2 Course Introduction Floods most destructive of natural catastrophes Kills more people than any other form of disaster Rescue capability limited and usually an afterthought
3 Earth is 80% Water
4 Course Objectives Provide potential rescue personnel awareness level training Students will understand the responsibility of awareness level responders to water rescue situations Students will recognize a water rescue situation and understand the risks associated with performing water rescue
10 More Dangerous than most forms of rescue! Moving Water kills more Americans each year than fires.
11 Moving water is powerful
12 Deaths by drowning Firefighters 7 since 1999 Police Officers 22 since 1995 Children second leading cause of death > 900 per year 112 drowning deaths per year in Washington Second leading cause of death to year olds in Washington
13 Definition of swiftwater swiftwater faster than 1.5 mph
14 NFPA 1670 standards Adopted 1998 Covers all special rescue disciplines Establishes guidelines for AHJ to identify hazards, determine levels of training, and response sop s *Water rescue *Rope rescue Confined Space Wilderness SAR Trench Structural Collapse Vehicle and machinery rescue
15 Three levels of capability Awareness Operations Technician
16 Awareness Minimum capability for any responder Who may, during regular duties, respond to technical rescue incidents Not considered rescuer Scene assessment & size up Risk Vs. Benefit Resource ordering Site control & ICS Hazard recognition and avoidance procedures
17 Operations Hazard recognition Equipment use Shore & boat based rescue skills Assist technician level rescuers Low risk tactics PPE required Self rescue skills Victim packaging
18 Technician Hazard recognition Equipment use Coordination skills Perform and supervise technical rescues Search, rescue and recovery operations
19 Agency Having Jurisdiction NFPA requirements BLS is minimal medical care Establish procedures consistent with chosen level of operations Provide training commensurate with operation level Provide continuing education and performance evaluations Maintain training documentation Have personnel accountability system
20 Special Rescue Any incident where a person is stranded, trapped, injured or killed and skills and equipment that are not normally available with first responders are needed to safely rescue or recover the victim.
21 Examples of Special Rescue Water, ice, river rescue High angle Confined space Hazmat Trench Wilderness Structural collapse
22 Awareness Level Responders If you do not have the skills, If you do not have the equipment, If you do not have the knowledge, you should not attempt the rescue!
23 Awareness Level Response Identify the problem Stabilize the situation Prevent it from getting any worse Call the appropriate resources and get them enroute
24 Rescue Philosophy
25 Rescue Priority All rescue personnel must be prepared to: Self rescue Back up and rescue team members Rescue the subject only when safety of the rescuers is maximized Self sacrifice is traditional and commendable---- and a useless waste
26 14 absolute rules of swiftwater rescue Always wear a PFD Deploy upstream spotters Self, team, victim Have a backup plan Downstream backup Keep it simple Use the right gear Be proactive Never put feet down Don t rely on victim Never tie a rope to a rescuer Never tension a line 90 to current Never lose a victim once contacted No fire helmets
27 Successful Rescue Training Experience Practice Judgement Training is not enough. Practice and Experience are vital in order for the rescue leader to make correct Judgments
28 Self Rescue & Personal Safety Awareness Understand the dangers Capability Strength and equipment Improved ability to survive Knowledge Have a plan, Know what to do Know how to do it Knowledge Awareness Capability
29 Common characteristics of failed rescues Good people Good intentions Poor training, no training Wrong equipment Failed to recognize hazards Failure to evaluate Risk Vs Benefit
30 Site Control Hot Zone The Water Technicians only
31 Site Control Warm Zone Within 10 feet of the water Within a Rescue Craft For Operations, Techs only
32 Site Control Cold Zone Outside of the Hot or Warm Zones Awareness Level Family & Bystanders
33 Determine if rescue or body recovery
34 Determine time and location that victim was last seen
35 Obtain Witness Statements x Actual
37 River Search Tactics Hasty Search Evaluate the river Likely spots River banks / Clues Obstructions
38 Determine rescue method involving the least risk
45 Identify Specific Hazards Low head dams = Drowning machines.
46 e in il L Bo Backwash Outwash Low Overhead Dam Escape Route River Bottom
47 Current Low head dam Boil line Current
48 Training exercise gone bad Rescuers entered past boil line and could Not get back out
49 Second rescue boat attempted to pull first out using a throw bag Current directions
50 Pulling against the current caused orange boat to swamp Making a bad situation worse Current direction
52 Second boat enters past boil line to Rescue the two in trouble placing all four at risk. White water and current work Against the efficiency of A water jet that powers the gray watercraft Solution was for the rescuer in the stern of the orange boat to get to the bow of the orange boat, get it turned the opposite direction and pull it out bow first not stern first with the gray boat. This second effort would have been successful but pulling from the stern again was doomed to fail
53 Gray craft is now facing into the dam moving with the current in white water Whitewater is full of air which = less floatation and is less efficient for water jets or props
54 The driver of the gray water craft Does not survive this error!
55 Was this necessary? Was this preventable?
56 The river is 8 feet above flood stage! This was a training event! Judgment?
57 The equipment was not adequate For the environment and force and power Of the water. Rescuers failed to recognize the limitation of their equipment or the best way to use it.
58 Proper PPE did provide additional capability and increased survivability allowing three of the four To survive long enough to be rescued.
59 Good people Good intentions, misplaced judgment Used good equipment in wrong way Failed to recognize All of the hazards Failure to evaluate Risk Vs Benefit
60 Survived because they Were Aware, stayed with boats Had Knowledge, worked together Were Capable, All were strong and wore PPE
61 What went wrong?
62 Advanced Hazards require advanced rescue skills Strainers Anything in the current that will trap swimmer or boat Trees, fences, rocks etc.
63 Man made hazards
64 Foot Entrapment Natural Hazards When wading, crossing a stream or river, if you entrap a part of your body, the force of the current can force you under and hold you there. Debris, rocks, fences, etc can snag and hold a person and not allow them to float to the surface where rescue is possible
66 Flood Situations Two feet of water will float the average car Do not drive over a flooded roadway Nearly half of all flood related deaths occur in vehicles. The underlying roadbed may be washed out If the roadway was elevated, you could be washed into a low headwall dam, or drowning machine.
67 Identify Specific Hazards All flood waters should be considered to be Contaminated Water
69 Hypothermia Still water steals heat away from the body 25 times as fast as still air Cold Water A 5 mph current increases this to 250x Hypothermic debility
70 Cold Water Shock Accounts for dozens of fatalities each year Occurs in water degrees Leads to the principal cause of death Drowning Hypothermia Heart attack
71 Memorial Day Weekend 2005 Western Washington statistics 6 drowning deaths in 24 hours 90 degree air temperature 50 degree water temperature 1 rescuer died Deaths occurred in Lakes, rivers and in Puget Sound
72 Drowning deaths, Memorial day Washington 2005 W/M 40, Drove into Snohomish river W/M 13, Swimming in Green River W/F 13, Cedar River, Rescue attempt Attempted rescue of friend, friend survived W/M 24, Swimming in Snoqualmie River W/M 28, Jumped from boat in Lake Wash W/F 12, Silver lake, Rescue attempt Attempted rescue of cousin, Cousin drowned W/F 10, Swimming in Silver lake
73 Major Obstacles Reduced ability to hold breath Average less than 15 seconds Rapid numbing of extremities Rapid loss of coordination, grip strength, motor skills Death from hypothermia 20 to 30 times faster than air
74 Reflex actions Involuntary gasp reflex Aspiration of cold water Laryngospasms Hyperventilation Respiration increases up to five times Sudden heart rate acceleration
75 Rules of 50 An average adult has 50% chance of surviving a 50 yard swim in 50 water A 50 year old person in 50 water has a 50% chance of surviving for 50 minutes
76 Identify Specific Hazards Hypothermia Wind-chill factor increases significantly when person is wet Increases even more when immersed in moving water
77 Boats, Pros & cons Motorized boats Engines fail Airboats Not meant for rivers PWC Limited crew and passenger capacity Hovercraft Expensive, loud, crew limitations, extensive training Inflatable rafts Requires multiple trained crew Kayaks Limited rescue capability Good scout craft Rigid Hull Inflatable's (RHI) Best choice, multiple uses Requires crew management and training
78 Request Additional Resources
79 Request Additional SCUBA Resources
80 Search and Rescue SCUBA is High Risk Few actual rescues Rescue of fellow team members more likely Black Water Cold water Contaminated Water Confined Space Dive Moving water
81 SCUBA in moving water Physically fit Very strong swimmer Experienced Self rescue knowledge Swiftwater trained
82 Minimum Training for SCUBA in Swiftwater SRT I & SRTA Advanced open water SCUBA Dive Rescue I
83 Moving water is Powerful Powerful Relentless Predictable Flow is measured in Cubic Feet/Sec (CFS) Water speed doubles, force increases X 4 40 lbs 4mph 160 lbs 8mph
84 Moving water is predictable if you understand River Dynamics Eddy x Water moves over, around and through objects in a predictable manner Every obstruction creates an eddy Every constriction creates an increase in water speed. Downstream v x x X = throwbag location strainer
85 Example of the power of moving water
90 Any floating object that stops Against a stationary object Will be pulled under by the current
92 If you are lucky enough to not be caught by obstructions you may pop back to the surface
96 River loads Bottom load Anything that moves along the bottom with the current Suspended load Anything that is suspended in the water but is not floating on the surface Surface load Anything that floats on the surface
97 Terminology Hydraulic Water flowing over an object Eddy Reverse flow of water around an object Eddy fence Line between two opposite current flows Hole, stopper, keeper Large hydraulic capable of holding a swimmer or a boat Standing wave Created downstream of an underwater object Strainer Bad place for a swimmer or a boat to be Frowning hole Hard to escape from Smiling hole Easier to escape from Downstream V Fastest moving water, usually best route through obstructions Upstream V Indicates something under the water Cushion Created upstream of an object Confluence Point where two convergent currents meet
98 DOWN RIVER Current River Right Directions are always given while looking down river. River Left UP RIVER
99 River Categories Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V Class VI Moving, few riffles Waves up to 3 Complex waves & maneuvering Difficult, long rapids Serious risk of injury Nearly impossible, very dangerous
103 Use extreme caution if tying ropes around rescuers in swift water operations A rope tied to a swimmer and secured On shore will cause the swimmer to be pulled underwater and held there. The swimmer must be trained and capable of releasing the line when It is no longer an aid to them or they will drown!
104 Leave the Technical Rescue to the Technicians!
105 TEST Use the included test to answer your questions and return by e or fax.
106 1. True or False A person trained at the awareness level should not enter the water to conduct rescue operations.
107 2. True or False Moving water is any water that moves faster than 1.5 mph and is one of the most dangerous forms of rescue that can be undertaken.
108 3. At the scene of a missing person in a lake, A person trained at the awareness level should do all of the following except what A. Identify the problem B. Stabilize the situation Prevent it from getting any worse C. Prevent it from getting any worse D. Call the appropriate resources and get them enroute E. Put on a PFD and get in a boat to help locate the point the victim was last seen.
109 4. Rescue priority should be in what order? A. Self rescue Back up and rescue team members Rescue the subject B. Back up and rescue team members Self rescue C. Rescue the subject D. Rescue the subject E. Self rescue Back up and rescue team members
110 5. List the order of rescue from least to greatest risk Go, Throw, Reach, Tow, Helo,, Row Reach, Throw, Row, Tow, Go, Helo Go, Tow, Helo,, Throw, Reach, Row D. Helo,, Row, Reach, Throw, Tow, Go A. Go, Throw, Reach, Tow, B. Reach, Throw, Row, Tow, Go, C. Go, Tow,
111 6. True or False The current just below a low head wall dam is actually flowing back up stream towards the face of the dam!
112 7. Which of the following is correct A. Two feet of water will float the average car B. Do not drive over a flooded roadway C. Nearly half of all flood related deaths occur in vehicles. D. The underlying roadbed may be washed out E. If the roadway was elevated, you could be washed into a low headwall dam, or drowning machine. F. All of the above F.
113 8. True or False Cold water shock accounts for dozens of fatalities each year and occurs in water degrees
114 9. Which of the following is caused by cold water A. Reduced ability to hold breath Average less than 15 seconds B. Rapid numbing of extremities C. Rapid loss of coordination, grip strength, motor skills D. Death from hypothermia 20 to 30 times faster than air E. All of the above
115 10.True or False A floating object such as a boat or swimmer will be forced under water by moving water if it comes up against an immovable object such as a bridge or a strainer.
Fire 4 th Quarter-Water/Ice Rescue/Hypothermia Patient INTRODUCTION: Water rescue operations can be one of the most dangerous incidents a firefighter may encounter. In some cases, the victim can be seen
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