Legal, scientific and engineering aspects of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Poland

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Legal, scientific and engineering aspects of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Poland"

Transcription

1 Gdańsk, March 21 st 2013 Legal, scientific and engineering aspects of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Poland Rafał Ostrowski Institute of Hydro-Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IBW PAN) 7 Kościerska, Gdańsk (wwwibwpangdapl) 1 Introduction 2 Legal and organizational bases 3 Research at IBW PAN 4 Sea shore protection against erosion 5 Conclusions

2 Shore erosion in Lubiatowo, Poland (October 2009)

3 Maritime Office in Słupsk Maritime Office in Gdynia Maritime Office in Szczecin Erosive and flooding threats on Polish coast

4 Actors in the Polish coastal engineering and research Ministry of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy: Maritime Offices (in Gdynia, Słupsk and Szczecin) research-developmental units, eg the Maritime Institute in Gdańsk Other parties: local authorities, consulting companies, design offices Ministry of Science and Higher Education: Universities, eg Gdańsk Univ of Technology, Univ of Gdańsk, University of Szczecin Institutes of the Polish Academy of Sciences, eg Institute of Hydro-Engineering (IBW PAN) in Gdańsk, Institute of Oceanology (IO PAN) in Sopot

5 Act of Parliament of Republic of Poland (28 March 2003) on establishment of long-term Coastal Protection Programme protection of sea coast against erosion funded from governmental budget implementation in stabilization of shoreline position according to configuration in year 2000 and prevention of beach loss monitoring of the coast and research activities focused on determination of current condition of the coast in order to indicate necessary measures aimed at the rescue of sea coast responsibility for supervision (Ministry) and implementation (Maritime Offices) allocation of funds determination of protective methods (beach fills, modernization of shore protection structures, erection of new structures, cliff drainage) distribution of awarded funds along the coast Governmental Directive (29 April 2003) on determination of the width of the coastal technical/protective belt definition of the technical belt width for shore segments a) with dunes b) with cliffs c) without dunes or cliffs d) built up by coastal structures

6 WIND DEEP-WATER ( OFFSHORE) WAVES WAVE TRANSFORMATION WAVE-DRIVEN CURRENTS WAVE- CURRENT NEARBED VELOCITIES BED SHEAR STRESS SEDIMENT MOTION SEA BED CHANGES DISPLACEMENT OF SHORELINE General scheme of a deterministic modelling system

7 Processes affecting waves during propagation from deep water to shoreline: shoaling and refraction diffraction reflection dissipation due to friction dissipation due to percolation dissipation due to breaking additional growth due to wind wave-current interaction wave-wave interactions wave run-up

8 L>10 h (20 h) 2 h < L < 10h L» 2h»2h o wave run-up region surf zone wave breaking shoaling refraction and diffraction deep-water waves 000 h o > L 2 R r R s Wave transformation in the coastal zone

9 dune shoreline wave breaking beach rip currents longshore current return flow (undertow) h o Main types of nearshore (wave-driven) currents in non-tidal seas

10 z u(z,t) 0 z b c(z,t) u 0 u b cb c 0 =032 c m convective and suspended load diffusive process c contact load collisions + turbulence bedload grain-grain interactions (collisions + Coulomb friction) Three-layer sediment transport model

11 RUSSIA B A L T I C S E A USTKA CRS LUBIATOWO LEBA WLADYSLAWOWO HEL Gulf of Gdansk GDANSK (IBW PAN) FINLAND Pomeranian Bay KOLOBRZEG SWINOUJSCIE NORWAY Location of the Polish coast and the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station (CRS) at Lubiatowo in the south Baltic Sea DENMARK GERMANY SWEDEN Pomeranian Gulf ESTONIA LATVIA LITHUANIA RUSSIA BELARUS P O L A N D B A L T I C S E A

12 Shape of measuring profile at CRS Lubiatowo with typical layout of equipment

13 Mooring scheme of wave buoy Directional Waverider

14 Installation of wave buoy Directional Waverider

15 12 H r m s 0 = m, T p = 6 1 s, Q 0 = 2 0 o 12 H r m s 0 = 1 2 m, T p = 6 3 s, Q 0 = 2 5 o H r m s 0 [ m ] H r m s 0 [ m ] x [ m ] x [ m ] 0 r e t u r n f l o w s u r f z o n e ( A ) b e y o n d s u r f z o n e ( B ) 0 0 r e t u r n f l o w s u r f z o n e ( A ) b e y o n d s u r f z o n e ( B ) z [ m ] z [ m ] U [ m / s ] U [ m / s ] U [ m / s ] U [ m / s ] h [ m ] d e p t h p r o f i l e A B x [ m ] f o r c o n s t a n t e d d y v i s c o s i t y f o r l i n e a r l y d e p t h - v a r i a b l e e d d y v i s c o s i t y m e a s u r e d v a l u e s Wave height and undertow velocities (CRS Lubiatowo)

16 longshore velocity [m/s] cross-shore velocity [m/s] distance from bottom z=04 m z=24 m date distance from bottom z=04 m z=24 m date Time-averaged velocities of cross-shore and longshore currents measured in water column 200 m from the shoreline (water depth of m) at CRS Lubiatowo in 2006

17 velocity [m/s] 10 longshore current cross-shore current date Time-averaged nearshore shallow-water (at depth of m) velocities of cross-shore and longshore currents measured at CRS Lubiatowo in 2006

18 Types and locations of shore protection structures

19 B A L T I C S E A USTKA CRS LUBIATOWO ŁEBA ROZEWIE - JASTRZĘBIA GDYNIA GÓRA WŁADYSLAWOWO HEL GDAŃSK ( I B W P A N ) Gulf of Gdansk Pomeranian Bay KOŁOBRZEG ŚWINOUJŚCIE SZCZECIN

20 scale : :1 concrete stones f m 40 cliff fascine stones 50 fascine Cross-section of seawall at Rozewie (Poland), as designed and constructed in beginning of 20th century

21 Eroded and protected cliff at Rozewie, Poland

22 Cliff protection at Jastrzębia Góra (continued) Gabion structures (stones in boxes made of steel wire) at Jastrzębia Góra, 2000

23 Cliff protection at Jastrzębia Góra, Poland (2003)

24 Lee-side erosion beside shore segment protected by revetment (Jastrzębia Góra, 2003)

25 Beach disappearance in Jastrzębia Góra, 2008

26 buried pipeline Technological possibilities of artificial nourishment

27 Main options of artificial beach nourishment

28 Activation of old groins after hydraulic nourishment of foreshore at Hel Peninsula, Poland

29 Direct beach nourishment

30 Artificial beach nourishment at Hel Peninsula

31 Beach profiling by use of bulldozers

32 Artificial sandy beach at Hel Peninsula, Poland

33 B A L T I C S E A USTKA CRS LUBIATOWO LEBA ŁEBA GDYNIA WŁADYSŁAWOWO & HEL PENINSULA HEL GDANSK GDAŃSK ( I B W P A N ) Gulf of Gdansk Gdańsk Pomeranian Bay KOLOBRZEG KOŁOBRZEG SWINOUJSCIE ŚWINOUJŚCIE SZCZECIN

34 Wladyslawowo harbour (Poland): accretion on west side (bottom), lee side protected by groins and beach fills (top left hand side)

35 Sand trap at Władysławowo harbour

36 Failure of breakwater armour made of tetrapods

37 Reconstruction of armour at Władysławowo harbour breakwater in September 2003

38 Bathymetry in front of Władysławowo harbour breakwater in 2003 representative bottom profile North breakwater 100 m points of bathymetric measurements

39 Wave transformation on seabed profiles of December 1996 and November 2003 for normal water level

40 Wave transformation on seabed profiles of December 1996 and November 2003 for storm surge +121 m

41 W K D ( S w r r H 3 1) 3 cot Dependence of the rubble element weight W on the design wave height H (Shore Protection Manual, Vol II)

42 Sea level H [m] Mass* [kg] Extreme 20-year storm surge (+121 m) 465 ~8000 Extreme 20-year storm surge + anticipated sea level rise by 03 m (+151 m) Extreme 20-year storm surge + anticipated sea level rise by 06 m (181 m) 476 ~ ~9250 * originally designed as 5000 kg Inclusion of climate change effects in the design procedure

43 Reconstructed breakwater (2008)

44 + 40 m 1 : m 1 : m recommended profile of beach and dune + 15 m 1 : 20 existing cross-shore profile Profile of artificial dune and beach recommended for the south Baltic coast

45 Gabion revetment built into artificial dune

46 I wind direction S EA fascine fence L A ND III II new fence beginning of dune formation old fence IV new fence old fence Growth of dunes due to eolian processes around fences

47 Fascine material (wooden sticks) prepared for construction of fences

48 Sand accumulation fence at foot of dune plus dune slope protected by tree branches

49 Three rows of sand accumulation fences, the newest on the right hand side

50 Grass planted to keep sand on the dune

51 Leymus arenarius

52 Ammophila arenaria

53 Dunes overgrown by young trees (silver birches and Scots pines)

54 Conclusions legal regulations (allocated money, defined areas) preferences for environment-friendly measures ( soft engineering, eg beach and dune nourishment by sand, bio-technical protection of dunes) monitoring assessment studies (climate change issues considered) fundamental research

55 Thank you for attention

COASTAL MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION METHODS! 1

COASTAL MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION METHODS! 1 COASTAL MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION METHODS! 1 Strategy What it does Cons Pros Examples SOFT ENGINEERING: The use of ecological principles and practices to reduce erosion and achieve the stabilization and

More information

CROSS-SHORE SEDIMENT PROCESSES

CROSS-SHORE SEDIMENT PROCESSES The University of the West Indies Organization of American States PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME: COASTAL INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE A COURSE IN COASTAL DEFENSE SYSTEMS I CHAPTER

More information

INTRODUCTION TO COASTAL ENGINEERING

INTRODUCTION TO COASTAL ENGINEERING The University of the West Indies Organization of American States PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME: COASTAL INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE A COURSE IN COASTAL DEFENSE SYSTEMS I CHAPTER

More information

Julebæk Strand. Effect full beach nourishment

Julebæk Strand. Effect full beach nourishment Julebæk Strand Effect full beach nourishment Aim of Study This study is a part of the COADAPT funding and the aim of the study is to analyze the effect of beach nourishment. In order to investigate the

More information

Low-crested offshore breakwaters: a functional tool for beach management

Low-crested offshore breakwaters: a functional tool for beach management Environmental Problems in Coastal Regions VI 237 Low-crested offshore breakwaters: a functional tool for beach management K. Spyropoulos & E. Andrianis TRITON Consulting Engineers, Greece Abstract Beach

More information

Earth Science Chapter 16 Section 3 Review

Earth Science Chapter 16 Section 3 Review Name: Class: Date: Earth Science Chapter 16 Section 3 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The movement of water that parallels the shore

More information

Variation in Beach Profile and Sediment Characteristics at Popham Beach, Phippsburg, ME

Variation in Beach Profile and Sediment Characteristics at Popham Beach, Phippsburg, ME Colby College Digital Commons @ Colby Undergraduate Research Symposium Student Research 2006 Variation in Beach Profile and Sediment Characteristics at Popham Beach, Phippsburg, ME Kathryn Lidington Colby

More information

MODELING OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON COASTAL STRUCTURES - CONTRIBUTION TO THEIR RE-DESIGN

MODELING OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON COASTAL STRUCTURES - CONTRIBUTION TO THEIR RE-DESIGN Proceedings of the 14 th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Rhodes, Greece, 3-5 September 2015 MODELING OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON COASTAL STRUCTURES - CONTRIBUTION TO THEIR

More information

Chapter. The Dynamic Ocean

Chapter. The Dynamic Ocean Chapter The Dynamic Ocean An ocean current is the mass of ocean water that flows from one place to another. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater Surface Circulation Surface Currents Surface currents are movements

More information

SAND BOTTOM EROSION AND CHANGES OF AN ACTIVE LAYER THICKNESS IN THE SURF ZONE OF THE NORDERNEY ISLAND

SAND BOTTOM EROSION AND CHANGES OF AN ACTIVE LAYER THICKNESS IN THE SURF ZONE OF THE NORDERNEY ISLAND SAND BOTTOM EROSION AND CHANGES OF AN ACTIVE LAYER THICKNESS IN THE SURF ZONE OF THE NORDERNEY ISLAND Kos'yan R. 1, Kunz H. 2, Podymov l. 3 1 Prof.Dr.,The Southern Branch of the P.P.Shirshov Institute

More information

HARBOUR SEDIMENTATION - COMPARISON WITH MODEL

HARBOUR SEDIMENTATION - COMPARISON WITH MODEL HARBOUR SEDIMENTATION - COMPARISON WITH MODEL ABSTRACT A mobile-bed model study of Pointe Sapin Harbour, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, resulted in construction of a detached breakwater and sand trap to

More information

The Dynamic Coast. Right Place Resources. A presentation about the interaction between the dynamic coast and people

The Dynamic Coast. Right Place Resources. A presentation about the interaction between the dynamic coast and people The Dynamic Coast Houses threatened by coastal erosion in California Right Place Resources A presentation about the interaction between the dynamic coast and people For the rest of the presentations in

More information

LAB: WHERE S THE BEACH

LAB: WHERE S THE BEACH Name: LAB: WHERE S THE BEACH Introduction When you build a sandcastle on the beach, you don't expect it to last forever. You spread out your towel to sunbathe, but you know you can't stay in the same spot

More information

SANDBANKS COAST PROTECTION

SANDBANKS COAST PROTECTION SANDBANKS COAST PROTECTION David Robson, Senior Engineer, Coastal & Drainage Team Borough of Poole Leisure Services (T) 01202 265265 (E) d.robson@poole.gov.uk May 2003 SANDBANKS COAST PROTECTION Introduction

More information

Chapter 10 Lecture Outline. The Restless Oceans

Chapter 10 Lecture Outline. The Restless Oceans Chapter 10 Lecture Outline The Restless Oceans Focus Question 10.1 How does the Coriolis effect influence ocean currents? The Ocean s Surface Circulation Ocean currents Masses of water that flow from one

More information

Influence of Nearshore Mining Pits on Hydro- and Lithodynamics of a Dissipative Coastal Zone: Case Study of the Hel Peninsula (Poland)

Influence of Nearshore Mining Pits on Hydro- and Lithodynamics of a Dissipative Coastal Zone: Case Study of the Hel Peninsula (Poland) Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics Vol. 63 (2016), No. 4, pp. 237 252 DOI: 10.1515/heem-2016-0015 IBW PAN, ISSN 1231 3726 Influence of Nearshore Mining Pits on Hydro- and Lithodynamics

More information

Chapter 11. Beach Fill and Soft Engineering Structures

Chapter 11. Beach Fill and Soft Engineering Structures Chapter 11 Beach Fill and Soft Engineering Structures Solutions to Coastal Erosion Soft Structures Hard Structures Retreat No such thing as low cost coastal protection Beach Nourishment Beach Filling Beach

More information

HURRICANE SANDY LIMITED REEVALUATION REPORT UNION BEACH, NEW JERSEY DRAFT ENGINEERING APPENDIX SUB APPENDIX D SBEACH MODELING

HURRICANE SANDY LIMITED REEVALUATION REPORT UNION BEACH, NEW JERSEY DRAFT ENGINEERING APPENDIX SUB APPENDIX D SBEACH MODELING HURRICANE SANDY LIMITED REEVALUATION REPORT UNION BEACH, NEW JERSEY DRAFT ENGINEERING APPENDIX SUB APPENDIX D SBEACH MODELING Rev. 18 Feb 2015 1 SBEACH Modeling 1.0 Introduction Following the methodology

More information

Coastal Processes Day Criccieth

Coastal Processes Day Criccieth Coastal Processes Rivers (Conwy) Rivers (Peris) Urban Studies Lowland Glaciation Tourism and National Parks Soils Sand Dunes Upland Glaciation Rural Settlements The Centre and Staff Fieldwork Equipment

More information

Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 116 (2015 )

Available online at  ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 116 (2015 ) Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 116 (2015 ) 320 325 8th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2015) Department of Ocean Engineering, IIT

More information

Kelly Legault, Ph.D., P.E. USACE SAJ

Kelly Legault, Ph.D., P.E. USACE SAJ Kelly Legault, Ph.D., P.E. USACE SAJ Report Documentation Page Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including

More information

DUNE STABILIZATION AND BEACH EROSION

DUNE STABILIZATION AND BEACH EROSION DUNE STABILIZATION AND BEACH EROSION CAPE HATTERAS NATIONAL SEASHORE NORTH CAROLINA ROBERT DOLAN PAUL GODFREY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE OFFICE OF NATURAL SCIENCE WASHINGTON, D.

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 15 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 15 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 15 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Longshore sediment transport

Longshore sediment transport and Orson P. Smith, PE, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus Longshore transport Waves breaking at an angle to shore Sediment under breakers lifted by saltation Drops back to sea bed a little down drift Swash (runup)

More information

NORTHERN CELL OPTIONS SHORTLIST RECOMMENDATIONS

NORTHERN CELL OPTIONS SHORTLIST RECOMMENDATIONS OPTIONS SHORTLIST RECOMMENDATIONS Coastal Unit C: Bayview Options recommended for MCDA scoring. Status quo. Planting 3. Renourishment (gravel) 6. Beach-scraping 7. Restore shingle crest. Inundation accommodation

More information

Overview. Beach Features. Coastal Regions. Other Beach Profile Features. CHAPTER 10 The Coast: Beaches and Shoreline Processes.

Overview. Beach Features. Coastal Regions. Other Beach Profile Features. CHAPTER 10 The Coast: Beaches and Shoreline Processes. Overview CHAPTER 10 The Coast: Beaches and Shoreline Processes Coastal regions constantly change. The beach is a dominant coastal feature. Wave activity continually modifies the beach and coastal areas.

More information

Q1. What are the primary causes/contributors to coastal erosion at Westshore and the concept of longshore / littoral drift.

Q1. What are the primary causes/contributors to coastal erosion at Westshore and the concept of longshore / littoral drift. Q1. What are the primary causes/contributors to coastal erosion at Westshore and the concept of longshore / littoral drift. In order of (timing related) contribution to present problem 1. Beach is too

More information

Chronic coastal erosion is a statewide problem

Chronic coastal erosion is a statewide problem Chronic coastal erosion is a statewide problem 1 Seawalls are constructed where there is erosion, but they do not solve the erosion they often worsen it along adjacent shores. Hawaii needs erosion solutions.

More information

Marginal Marine Environments

Marginal Marine Environments Marginal Marine Environments Delta: discrete shoreline protuberances formed where rivers enter oceans, semi-enclosed seas, lakes or lagoons and supply sediment more rapidly than it can be redistributed

More information

Prevention of Coastal Erosion

Prevention of Coastal Erosion PDHonline Course C219 (5 PDH) Prevention of Coastal Erosion Instructor: Jeffrey Havelin, PE 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088 www.pdhonline.org

More information

4/20/17. #30 - Coastlines - General Principles Coastlines - Overview

4/20/17. #30 - Coastlines - General Principles Coastlines - Overview Writing Assignment Due one week from today by 11:59 pm See main class web pages for detailed instructions Essays will be submitted in Illinois Compass (instructions later) Pick one: Earthquakes, tsunamis,

More information

Beach Profiles. Topics. Module 9b Beach Profiles and Crossshore Sediment Transport 3/23/2016. CE A676 Coastal Engineering

Beach Profiles. Topics. Module 9b Beach Profiles and Crossshore Sediment Transport 3/23/2016. CE A676 Coastal Engineering Beach Profiles AND CROSS-SHORE TRANSPORT Orson P. Smith, PE, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus Topics Features of beach and nearshore profiles Equilibrium profiles Cross-shore transport References Text (Sorensen)

More information

A Preliminary Review of Beach Profile and Hardbottom Interactions

A Preliminary Review of Beach Profile and Hardbottom Interactions A Preliminary Review of Beach Profile and Hardbottom Interactions Douglas W. Mann, P.E., D.CE. CB&I A World of Solutions Presentation Goal Lead to a better understanding of the challenges regarding the

More information

VIMS CCRM Coastal Management Decision Tools. Decision Tree for Undefended Shorelines and Those with Failed Structures

VIMS CCRM Coastal Management Decision Tools. Decision Tree for Undefended Shorelines and Those with Failed Structures VIMS CCRM Coastal Management Decision Tools Decision Tree for Undefended Shorelines and Those with Failed Structures Center for Coastal Resources Management Virginia Institute of Marine Science Gloucester

More information

SEDIMENT BUDGET OF LIDO OF PELLESTRINA (VENICE) Written by Marcello Di Risio Under the supervision of Giorgio Bellotti and Leopoldo Franco

SEDIMENT BUDGET OF LIDO OF PELLESTRINA (VENICE) Written by Marcello Di Risio Under the supervision of Giorgio Bellotti and Leopoldo Franco SEDIMENT BUDGET OF LIDO OF PELLESTRINA (VENICE) Written by Marcello Di Risio Under the supervision of Giorgio Bellotti and Leopoldo Franco Table of contents: 1. Introduction...3 2. Protection structures

More information

Unit 11 Lesson 2 How Does Ocean Water Move? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 11 Lesson 2 How Does Ocean Water Move? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 11 Lesson 2 How Does Ocean Water Move? Catch a Wave A wave is the up-and-down movement of surface water. Catch a Wave Catch a Wave (wave effects) Surface waves are caused by wind pushing against

More information

A: Formalities. DELOS WP 1.1 Inventory on LCS, questionnaire, detailed description, revision D AUTH GR. Participant code and who to contact.

A: Formalities. DELOS WP 1.1 Inventory on LCS, questionnaire, detailed description, revision D AUTH GR. Participant code and who to contact. A: Formalities Participant code and who to contact. AUTH GR J. Avgeris E-mail iavgeris@civil.auth.gr This date (today, mm:dd:yyyy) and revision number (A..Z). 17/09/01 Rev A Location of LCS. Patras Gulf,

More information

The Composition of Seawater

The Composition of Seawater The Composition of Seawater Salinity Salinity is the total amount of solid material dissolved in water. Most of the salt in seawater is sodium chloride, common table salt. Element Percent Element Percent

More information

Essentials of Oceanography Eleventh Edition

Essentials of Oceanography Eleventh Edition Chapter Chapter 1 10 Clickers Lecture Essentials of Oceanography Eleventh Edition The Coast: Beaches and Shoreline Processes Alan P. Trujillo Harold V. Thurman Chapter Overview Coastal regions have distinct

More information

OCEAN WAVES NAME. I. Introduction

OCEAN WAVES NAME. I. Introduction NAME OCEAN WAVES I. Introduction The physical definition of a wave is a disturbance that transmits energy from one place to another. In the open ocean waves are formed when wis blowing across the water

More information

Modeling Sediment Transport Along the Upper Texas Coast

Modeling Sediment Transport Along the Upper Texas Coast Modeling Sediment Transport Along the Upper Texas Coast David B. King Jr. Jeffery P. Waters William R. Curtis Highway 87 roadbed, Jefferson County Galveston District Corps Sabine Pass to San Luis Pass

More information

Sustainable Decision Making (SDM) (Foundation and Higher Tier)

Sustainable Decision Making (SDM) (Foundation and Higher Tier) GENERAL CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION GEOGRAPHY B Sustainable Decision Making (SDM) (Foundation and Higher Tier) B561/01/02/RB RESOURCE BOOKLET *B523590611* This resource booklet should be available

More information

Evaluating a Prefabricated Submerged Breakwater and Double-T Sill for Beach Erosion Prevention, Cape May Point, NJ ABSTRACT

Evaluating a Prefabricated Submerged Breakwater and Double-T Sill for Beach Erosion Prevention, Cape May Point, NJ ABSTRACT Evaluating a Prefabricated Submerged Breakwater and Double-T Sill for Beach Erosion Prevention, Cape May Point, NJ Donald K. Stauble 1 and Michael A. Giovannozzi 2 ABSTRACT As part of the US Army Corps

More information

Exemplar for Internal Assessment Resource Geography Level 3. Resource title: The Coastal Environment Kaikoura

Exemplar for Internal Assessment Resource Geography Level 3. Resource title: The Coastal Environment Kaikoura Exemplar for internal assessment resource Geography 3.5A for Achievement Standard 91430 Exemplar for Internal Assessment Resource Geography Level 3 Resource title: The Coastal Environment Kaikoura This

More information

Undertow - Zonation of Flow in Broken Wave Bores

Undertow - Zonation of Flow in Broken Wave Bores Nearshore Circulation Undertow and Rip Cells Undertow - Zonation of Flow in Broken Wave Bores In the wave breaking process, the landward transfer of water, associated with bore and surface roller decay

More information

Environmental Protection on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia. 1. What is the appeal of the Gold Coast to tourists?

Environmental Protection on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia. 1. What is the appeal of the Gold Coast to tourists? Environmental Protection on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia Sections 1. What is the appeal of the Gold Coast to tourists? 2. How are Gold Coast visitor trends changing? 3. How can the impacts of

More information

Basic Dune Physical Characteristics

Basic Dune Physical Characteristics Basic Dune Physical Characteristics New Jersey s Beach and Dune Characteristics Dunes in New Jersey are mainly confined to a narrow strip of land between the beach berm and upland development. While there

More information

Volume and Shoreline Changes along Pinellas County Beaches during Tropical Storm Debby

Volume and Shoreline Changes along Pinellas County Beaches during Tropical Storm Debby Volume and Shoreline Changes along Pinellas County Beaches during Tropical Storm Debby Ping Wang and Tiffany M. Roberts Coastal Research Laboratory University of South Florida July 24, 2012 Introduction

More information

CHAPTER 212 THE BEACH REHABILITATION PROJECT AT OSTEND-BELGIUM. ir. R. SIMOEN* ir. H. VERSLYPE** ir. D. VANDENBOSSCHE***

CHAPTER 212 THE BEACH REHABILITATION PROJECT AT OSTEND-BELGIUM. ir. R. SIMOEN* ir. H. VERSLYPE** ir. D. VANDENBOSSCHE*** CHAPTER 212 THE BEACH REHABILITATION PROJECT AT OSTEND-BELGIUM ir. R. SIMOEN* ir. H. VERSLYPE** ir. D. VANDENBOSSCHE*** Abstract Steady erosion has occured on the beaches at Ostend, Belgium, especially

More information

ANALYSIS ON PERFORMANCE OF THE EMERGENCY NOURISHMENT PROJECT AT WEST BEACH OF BEIDAIHE, CHINA

ANALYSIS ON PERFORMANCE OF THE EMERGENCY NOURISHMENT PROJECT AT WEST BEACH OF BEIDAIHE, CHINA ANALYSIS ON PERFORMANCE OF THE EMERGENCY NOURISHMENT PROJECT AT WEST BEACH OF BEIDAIHE, CHINA Yanxiong Yang 1, Jiabo Zhang 1, Cuiping Kuang 2,*, Yu Zhang 3, Lulu He 2,*, Yi Pan 2 and Shuguang Liu 2 Beach

More information

There are many different kinds of beaches which are generally characterized by the dominance of waves, tides, rivers and currents, and in particular

There are many different kinds of beaches which are generally characterized by the dominance of waves, tides, rivers and currents, and in particular Fig. 11-11, p. 253 There are many different kinds of beaches which are generally characterized by the dominance of waves, tides, rivers and currents, and in particular differ by the amount of energy, which

More information

Name Class Date. Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used.

Name Class Date. Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used. Assessment Chapter Test B The Movement of Ocean Water USING KEY TERMS Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used.

More information

Coastal Zones. Coastal Zones

Coastal Zones. Coastal Zones Page 1 of 15 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Coastal Zones Coastal Zones A coastal zone is the interface between the land and water. These zones are important because

More information

Modeling Beach Erosion

Modeling Beach Erosion Ocean Lecture & Educator s Night May 16, 2012 Modeling Beach Erosion Below is an overview of the activity Modeling Beach Erosion (New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium, Education Program) to incorporate information

More information

Ocean Motion Notes. Chapter 13 & 14

Ocean Motion Notes. Chapter 13 & 14 Ocean Motion Notes Chapter 13 & 14 What is a Wave? Wave: movement of energy through a body of water How are Waves Caused? Caused mostly by wind Wind blowing on the water transmits energy to the water Size

More information

OCEANS. Main Ideas. Lesson 2: Ocean Currents Ocean Currents help distribute heat around Earth.

OCEANS. Main Ideas. Lesson 2: Ocean Currents Ocean Currents help distribute heat around Earth. Oceans Chapter 10 OCEANS Main Ideas Lesson 2: Ocean Currents Ocean Currents help distribute heat around Earth. Lesson 3: The Ocean Shore The shore is shaped by the movement of water and sand. OCEANS SO

More information

ST. JOSEPH PENINSULA, GULF COUNTY, FLORIDA Beach Re-Nourishment and Environmental Enhancement Project RECOMMENDATIONS

ST. JOSEPH PENINSULA, GULF COUNTY, FLORIDA Beach Re-Nourishment and Environmental Enhancement Project RECOMMENDATIONS ST. JOSEPH PENINSULA, GULF COUNTY, FLORIDA Beach Re-Nourishment and Environmental Enhancement Project RECOMMENDATIONS January 23, 2018 543 Harbor Boulevard, Suite 204 Destin, Florida 32541 850.654.1555

More information

GLOBAL CORAL REEF ALLIANCE A non-profit organization for protection and sustainable management of coral reefs

GLOBAL CORAL REEF ALLIANCE A non-profit organization for protection and sustainable management of coral reefs GLOBAL CORAL REEF ALLIANCE A non-profit organization for protection and sustainable management of coral reefs Global Coral Reef Alliance, 37 Pleasant Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Telephone: 617-864-4226

More information

BEACH EROSION COUNTERMEASURE USING NEW ARTIFICIAL REEF BLOCKS

BEACH EROSION COUNTERMEASURE USING NEW ARTIFICIAL REEF BLOCKS BEACH EROSION COUNTERMEASURE USING NEW ARTIFICIAL REEF BLOCKS Kyuhan Kim 1, Sungwon Shin 1, Chongkun Pyun 2, Hyundong Kim 3, and Nobuhisa Kobayashi 4 Two-dimensional and three-dimensional laboratory experiments

More information

Potential limitations to the commercial fisheries and research surveys, caused by other users of the Polish Marine Areas

Potential limitations to the commercial fisheries and research surveys, caused by other users of the Polish Marine Areas Fishing for space - Conference on maritime spatial planning and fisheries management; 14.11.2013 Vilnius, Lithuania Potential limitations to the commercial fisheries and research surveys, caused by other

More information

Unsteady Wave-Driven Circulation Cells Relevant to Rip Currents and Coastal Engineering

Unsteady Wave-Driven Circulation Cells Relevant to Rip Currents and Coastal Engineering Unsteady Wave-Driven Circulation Cells Relevant to Rip Currents and Coastal Engineering Andrew Kennedy Dept of Civil and Coastal Engineering 365 Weil Hall University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 phone:

More information

Dynamic Shoreline. Why do we care? Loss of land Damage to structures Recreation

Dynamic Shoreline. Why do we care? Loss of land Damage to structures Recreation Dynamic Shoreline Why do we care? Loss of land Damage to structures Recreation Coastal Water Movement Waves provide the energy Through breaking As waves shoal Speed decreases Height increases Wavelength

More information

Morphodynamic Modelling of a Shoreface Nourishment at Egmond-aan-Zee, The Netherlands

Morphodynamic Modelling of a Shoreface Nourishment at Egmond-aan-Zee, The Netherlands Morphodynamic Modelling of a Shoreface Nourishment at Egmond-aan-Zee, The Netherlands Christophe BRIERE 1, Maarten van ORMONDT 1, Dirk-Jan WALSTRA 1,2 1 Deltares WL Delft Hydraulics, PO Box 177, 2600 MH

More information

COMBINED PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELLING TO INFORM OPTIMAL MARINA DESIGN

COMBINED PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELLING TO INFORM OPTIMAL MARINA DESIGN COMBINED PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELLING TO INFORM OPTIMAL MARINA DESIGN Vincenzo Albanese 1, Keith Powell 2 and Giovanni Cuomo 3 A new Marina, capable of hosting up to 1,000 boats, is being constructed

More information

Why Study Shorelines?

Why Study Shorelines? Why Study Shorelines? The seafloor is the largest part of Earth s surface. Many seafloor features and processes provide evidence of plate tectonics. Seafloor sediments and rocks are a source of several

More information

Puducherry Port Disaster. A Man-Made Made Tsunami. Coastal Erosion at Puducherry. & neighboring beaches of Tamil Nadu

Puducherry Port Disaster. A Man-Made Made Tsunami. Coastal Erosion at Puducherry. & neighboring beaches of Tamil Nadu Puducherry Port Disaster A Man-Made Made Tsunami Coastal Erosion at Puducherry & neighboring beaches of Tamil Nadu Pondicherry Citizens Action Network February 2007 Once upon a time Pondicherry had a beautiful

More information

storms and coastal defences at chiswell

storms and coastal defences at chiswell storms and coastal defences at chiswell What is this booklet about? This booklet provides information about: How Chesil Beach and the Fleet Lagoon formed and how it has changed over the last 100 years

More information

Ocean Waves. Capillary. Gravity. Wind generated. Tides Tsunamis Seiches

Ocean Waves. Capillary. Gravity. Wind generated. Tides Tsunamis Seiches Ocean Waves Capillary Wind generated Gravity Tides Tsunamis Seiches Capillary waves are driven by the surface tension produced by electrically polarized water molecule San Pedro Lighthouse Waves are alternate

More information

Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory

Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory ERDC/CHL TR-12-X Lake Michigan: Prediction of Sand Beach and Dune Erosion for Flood Hazard Assessment Bradley D. Johnson DRAFT April 2012 Great Lakes Coastal Flood Study,

More information

Video based assessment of coastal erosion impact on beach attendance. Application to coastal management of Valras beach, France

Video based assessment of coastal erosion impact on beach attendance. Application to coastal management of Valras beach, France Conférence Méditerranéenne Côtière et Maritime EDITION 3, FERRARA, ITALIA (2015) Coastal and Maritime Mediterranean Conference Disponible en ligne http://www.paralia.fr Available online Video based assessment

More information

SHORELINE EVOLUTION DUE TO HIGHLY OBLIQUE INCIDENT WAVES AT WALVIS BAY, NAMIBIA

SHORELINE EVOLUTION DUE TO HIGHLY OBLIQUE INCIDENT WAVES AT WALVIS BAY, NAMIBIA SHORELINE EVOLUTION DUE TO HIGHLY OBLIQUE INCIDENT WAVES AT WALVIS BAY, NAMIBIA Berry Elfrink, 1 Gordon Prestedge 2, Cesar B.M. Rocha 3, and Jørgen Juhl 4 Abstract: This paper describes the development

More information

Wave-dominated embayed beaches. Andrew D Short School of Geosciences University of Sydney

Wave-dominated embayed beaches. Andrew D Short School of Geosciences University of Sydney Wave-dominated embayed beaches Andrew D Short School of Geosciences University of Sydney Wave-dominated embayed beaches wave-dominated beaches embayed beaches morphodynamics of W-D embayed beaches circulation,

More information

Grenada. Carriacou. Wise practices for coping with. Petit Martinique

Grenada. Carriacou. Wise practices for coping with. Petit Martinique Wise practices for coping with Carriacou Petit Martinique Grenada Caribbean Sea National Science and Technology Council, Grenada Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Lands and Fisheries, Grenada University

More information

COASTAL EROSION: INVESTIGATIONS IN THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF SRI LANKA

COASTAL EROSION: INVESTIGATIONS IN THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF SRI LANKA COASTAL EROSION: INVESTIGATIONS IN THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF SRI LANKA Wijayawardane I.S.K. 1, Ansaf K.M.M. 2, Ratnasooriya A.H.R. 3, Samarawickrama S.P. 4 1,2 Postgraduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering,

More information

BEACH NOURISHMENT PROJECTS IN CARBONATE MATERIAL BEACH

BEACH NOURISHMENT PROJECTS IN CARBONATE MATERIAL BEACH Submitted February, 2006 BEACH NOURISHMENT PROJECTS IN CARBONATE MATERIAL BEACH Ryuichiro Nishi 1, Robert G. Dean 2 and Mario P. de Leon 1 1 Department of Ocean Civil Engineering, Kagoshima University,

More information

CHANGE IN CARBONATE BEACH TRIGGERED BY CONSTRUCTION OF A BRIDGE ON IRABU ISLAND AND ITS SIMULATION USING BG MODEL

CHANGE IN CARBONATE BEACH TRIGGERED BY CONSTRUCTION OF A BRIDGE ON IRABU ISLAND AND ITS SIMULATION USING BG MODEL Proceedings of the 7 th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2013) Bali, Indonesia, September 24-26, 2013 CHANGE IN CARBONATE BEACH TRIGGERED BY CONSTRUCTION OF A BRIDGE ON IRABU

More information

Habitat Development: Habitat Boulders Lawson Pier Foreshore Enhancement

Habitat Development: Habitat Boulders Lawson Pier Foreshore Enhancement Habitat Development: Habitat Boulders Improve the existing habitat by stabilising beach sediments. Increase biodiversity by creating new habitats and colonisation opportunities. Loose cobble is unstable;

More information

Section 1: Waves. There are two distinct types of wave at the coastline: constructive and destructive waves.

Section 1: Waves. There are two distinct types of wave at the coastline: constructive and destructive waves. Coastal Erosion EARTH SCIENCE GEOLOGY COASTAL EROSION Section 1: Waves How do waves form? Waves are generated by the competing forces of surface friction. The wind transfers energy from air to water and

More information

National Shoreline Erosion Control Demonstration Program Overview

National Shoreline Erosion Control Demonstration Program Overview National Shoreline Erosion Control Demonstration Program Overview William R. Curtis 1 (Phone: (601) 634-3040, Fax: (601) 634-3080, CURTISW@wes.army.mil), Joan Pope 1 (Phone: (601) 634-3040, Fax: (601)

More information

SHORE EROSION CONTROL GUIDELINES

SHORE EROSION CONTROL GUIDELINES SHORE EROSION CONTROL GUIDELINES For Waterfront Property Owners Contact Information Updated 10/06 Original production of this report was made possible by funding provided by the Coastal Resources Division,

More information

ST. LUCIE COUNTY, FLORIDA

ST. LUCIE COUNTY, FLORIDA ST. LUCIE COUNTY, FLORIDA COASTAL STORM RISK MANAGEMENT STUDY Draft Feasibility Study & Integrated Environmental Assessment Public Meeting Presented by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville District

More information

Oceans in Motion: Waves and Tides

Oceans in Motion: Waves and Tides Oceans in Motion: Waves and Tides Waves Waves are among the most familiar features in the ocean. All waves work similarly, so although we are talking about ocean waves here, the same information would

More information

How beach nourishment has impacted the surf breaks of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach, Florida

How beach nourishment has impacted the surf breaks of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach, Florida How beach nourishment has impacted the surf breaks of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach, Florida A white paper prepared by John M. Hearin Ph.D., P.E. Ocean Engineer with assistance from Cocoa Beach Chapter

More information

Evaluation Report Teluk Chempedak Oct 2005

Evaluation Report Teluk Chempedak Oct 2005 Evaluation Report Teluk Chempedak Oct 2005 Beach Nourishment combined with the SIC System Hyatt Hotel SIC Skagen Innovation Centre Dr. Alexandrinesvej 75 Dk 9990 Skagen Denmark Phone 00 45 98 44 57 13

More information

Analysis of Packery Channel Public Access Boat Ramp Shoreline Failure

Analysis of Packery Channel Public Access Boat Ramp Shoreline Failure Journal of Coastal Research SI 59 150-155 West Palm Beach, Florida 2011 Analysis of Packery Channel Public Access Boat Ramp Shoreline Failure Christopher W. Reed and Lihwa Lin URS Corporation 1625 Summit

More information

Door County, WI Coastal Hazard Analysis Flood Risk Review Meeting. August 21, 2017

Door County, WI Coastal Hazard Analysis Flood Risk Review Meeting. August 21, 2017 Door County, WI Coastal Hazard Analysis Flood Risk Review Meeting August 21, 2017 Agenda Introductions Coastal Flood Risk Study and Mapping Program Current Status Technical Overview of Study and Mapping

More information

1-32 NOME HARBOR, ALASKA (CWIS NOS , 87755, 12270, & 10422) Condition of Improvement 30 September 2012

1-32 NOME HARBOR, ALASKA (CWIS NOS , 87755, 12270, & 10422) Condition of Improvement 30 September 2012 NOME HARBOR 1-32 NOME HARBOR, ALASKA (CWIS NOS. 72742, 87755, 12270, & 10422) Condition of Improvement 30 September 2012 AUTHORIZATION: (1) Rivers and Harbors Act, 8 August 1917 (House Doc. 1932, 64th

More information

Ch 9: Waves. Wind waves. Formation of a wind wave

Ch 9: Waves. Wind waves. Formation of a wind wave Ch 9: Waves 1. Features of Waves 2. Deep-water, shallow water and transitional waves 3. Breaking Waves 4. Wind Waves 5. Tsunamis Cf. Fig. 9-2 Waves are created by a disturbance. * wind (wind waves, L=

More information

CHAPTER 72. Prediction of the dimensions of a rip current system on a coast with bars Julio Zyserman 1, J0rgen Freds0e 2, Rolf Deigaard 2

CHAPTER 72. Prediction of the dimensions of a rip current system on a coast with bars Julio Zyserman 1, J0rgen Freds0e 2, Rolf Deigaard 2 CHAPTER 72 Prediction of the dimensions of a rip current system on a coast with bars Julio Zyserman 1, J0rgen Freds0e 2, Rolf Deigaard 2 Abstract A method to determine the dimensions of rip current systems

More information

CHAPTER 107. Design of beach nourishment scheme. K.W. Pilarczyk, J. van Overeem, W.T. Bakker

CHAPTER 107. Design of beach nourishment scheme. K.W. Pilarczyk, J. van Overeem, W.T. Bakker CHAPTER 107 1 Introduction Design of beach nourishment scheme K.W. Pilarczyk, J. van Overeem, W.T. Bakker An artificial beach nourishment used to replenish an eroding part of a coast may seem expensive

More information

Waves Part II. non-dispersive (C g =C)

Waves Part II. non-dispersive (C g =C) Waves Part II Previously we discussed Surface Gravity Waves Deep Water Waves Shallow Water Waves C g T 2 C g h dispersive (C g =C/2) Definitions: phase speed C= /T= /k non-dispersive (C g =C) group speed

More information

CHAPTER 213 THE IMPACTS OF SHORELINE PROTECTION STRUCTURES ON BEACHES ALONG MONTEREY BAY, CALB^ORNIA. GaryB. Griggs* James F. Tait* Katherine Scott*

CHAPTER 213 THE IMPACTS OF SHORELINE PROTECTION STRUCTURES ON BEACHES ALONG MONTEREY BAY, CALB^ORNIA. GaryB. Griggs* James F. Tait* Katherine Scott* CHAPTER 213 THE IMPACTS OF SHORELINE PROTECTION STRUCTURES ON BEACHES ALONG MONTEREY BAY, CALB^ORNIA GaryB. Griggs* James F. Tait* Katherine Scott* Abstract As a result of severe coastal storm damage in

More information

Climate Change Impacts to KSC Launch Complex

Climate Change Impacts to KSC Launch Complex Climate Change Impacts to KSC Launch Complex Presented to: 2010 International Workshop on Environment and Energy By: John Shaffer NASA Environmental Management Branch Kennedy Space Center Hurricane Season

More information

OCN 201: Coastal Erosion and Beach Loss

OCN 201: Coastal Erosion and Beach Loss OCN 201: Coastal Erosion and Beach Loss This lecture was prepared from slides and notes kindly provided by: Prof. Chip Fletcher Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii Chip Fletcher

More information

Investigations and Recommendations for Solutions to the Beach Erosion Problems in the City of Herzliya, Israel

Investigations and Recommendations for Solutions to the Beach Erosion Problems in the City of Herzliya, Israel Investigations and Recommendations for Solutions to the Beach Erosion Problems in the City of Herzliya, Israel Site Inspection Performed 30 April to 6 May 2007 Prepared for: City of Herzliya Office of

More information

DELAWARE S VULNERABLE COASTAL AREAS. DELAWARE INLAND BAYS and DELAWARE BAY RECONNAISSANCE STUDY

DELAWARE S VULNERABLE COASTAL AREAS. DELAWARE INLAND BAYS and DELAWARE BAY RECONNAISSANCE STUDY DELAWARE S VULNERABLE COASTAL AREAS and the DELAWARE INLAND BAYS and DELAWARE BAY RECONNAISSANCE STUDY Kimberly K. McKenna, PG Delaware Dept. of Natural Resources & Environmental Control Division of Watershed

More information

The Physical and Human Causes of Erosion. The Holderness Coast

The Physical and Human Causes of Erosion. The Holderness Coast The Physical and Human Causes of Erosion The Holderness Coast By The British Geographer Situation The Holderness coast is located on the east coast of England and is part of the East Riding of Yorkshire;

More information

5. MODELLING OF NEARSHORE PROFILE DEVELOPMENT 5.1. INTRODUCTION

5. MODELLING OF NEARSHORE PROFILE DEVELOPMENT 5.1. INTRODUCTION 5. MODELLING OF NEARSHORE PROFILE DEVELOPMENT 5.. INTRODUCTION Morphodynamic coastal profile models are commonly used for hind- and forecasting studies of nearshore bathymetry, often in response to human

More information

STUDIES ON THE TRANQUILITY INSIDE THE GOPALPUR PORT

STUDIES ON THE TRANQUILITY INSIDE THE GOPALPUR PORT STUDIES ON THE TRANQUILITY INSIDE THE GOPALPUR PORT INTRODUCTION Sundar. V 1, Sannasiraj. S. A 2 and John Ashlin. S 3 Gopalpur port is an artificial harbor located in Odisha state. The geographical location

More information

Beach, dune and development in the Borough of Mantoloking as of January Prepared for The Borough of Mantoloking: April 2, 2008

Beach, dune and development in the Borough of Mantoloking as of January Prepared for The Borough of Mantoloking: April 2, 2008 Summary of 20-years of Shoreline Monitoring Between Maryland Avenue, Point Pleasant Beach, Bay Head, Mantoloking, Brick Township, to 1 st Avenue in Normandy Beach, Ocean County, New Jersey & an Evaluation

More information