STUDY FOR USE WITH SECTION B GCE A level 135/01-B PHYSICS ASSESSMENT UNIT PH5 A.M. THURSDAY, 0 June 013 CASE STUDY FOR USE WITH SECTION B Examination copy To be given out at the start of the examination. The pre-release copy must

More information

HIGHLANDER TUNING GUIDE

HIGHLANDER TUNING GUIDE HIGHLANDER TUNING GUIDE This document provides information on preparation, Quantum s sail tuning and technique, and other helpful tips to make sure you re ready to meet your challenge in today s competitive

More information

College of Engineering

College of Engineering College of Engineering Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering MAE-250, Section 001 Introduction to Aerospace Engineering Final Project Bottle Rocket Written By: Jesse Hansen Connor Petersen

More information

Lesson Plan: Bernoulli s Lift

Lesson Plan: Bernoulli s Lift Lesson Plan: Bernoulli s Lift Grade Level: 5-6 Subject Area: Time Required: Science Preparation: 30 minutes Activity: 3 40-minute classes National Standards Correlation: Science (grades 5-8) Physical Science

More information

See the diagrams at the end of this manual for judging position locations.

See the diagrams at the end of this manual for judging position locations. Landing Events Penalties General Judges should use airport diagrams, satellite pictures or other means to determine, as accurately as possible, assessments of landing pattern penalties. Judges should be

More information

Flightlab Ground School 7. Longitudinal Dynamic Stability

Flightlab Ground School 7. Longitudinal Dynamic Stability Flightlab Ground School 7. Longitudinal Dynamic Copyright Flight Emergency & Advanced Maneuvers Training, Inc. dba Flightlab, 2009. All rights reserved. For Training Purposes Only Introduction to is the

More information

THERMALLING TECHNIQUES. Preface

THERMALLING TECHNIQUES. Preface DRAFT THERMALLING TECHNIQUES Preface The following thermalling techniques document is provided to assist Instructors, Coaches and Students as a training aid in the development of good soaring skills. Instructors

More information

Activity Parts of an Aircraft

Activity Parts of an Aircraft Activity 4.2.7 Parts of an Aircraft Introduction The science of aeronautics really began to evolve in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Philosophers and early scientists began to look closely at

More information

PERFORMANCE MANEUVERS

PERFORMANCE MANEUVERS Ch 09.qxd 5/7/04 8:14 AM Page 9-1 PERFORMANCE MANEUVERS Performance maneuvers are used to develop a high degree of pilot skill. They aid the pilot in analyzing the forces acting on the airplane and in

More information

The Science of Golf. Test Lab Toolkit The Ball: Aerodynamics. Grades 6-8

The Science of Golf. Test Lab Toolkit The Ball: Aerodynamics. Grades 6-8 The Science of Golf Test Lab Toolkit The Ball: Grades 6-8 Science Technology Engineering Mathematics Table of Contents Welcome to the Test Lab 02 Investigate: Bernoulli s Principle 03 Investigate: Wind

More information

Spins and how to keep the pointy end of the airplane going forward

Spins and how to keep the pointy end of the airplane going forward Spins and how to keep the pointy end of the airplane going forward 8/14/07 Evan Reed, cfievan@yahoo.com Ed Williams Outline Spins and their general characteristics Accident statistics and scenarios Some

More information

Racing Start Safety Certification Protocol. Forward and Backstroke Starts. Updated: February 2018

Racing Start Safety Certification Protocol. Forward and Backstroke Starts. Updated: February 2018 Racing Start Safety Certification Protocol Forward and Backstroke Starts Updated: February 2018 1 Date: March 9, 2018 To: From: Subject: USA Swimming Member Clubs USA Swimming Member Coaches LSC General

More information

Building Good Habits for a Better Future Aileron-Rudder Mixing Explained

Building Good Habits for a Better Future Aileron-Rudder Mixing Explained Building Good Habits for a Better Future Aileron-Rudder Mixing Explained By Dave Scott. Instructor, 1st U.S. R/C Flight School Illustrations by Dave Scott Adverse Yaw Introduction The following article

More information

PHASE 1 WIND STUDIES REPORT

PHASE 1 WIND STUDIES REPORT PHASE 1 WIND STUDIES REPORT ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR A SUICIDE DETERRENT SYSTEM Contract 2006-B-17 24 MAY 2007 Golden Gate Bridge Highway and Transportation District Introduction

More information

A Table Top Wind Tunnel You Can Build

A Table Top Wind Tunnel You Can Build A Table Top Wind Tunnel You Can Build Basic principles of aerodynamics can be studied in the classroom with this simple, inexpensive wind tunnel. All you need to build it is some cardboard boxes, glue,

More information

Transcript BLOSSOMS Soaring In the Wind: The Science of Kite Flying

Transcript BLOSSOMS Soaring In the Wind: The Science of Kite Flying Transcript BLOSSOMS Soaring In the Wind: The Science of Kite Flying Greetings! Hello! I m. Have you ever flown a kite? It can fly really high and soars in the wind. Today, we will learn about the science

More information

Humpty Bump. Cross-Box Bridge

Humpty Bump. Cross-Box Bridge 1ST U.S. R/C FLIGHT SCH OL 1/4 1/4 Humpty Bump Cross-Box Bridge 1/4 1/4 Tip: When diagnosing the type of corrections your airplane requires, esp. on uplines, first assess whether the deviation is slight,

More information

Shiel e d Kite t By B y Sam & Ca C rir King Ore r g e o g n o Kite t m e aker e rs s Retr t e r a e t t2013

Shiel e d Kite t By B y Sam & Ca C rir King Ore r g e o g n o Kite t m e aker e rs s Retr t e r a e t t2013 Shield Kite By Sam & Cari King Oregon Kitemaker s Retreat 2013 SAIL ASSEMBLY Your pre-cut sail pieces include half-inch seam allowances. This provides enough material to complete a 1/4 inch double rolled

More information

Airfoil Selection. By: Bill Husa

Airfoil Selection. By: Bill Husa Airfoil Selection By: Bill Husa Recently there has been a rash of activity relating to the selection or design of wing airfoils. In this article, I will attempt to clarify some of the issues associated

More information

LEVEL FOUR AVIATION EVALUATION PRACTICE TEST

LEVEL FOUR AVIATION EVALUATION PRACTICE TEST Below you will find a practice test for the Level 4 Aviation Evaluation that covers PO431, PO432, PO436, and PO437. It is recommended that you focus on the material covered in the practice test as you

More information

Principles of Sailing

Principles of Sailing Principles of Sailing This is a PowerPoint set of charts presented by Demetri Telionis on March 21, 2015 at the Yacht Club of Hilton Head Island. The aim of this presentation was to help the audience understand

More information

Preliminary Analysis of Drag Reduction for The Boeing

Preliminary Analysis of Drag Reduction for The Boeing Preliminary Analysis of Drag Reduction for The Boeing 747-400 By: Chuck Dixon, Chief Scientist, Vortex Control Technologies LLC 07. 31. 2012 Potential for Airflow Separation That Can Be Reduced By Vortex

More information

PILOT S HANDBOOK of Aeronautical Knowledge AC61-23C

PILOT S HANDBOOK of Aeronautical Knowledge AC61-23C PILOT S HANDBOOK of Aeronautical Knowledge AC61-23C Revised 1997 Chapter 1 Excerpt Compliments of... www.alphatrainer.com Toll Free: (877) 542-1112 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

More information

Bernoulli s Principle at Work

Bernoulli s Principle at Work Diagram of demonstration Denise Winkler and Kim Brown July 25, 2003 Bernoulli s Principle at Work *Airflow should be straight on the edge of the airfoil. pivot rod airflow counter weight support rod airfoil

More information

AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIN PHENOMENON FOR DELTA WING

AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIN PHENOMENON FOR DELTA WING ICAS 2002 CONGRESS AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIN PHENOMENON FOR DELTA WING Yoshiaki NAKAMURA (nakamura@nuae.nagoya-u.ac.jp) Takafumi YAMADA (yamada@nuae.nagoya-u.ac.jp) Department of Aerospace Engineering,

More information

Aerofoil Design for Man Powered Aircraft

Aerofoil Design for Man Powered Aircraft Man Powered Aircraft Group Aerofoil Design for Man Powered Aircraft By F. X. Wortmann Universitat Stuttgart From the Second Man Powered Aircraft Group Symposium Man Powered Flight The Way Ahead 7 th February

More information

DRAG REDUCTION BY WING TIP SLOTS IN A GLIDING HARRIS HAWK, PARABUTEO UNICINCTUS

DRAG REDUCTION BY WING TIP SLOTS IN A GLIDING HARRIS HAWK, PARABUTEO UNICINCTUS The Journal of Experimental Biology 198, 775 781 (1995) Printed in Great Britain The Company of Biologists Limited 1995 775 DRAG REDUCTION BY WING TIP SLOTS IN A GLIDING HARRIS HAWK, PARABUTEO UNICINCTUS

More information

Twist Distributions for Swept Wings, Part 1

Twist Distributions for Swept Wings, Part 1 On the Wing... #161 Twist Distributions for Swept Wings, Part 1 Our curiosity got the better of us, and we asked Why are designers of swept wing tailless models placing proportionally more twist in the

More information

Job Sheet 1 Blade Aerodynamics

Job Sheet 1 Blade Aerodynamics Job Sheet 1 Blade Aerodynamics The rotor is the most important part of a wind turbine. It is through the rotor that the energy of the wind is converted into mechanical energy, which turns the main shaft

More information

Attitude Instrument Flying and Aerodynamics

Attitude Instrument Flying and Aerodynamics Attitude Instrument Flying and Aerodynamics 2.1 TURNS 1. An airplane requires a sideward force to make it turn. a. When the airplane is banked, lift (which acts perpendicular to the wingspan) acts not

More information

ENGINEERing challenge workshop for science museums in the field of aeronautic engineering

ENGINEERing challenge workshop for science museums in the field of aeronautic engineering ENGINEERing challenge workshop for science museums in the field of aeronautic engineering 1 Index Workshop ID card...3 Specific unit objectives...4 Resources...4 The workshop...5 Introduction...5 The main

More information

IMPACT OF FUSELAGE CROSS SECTION ON THE STABILITY OF A GENERIC FIGHTER

IMPACT OF FUSELAGE CROSS SECTION ON THE STABILITY OF A GENERIC FIGHTER IMPACT OF FUSELAGE CROSS SECTION ON THE STABILITY OF A GENERIC FIGHTER Robert M. Hall NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia ABSTRACT Many traditional data bases, which involved smooth-sided forebodies,

More information

Design and Integration of a Mechanical Aircraft Control System Mixer for Ruddervator Surfaces Advanced Tech Engineering, Inc.

Design and Integration of a Mechanical Aircraft Control System Mixer for Ruddervator Surfaces Advanced Tech Engineering, Inc. Design and Integration of a Mechanical Aircraft Control System Mixer for Ruddervator Surfaces Advanced Tech Engineering, Inc. Requirements Design a control mechanism mixer that mechanically controls ailerons,

More information

Figure 1 Figure 1 shows the involved forces that must be taken into consideration for rudder design. Among the most widely known profiles, the most su

Figure 1 Figure 1 shows the involved forces that must be taken into consideration for rudder design. Among the most widely known profiles, the most su THE RUDDER starting from the requirements supplied by the customer, the designer must obtain the rudder's characteristics that satisfy such requirements. Subsequently, from such characteristics he must

More information

Wind Energy Technology. What works & what doesn t

Wind Energy Technology. What works & what doesn t Wind Energy Technology What works & what doesn t Orientation Turbines can be categorized into two overarching classes based on the orientation of the rotor Vertical Axis Horizontal Axis Vertical Axis Turbines

More information

Principles of glider flight

Principles of glider flight Principles of glider flight [ Lecture 1: Lift, drag & glide performance ] Richard Lancaster Email: Richard@RJPLancaster.net Twitter: @RJPLancaster ASK-21 illustrations Copyright 1983 Alexander Schleicher

More information

With the new Patrik Formula V2 we are the first brand using WINGS on a production board a new era begins!

With the new Patrik Formula V2 we are the first brand using WINGS on a production board a new era begins! With the new Patrik Formula V2 we are the first brand using WINGS on a production board a new era begins! Hiding the concept until the last possible day of registration we now announce the true worlds

More information

EXAMPLE MICROLIGHT AIRCRAFT LOADING CALCULATIONS

EXAMPLE MICROLIGHT AIRCRAFT LOADING CALCULATIONS 1. Introduction This example loads report is intended to be read in conjunction with BCAR Section S and CS-VLA both of which can be downloaded from the LAA webpage, and the excellent book Light Aircraft

More information

Flying The. Traffic Pattern. Skill Level: Basic

Flying The. Traffic Pattern. Skill Level: Basic Flying The Now that you ve mastered a number of basic and intermediate flying skills, it s time to put them all to the test in the exercise that combines them all Flying The Traffic Pattern. In this Flight

More information

TAKEOFF & LANDING IN ICING CONDITIONS

TAKEOFF & LANDING IN ICING CONDITIONS Original idea from Captain A. Wagner T TAKEOFF & LANDING IN ICING CONDITIONS here have been a number of accidents related to take-off in conditions in which snow and/or other forms of freezing precipitation

More information

LAUNCH IT. DESIGN CHALLENGE Design and build an air-powered rocket that can hit a target at least 5 feet away.

LAUNCH IT. DESIGN CHALLENGE Design and build an air-powered rocket that can hit a target at least 5 feet away. Grades 3 5, 6 8 10 60 minutes LAUNCH IT DESIGN CHALLENGE Design and build an air-powered rocket that can hit a target at least 5 feet away. MATERIALS Supplies and Equipment: Several pairs of scissors Balloon

More information

Chapter 5 Wing design - selection of wing parameters - 3 Lecture 21 Topics

Chapter 5 Wing design - selection of wing parameters - 3 Lecture 21 Topics Chapter 5 Wing design - selection of wing parameters - 3 Lecture 21 Topics 5.3.2 Choice of sweep ( ) 5.3.3 Choice of taper ratio ( λ ) 5.3.4 Choice of twist ( ε ) 5.3.5 Wing incidence(i w ) 5.3.6 Choice

More information

Wing-Body Combinations

Wing-Body Combinations Wing-Body Combinations even a pencil at an angle of attack will generate lift, albeit small. Hence, lift is produced by the fuselage of an airplane as well as the wing. The mating of a wing with a fuselage

More information

Transportation Engineering - II Dr. Rajat Rastogi Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology - Roorkee. Lecture - 35 Exit Taxiway

Transportation Engineering - II Dr. Rajat Rastogi Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology - Roorkee. Lecture - 35 Exit Taxiway Transportation Engineering - II Dr. Rajat Rastogi Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology - Roorkee Lecture - 35 Exit Taxiway Dear students, we are back with the lecture series of

More information

AE2610 Introduction to Experimental Methods in Aerospace AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A WING IN A SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL

AE2610 Introduction to Experimental Methods in Aerospace AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A WING IN A SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL AE2610 Introduction to Experimental Methods in Aerospace AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A WING IN A SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL Objectives The primary objective of this experiment is to familiarize the student with measurement

More information

Flight Control Systems Introduction

Flight Control Systems Introduction Flight Control Systems Introduction Dr Slide 1 Flight Control System A Flight Control System (FCS) consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary

More information

Racing Start Safety Certification Protocol PROPOSAL. Combined Forward and Backstroke

Racing Start Safety Certification Protocol PROPOSAL. Combined Forward and Backstroke Racing Start Safety Certification Protocol PROPOSAL Combined Forward and Backstroke DRAFT for Operational Risk Committee REVISED 6/05/2017 page 1 TEACHING RACING STARTS SAFELY Before You Teach, Be Sure:

More information

1. GENERAL AERODYNAMICS

1. GENERAL AERODYNAMICS Chapter 1. GENERAL AERODYNAMICS Unless otherwise indicated, this handbook is based on a helicopter that has the following characteristics: 1 - An unsupercharged (normally aspirated) reciprocating engine.

More information

Numerical Analysis of Wings for UAV based on High-Lift Airfoils

Numerical Analysis of Wings for UAV based on High-Lift Airfoils Numerical Analysis of Wings for UAV based on High-Lift Airfoils Sachin Srivastava Department of Aeronautical Engineering Malla Reddy College of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad, Telangana, India Swetha

More information

time v (vertical) time

time v (vertical) time NT4E-QRT20: PROJECTILE MOTION FOR TWO ROCKS VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION GRAPHS II Two identical rocks are thrown horizontally from a cliff with Rock A having a greater velocity at the instant it is released

More information

Lesson 6 Aerodynamics and flying

Lesson 6 Aerodynamics and flying 36 Lesson 6 Aerodynamics and flying Aerodynamics and flying 37 Suitable for: 11 14 years Curriculum and learning links: Forces, motion, Bernoulli s principle Learning objectives: State that aerodynamics

More information

COURSE OBJECTIVES CHAPTER 9

COURSE OBJECTIVES CHAPTER 9 COURSE OBJECTIVES CHAPTER 9 9. SHIP MANEUVERABILITY 1. Be qualitatively familiar with the 3 broad requirements for ship maneuverability: a. Controls fixed straightline stability b. Response c. Slow speed

More information