Legal, scientific and engineering aspects of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Poland

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1 Gdańsk, March 21 st 2013 Legal, scientific and engineering aspects of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Poland Rafał Ostrowski Institute of Hydro-Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IBW PAN) 7 Kościerska, Gdańsk (wwwibwpangdapl) 1 Introduction 2 Legal and organizational bases 3 Research at IBW PAN 4 Sea shore protection against erosion 5 Conclusions

2 Shore erosion in Lubiatowo, Poland (October 2009)

3 Maritime Office in Słupsk Maritime Office in Gdynia Maritime Office in Szczecin Erosive and flooding threats on Polish coast

4 Actors in the Polish coastal engineering and research Ministry of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy: Maritime Offices (in Gdynia, Słupsk and Szczecin) research-developmental units, eg the Maritime Institute in Gdańsk Other parties: local authorities, consulting companies, design offices Ministry of Science and Higher Education: Universities, eg Gdańsk Univ of Technology, Univ of Gdańsk, University of Szczecin Institutes of the Polish Academy of Sciences, eg Institute of Hydro-Engineering (IBW PAN) in Gdańsk, Institute of Oceanology (IO PAN) in Sopot

5 Act of Parliament of Republic of Poland (28 March 2003) on establishment of long-term Coastal Protection Programme protection of sea coast against erosion funded from governmental budget implementation in stabilization of shoreline position according to configuration in year 2000 and prevention of beach loss monitoring of the coast and research activities focused on determination of current condition of the coast in order to indicate necessary measures aimed at the rescue of sea coast responsibility for supervision (Ministry) and implementation (Maritime Offices) allocation of funds determination of protective methods (beach fills, modernization of shore protection structures, erection of new structures, cliff drainage) distribution of awarded funds along the coast Governmental Directive (29 April 2003) on determination of the width of the coastal technical/protective belt definition of the technical belt width for shore segments a) with dunes b) with cliffs c) without dunes or cliffs d) built up by coastal structures

6 WIND DEEP-WATER ( OFFSHORE) WAVES WAVE TRANSFORMATION WAVE-DRIVEN CURRENTS WAVE- CURRENT NEARBED VELOCITIES BED SHEAR STRESS SEDIMENT MOTION SEA BED CHANGES DISPLACEMENT OF SHORELINE General scheme of a deterministic modelling system

7 Processes affecting waves during propagation from deep water to shoreline: shoaling and refraction diffraction reflection dissipation due to friction dissipation due to percolation dissipation due to breaking additional growth due to wind wave-current interaction wave-wave interactions wave run-up

8 L>10 h (20 h) 2 h < L < 10h L» 2h»2h o wave run-up region surf zone wave breaking shoaling refraction and diffraction deep-water waves 000 h o > L 2 R r R s Wave transformation in the coastal zone

9 dune shoreline wave breaking beach rip currents longshore current return flow (undertow) h o Main types of nearshore (wave-driven) currents in non-tidal seas

10 z u(z,t) 0 z b c(z,t) u 0 u b cb c 0 =032 c m convective and suspended load diffusive process c contact load collisions + turbulence bedload grain-grain interactions (collisions + Coulomb friction) Three-layer sediment transport model

11 RUSSIA B A L T I C S E A USTKA CRS LUBIATOWO LEBA WLADYSLAWOWO HEL Gulf of Gdansk GDANSK (IBW PAN) FINLAND Pomeranian Bay KOLOBRZEG SWINOUJSCIE NORWAY Location of the Polish coast and the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station (CRS) at Lubiatowo in the south Baltic Sea DENMARK GERMANY SWEDEN Pomeranian Gulf ESTONIA LATVIA LITHUANIA RUSSIA BELARUS P O L A N D B A L T I C S E A

12 Shape of measuring profile at CRS Lubiatowo with typical layout of equipment

13 Mooring scheme of wave buoy Directional Waverider

14 Installation of wave buoy Directional Waverider

15 12 H r m s 0 = m, T p = 6 1 s, Q 0 = 2 0 o 12 H r m s 0 = 1 2 m, T p = 6 3 s, Q 0 = 2 5 o H r m s 0 [ m ] H r m s 0 [ m ] x [ m ] x [ m ] 0 r e t u r n f l o w s u r f z o n e ( A ) b e y o n d s u r f z o n e ( B ) 0 0 r e t u r n f l o w s u r f z o n e ( A ) b e y o n d s u r f z o n e ( B ) z [ m ] z [ m ] U [ m / s ] U [ m / s ] U [ m / s ] U [ m / s ] h [ m ] d e p t h p r o f i l e A B x [ m ] f o r c o n s t a n t e d d y v i s c o s i t y f o r l i n e a r l y d e p t h - v a r i a b l e e d d y v i s c o s i t y m e a s u r e d v a l u e s Wave height and undertow velocities (CRS Lubiatowo)

16 longshore velocity [m/s] cross-shore velocity [m/s] distance from bottom z=04 m z=24 m date distance from bottom z=04 m z=24 m date Time-averaged velocities of cross-shore and longshore currents measured in water column 200 m from the shoreline (water depth of m) at CRS Lubiatowo in 2006

17 velocity [m/s] 10 longshore current cross-shore current date Time-averaged nearshore shallow-water (at depth of m) velocities of cross-shore and longshore currents measured at CRS Lubiatowo in 2006

18 Types and locations of shore protection structures

19 B A L T I C S E A USTKA CRS LUBIATOWO ŁEBA ROZEWIE - JASTRZĘBIA GDYNIA GÓRA WŁADYSLAWOWO HEL GDAŃSK ( I B W P A N ) Gulf of Gdansk Pomeranian Bay KOŁOBRZEG ŚWINOUJŚCIE SZCZECIN

20 scale : :1 concrete stones f m 40 cliff fascine stones 50 fascine Cross-section of seawall at Rozewie (Poland), as designed and constructed in beginning of 20th century

21 Eroded and protected cliff at Rozewie, Poland

22 Cliff protection at Jastrzębia Góra (continued) Gabion structures (stones in boxes made of steel wire) at Jastrzębia Góra, 2000

23 Cliff protection at Jastrzębia Góra, Poland (2003)

24 Lee-side erosion beside shore segment protected by revetment (Jastrzębia Góra, 2003)

25 Beach disappearance in Jastrzębia Góra, 2008

26 buried pipeline Technological possibilities of artificial nourishment

27 Main options of artificial beach nourishment

28 Activation of old groins after hydraulic nourishment of foreshore at Hel Peninsula, Poland

29 Direct beach nourishment

30 Artificial beach nourishment at Hel Peninsula

31 Beach profiling by use of bulldozers

32 Artificial sandy beach at Hel Peninsula, Poland

33 B A L T I C S E A USTKA CRS LUBIATOWO LEBA ŁEBA GDYNIA WŁADYSŁAWOWO & HEL PENINSULA HEL GDANSK GDAŃSK ( I B W P A N ) Gulf of Gdansk Gdańsk Pomeranian Bay KOLOBRZEG KOŁOBRZEG SWINOUJSCIE ŚWINOUJŚCIE SZCZECIN

34 Wladyslawowo harbour (Poland): accretion on west side (bottom), lee side protected by groins and beach fills (top left hand side)

35 Sand trap at Władysławowo harbour

36 Failure of breakwater armour made of tetrapods

37 Reconstruction of armour at Władysławowo harbour breakwater in September 2003

38 Bathymetry in front of Władysławowo harbour breakwater in 2003 representative bottom profile North breakwater 100 m points of bathymetric measurements

39 Wave transformation on seabed profiles of December 1996 and November 2003 for normal water level

40 Wave transformation on seabed profiles of December 1996 and November 2003 for storm surge +121 m

41 W K D ( S w r r H 3 1) 3 cot Dependence of the rubble element weight W on the design wave height H (Shore Protection Manual, Vol II)

42 Sea level H [m] Mass* [kg] Extreme 20-year storm surge (+121 m) 465 ~8000 Extreme 20-year storm surge + anticipated sea level rise by 03 m (+151 m) Extreme 20-year storm surge + anticipated sea level rise by 06 m (181 m) 476 ~ ~9250 * originally designed as 5000 kg Inclusion of climate change effects in the design procedure

43 Reconstructed breakwater (2008)

44 + 40 m 1 : m 1 : m recommended profile of beach and dune + 15 m 1 : 20 existing cross-shore profile Profile of artificial dune and beach recommended for the south Baltic coast

45 Gabion revetment built into artificial dune

46 I wind direction S EA fascine fence L A ND III II new fence beginning of dune formation old fence IV new fence old fence Growth of dunes due to eolian processes around fences

47 Fascine material (wooden sticks) prepared for construction of fences

48 Sand accumulation fence at foot of dune plus dune slope protected by tree branches

49 Three rows of sand accumulation fences, the newest on the right hand side

50 Grass planted to keep sand on the dune

51 Leymus arenarius

52 Ammophila arenaria

53 Dunes overgrown by young trees (silver birches and Scots pines)

54 Conclusions legal regulations (allocated money, defined areas) preferences for environment-friendly measures ( soft engineering, eg beach and dune nourishment by sand, bio-technical protection of dunes) monitoring assessment studies (climate change issues considered) fundamental research

55 Thank you for attention

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