Chapter 11. Beach Fill and Soft Engineering Structures

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1 Chapter 11 Beach Fill and Soft Engineering Structures

2 Solutions to Coastal Erosion Soft Structures Hard Structures Retreat No such thing as low cost coastal protection

3 Beach Nourishment

4 Beach Filling

5 Beach Nourishment Sand placed on beach to replace sand that has eroded from a beach Buys time Cures symptom Increases storm protection Adds recreational value

6 Beach Fill Only coastal engineering remedial measure that adds sand to the system. Can be use alone or with structures. Sources Submarine, subaerial Placement Hydraulic or mechanical placement over the profile, on the dry beach. Split-hull dredge. Compatibility Size and material

7 Loss of Beach Nourishment Three mechanisms for sand loss: Profile equilibration: out-of-equilibrium Spreading out losses Background erosion

8 Fill Material Bodge, JWPCOE, 2006

9 Overfill Factor Native sand is in some equilibrium with the wave climate Overfill Factor Fill sediment size distribution will approach that of the native sediment. Finer sand/coaser sand lost--krumbein & James (1965)

10 Beach Fill Compatibility Dean s Method: Less conservative; smaller overfill factors. mean grain size std dev Sand finer than is lost. Mean of fill to be the same as borrow Same mean size for both

11 Compatibility of Fill Material Given: mean diameter of native material, and mean diameter and std. deviation of fill material, find K Problem: Sediment range is small. Well-sorted sediments a problem.

12 Overfill Factor on Single Curve Bodge, JWPCOE, 2006

13 3 rd Way: Equilibrium Profile Compatibility Use equilibrium beach profile to determine the fill volumes required Coarse fill, intersecting profile Fine Fill, non-intersecting profile Finer Fill, submerged profile

14 Calculate Fill Volumes: Non-Intersecting Profile Substituting for

15 Effect of Decreasing AF Same volume for all profiles

16 Increasing the Sand Volume: AF=0.1, AN=0.2 m1/3

17 Fill Volumes for h*/b=2

18 Fill Volume for h*/b = 4

19 Additional Dry Beach Width

20 Beach Fill Planform Response

21 Effect of Fill Length

22

23 An Approximate Retention Rate (Dette) Solve for k Dette et al. (1994)

24 Multiple Nourishments Using Pelnard-Considere solution Note that the length of time between renourishments grows.

25 Multiple Nourishments

26 Erosional Hot Spots Causes: Irregular refraction, offshore borrow pits, grain size variation, variation in fill rates, headland effects, coastal structures Sea wall at Honolulu

27 Fill in Front of Seawall Star denotes virtual origin of native profile Consider AN = AF Now that threshold is reached, then normal beach fill calculations hold for additional dry beach width.

28 Perched Beach Concept: Anchor offshore end of profile What is the volume of sand needed? Calculate volume using equilibrium profiles Problems: Sand lost offshore; scour at wall, drowning hazard at offshore end, end losses

29 V is a function of h_1, A_N, A_F, B Fill Volume

30 Perched Beach vs Natural Beach Sorenson and Beil (1988) Lower fig: perched beach, offshore losses, landward scour,

31 Tybee Island Fill Project Beach fill after one year follows offshore contours, so refraction due to the offshore bathymetry is important

32 Grand Isle, Louisiana Effects of two offshore borrow pits

33 Drag Scraper Nearshore excavation of sand Borrow pit left behind How does it fill?

34 Offshore Berms Purpose: Provide offshore feeder to beach Reduce wave height If berm offshore of depth of closure, inactive Example: Silver Strand, CA 113,000 m 3, h= 5-8 m, mound height = 2m Dean Number ~ 4-5, onshore motion according to Wright & Short beach stage

35 Offshore Berm No motion in four years. Stabilized coast. Otay (1994) Dean No. = 2

36 Beach Drains Why they should work: Decrease backwash Increase fall velocity Reduce outflow from beach Turner & Leatherman (1997) review: Not much proof of effectiveness Filters sand from surf zone Reduction of water table

37 Example: Cs=0.05; Plating-out Effect

38 Problems Pumping rates are high Storm damage to equipment Pump-free system: Davis et al., ICCE (1992) Drains installed in beach Appears there is water table reduction No morphological change

39 Vegetation as Shore Protection Mangrove shorelines Submerged Grasses (Real or Artificial) Reefs Coral Worm Kayangel, Palau

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