Wave-dominated embayed beaches. Andrew D Short School of Geosciences University of Sydney

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1 Wave-dominated embayed beaches Andrew D Short School of Geosciences University of Sydney

2 Wave-dominated embayed beaches wave-dominated beaches embayed beaches morphodynamics of W-D embayed beaches circulation, inc megarips beach rotation headland bypassing headland overpassing

3 Comparison of size of South America vs Australia in relation to Latitude 0 Brazil: 8.5 M km 2 area 9000 km coast 15 S 1000 s? beaches 200 M people Australia: 7.7 M km 2 area km coast 30 S beaches 23 M people 45 S Mollweide Projection (Equal Area)

4 Beach types RTR = relative tide range = TR/H b (TR = spring tide tange, H b = wave height) RTR < ~3 = wave-dominated beaches RTR 3 ~ 10 = tide-modified beaches RTR 10 ~ 50 = tide-dominated beaches RTR >~50 = tidal flats

5 Beach type: Beach states: RTR Ω = H b /W s T

6 Beach type: Beach states: RTR Ω = H b /W s T (Klein & Menezes, 2001 exposed beaches semi-exposed sheltered

7 WD = wave-dominated beaches (6 beach sates) TM = tide-modified beaches (3 beach states) TD = tide-dominated beaches (4 beach states)

8 Wave-dominated type 6 beach states from Short, 1999

9 Wave dominated beach states dissipative intermediate a c c r e t i o n e r o s i o n reflective

10 Wave-dominated accretionary beach states rip circulation dominated the four intermediate states LBT RBB TBR LTT

11 Wave-dominated & some tide-modified 4 types of rips Rip Currents Beach (WD & TM) Topographic Accretion (fixed) Erosion (mobile) Permanent (structurally controlled) Mega (embayment controlled) LBT RBB TBR LTT LBT' RBB' TBR' LTT' (flash)

12 high waves + micro tides = +

13 6m 11 m Likewise Brazil 6 m has a tropical 4 m high tide low waves 2 m north coast 2 m & low tide high waves south coast 1 m 1 m

14 Brazilian embayed (headland-bay beaches) Klein & Menezes, 2001 Klein, et al., 2010 Silveira, Klein & Tessler, 2010 Considerable research in SC & SP states on beach plan form stability rotation morphodynamics

15 Relative tide range Sand size (mm) Wave height (m) Wave-dom TM TD (a) Environmental characteristics of Australian beaches (Short, 2006) (b) Wave -dominated 1 = reflective 2 = LTT 3 = TBR 4 = RBB 5 = LBT 6 = Dissipative (c) Tide-modified Beach type Tide-dominated 10-13

16 Average beach length = 1.4 km

17 Embayed beaches role of geological inheritance/structures topographically and/or structurally-controlled beaches impact on beach morphodynamics Definitions: Embayed beaches are bounded by either headland and/or structures, which play a role in beach morphodynamics. Headland embayed beaches are characteristic of rocky shorelines associated with hilly and mountainous coastal topography. In Australia beaches average length of 1.4 km (s = 4.6), with most of them bounded by headlands at each end. Structurally embayed beaches are more common in groyne fields & adjacent to major coastal structures such as training walls and breakwaters.

18 Definitions Embayed beach structurally bound beach where part of the beach has normal circulation (under normal wave conditions) normally > ~200 m in length (embayed) Pocket beach small structurally bound beach where the circulation is always structurally-controlled (under normal wave conditions) normally less than ~200 m in length (ie one rip cell) embayed pocket

19 Embayed beaches, headland & structurally controlled beaches Australia: average beach length = 1.4 km

20 Pocket beaches

21 Other forms of topographic-control rocks, reefs, rock flats, islets, islands, etc Beachrock reefs

22 Forms of structural control groynes training walls/jetties seawall

23 Embayed beach morphodynamics Headlands, rocks, reef and structures will all impact the beach and surf zone through their influence on wave refraction and attenuation, by impacting longshore currents, rips and rip feeder currents, and interrupting longshore sediment transport When deepwater waves (H o2 ) enter an embayment with a given width (C l ) then the wave energy will be redistributed along the embayment shoreline (S l ) Embayment scaling parameter ' where ' = S l2 /100 C l H b

24 role of embaymentisation in beach & topographic rips embaymentisation parameter = S 2 l / 100 C l H b > 19 normal beach circulation = 8-19 transitional < 8 cellular (modified from Short & Masselink, 1999)

25 Decreasing embayment length = S 2 l / 100 C l H b Normal Transitional Cellular

26 Increasing wave height = S 2 l / 100 C l H b Transitional Megarip

27 Topographic-rip topographically-controlled rip Mega-rip large scale (high energy) topographically controlled rip Rip Currents Beach (WD & TM) Topographic Accretion (fixed) Erosion (mobile) Permanent (structurally controlled) Mega (embayment controlled) LBT RBB TBR LTT LBT' RBB' TBR' LTT' (flash)

28 topographic & megarips

29 0 s 60 s Megarip pulsing 120 s 150 s

30 Megarip H b 4-5m, 150 s broken waves megarip head

31 Megarips: large scale topographically controlled cellular circulation Velocities up to 3 m/sec Transport more sand Transport coarser sand Transport sand further seaward (~1-2 km) Transport sand to great depths Result in rapid & severe beach erosion Greatest erosion in lee of rip Slower beach recovery (2-5 years) Some sand may be lost permanently offshore &/or longshore

32 Global rip current spacing (Short & Brander, 1999) Spacing Seas 80 m East coast swell 200 m West coast swell 500 m Muriwai, NZ 760 m

33 m m

34 short period sea coast long period swell coast ~100 m spacing ~400 m spacing

35 ~250 m spacing, south eastern Australia

36 Topographic effects on sediment transport, with a variable directional wave climate Embayment beaches = beach rotation Longer beaches with headland = headland bypassing

37 Beach rotation periodic accumulation of sand towards at alternating ends of an embayed beach manifest by the rotation in the beach plan form

38 Beach rotation owing to changes in wave direction

39 Narrabeen beach: site of monthly beach surveys since 1976 (37 yr) North Narrabeen surf

40

41 Correlation between Narrabeen beach profiles north end (profile 1) south end (profile 8) Note: Beach rotation accounts for 30% of profile changes Beach oscillation however dominates and accounts for 70%

42 Moruya-Pedro beaches

43 Moruya Série1 Série2 Série3 Série4 Série5 Série6 Série7 40m Moruya Série1 Série2 Série3 Série4 Hb ~0.5-1 m R-LTT 200 Série5 100 Série Série7 Série8 50m Moruya Série1 Série2 Série3 200 Série Série5 Série6 Série7

44 Residuals Moruya 1, 2 & Moruya 1 (N) Moruya 2 (C) Moruya 3 (S) Residuals Moruya 1 & Moruya 1 (N) Moruya 3 (S)

45 Pedro 4 60m Série1 Série2 Série3 Série4 Série5 Série6 Série7 Pedro 5 40m Hb~1.5 m TBR-RBB Pedro 6 Série1 Série2 Série3 Série4 Série5 Série6 Série

46 40 Residuals Pedro 4, 5 & Pedro 4 (N) Pedro 5 (C) Pedro 6 (S) Residuals Pedro 4 & Pedro 4 (N) Pedro 6 (S)

47 Moruya 1 (N) Moruya 3 (S) Pedro 4 (N) Pedro 6 (S)

48 Beach rotation role of wave direction in beach change a major component of change in affected beaches explains variable accretion-erosion along beaches relation to climate indices (inc. SOI/ENSO) Circum-Pacific wave-beach study

49 Headland (sand) bypassing Refers to the subaqueous transport of sand around headlands to the downdrift beach system Tends to occur on longer headland bound beaches Periodic pulses of sand move sub-aqueously around the headland Manifest on downdrift side as subaerial sand spits

50 Headland sand bypassing Cape Byron Byron Bay Double Is Pt

51 Brunswick Heads, NSW note updrift accumulation downdrift erosion rip sand wave Kingscliff, NSW sand wave

52 Sand wave & topographic rip Sand wave Topographic rip & beach erosion

53 topo rip sand wave Beach erosion caused by migrating topographic rip in front of sand wave

54 Headland (sand) bypassing Implications: The more sheltered southern end of beaches can undergo severe erosion during calm conditions as the topographic rip precedes the sand wave

55 sand wave Headland bypassing appears common on a number of embayed Brazilian beaches Forte & Enseada, SC sand wave

56 Tourism image of Touros, RN showing attached sand wave & backing lagoon sand wave lagoon

57 Headland (sand) overpassing aeolian transport of sand across a headland to the downdrift beach system very common in Brazil and South Africa occurs in parts of southern Australia

58 Ingleses, SC

59 Groynes shore perpendicular structures across beach &/or surf zone deflect longshore current seaward topographic rip hinder longshore transport- updrift accretion, downdrift erosion more cellular circulation greater seaward transport greater beach erosion cellular topo-rips

60 Impact of groynes on beach morphodynamics induces more topographically (groyne) controlled rip currents therefore greater offshore flow, sand transport & beach erosion no groynes groynes

61 groynes at Imbituba, SC

62 Wave-dominated embayed beaches Summary All beaches crossed or bordered by headlands and structures are directly impacted by the nature and scale of the boundary Greater wave refraction = greater beach curvature Greater wave attenuation = lower energy beaches & beach state The degree of impact increases with decreasing spacing between embayment ends, and increasing seaward protrusion of the ends.

63 Summary 1 wave refraction modifies wave direction at the shoreline leading to greater beach curvature 2 modification of breaker wave height owing to wave refraction, diffraction and attenuation, will in turn lead to a longshore variation in breaker height and thereby beach type 3 increasing embaymentization will progressively shift in beach type from normal to transitional to cellular circulation, whereby the structure/s may totally dominates the circulation. 4 they will usually realign of the shoreline by processes of wave refraction, increased rip-cellular circulation and updrift accumulation & downdrift erosion 5 any structures located across the beach and surf zone, will stop &/or interrupt longshore sand transport (rotation, bypassing, overpassing) & may generate greater offshore transport

64 Thank you - obrigado

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