# Chapter 11 Waves. Waves transport energy without transporting matter. The intensity is the average power per unit area. It is measured in W/m 2.

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1 Chapter 11 Waves Energy can be transported by particles or waves A wave is characterized as some sort of disturbance that travels away from a source. The key difference between particles and waves is a wave can transmit energy from one point to another without transporting any matter between the two points. Waves transport energy without transporting matter. The intensity is the average power per unit area. It is measured in W/m 2. P I A As you move away from the source, the intensity drops off P P I 2 A 4r Two types of waves Transverse the motion of the particle in the medium are perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. (wave in string, electromagnetic) Longitudinal the motion of the particles in the medium are along the same line as the direction of the wave. (sound)

2 In a sound wave, there are Compressions Regions where air is slightly more dense than usual. Rarefactions Regions where the air is slightly less dense than usual. Some waves can have both transverse and longitudinal behavior. Water waves for example. For a wave on a string, the speed of the wave is v F F is the tension in the string and is the linear density of the string. The linear density is the total mass of the string divided by its length, m L We will find similar expressions for the speed of a wave. They always involve the square root of a fraction. The numerator of the fraction involves a restoring force and the denominator involves a measure of inertia. The particulars will be different for different types of waves or media. v Restoring Force Inertia The text summarizes the situation on the bottom of page 397: More restoring force makes faster waves; more inertia makes slower waves. The speed at which a wave propagates is not the same as the speed at which a particle in the medium moves. The speed of propagation of the wave v is the speed at which the pattern moves along the string in the x-direction. If the string is uniform, the speed v is constant. A point on the string vibrates up and down in the y-direction with a different speed that is not constant. Wave Parameters Period (T) While staring at a point in the wave, how long does it take for the wave to repeat itself.

3 Frequency (f) The number of times the wave repeats per unit time. The inverse of the period. Wavelength () While looking at a photograph of the wave, it is the distance along the wave where the pattern will repeat itself. Amplitude (A) The furthest from equilibrium for the wave. A hugely important relationship for waves is v f Since the speed of the wave is determined by the properties of the medium, it is impossible to change both the frequency and wavelength independently. A high frequency wave must have short wavelengths and a long wavelength wave must have a low frequency. In harmonic waves, the disturbance can be described by a sinusoidal function. For a harmonic wave on a string, every point on the string move in simple harmonic motion with the same amplitude and frequency, although different points reach their maximum displacements at different times. The maximum speed and maximum acceleration of a point along the wave are v m A and a m 2 A The larger the amplitude of the wave, the more energy it possesses. It can be shown that the intensity of a wave is proportional to the square of its amplitude.

4 Mathematical Description of a Wave For a harmonic (sinusoidal) wave traveling at speed v in the positive x direction (not pictured above!) Acos[ ( t x / v)] A useful animation for traveling waves: The equation can be rewritten as where the wavenumber, k is and Acos( t kx) 2 k v f k The argument of the cosine function, (t ± kx), is called the phase of the wave. Phase is measured in radians. The phase of a wave at a given point and at a moment of time tells us how far along that point is in the repeating pattern of its motion. If the phase of two points along the wave have phases that differ by 2n radians, where n is an integer, they move in the same way since cos( 2n ) cos Two points that satisfy this condition are said to be in phase. The phase of the wave tells us which direction the wave is travelling. Acos( t kx) describes a wave traveling in the +x direction and Acos( t kx) describes a wave traveling in the x direction. The properties of a wave can be understood better by graphing the wave.

5 Problem 25 A sine wave is traveling to the right on a cord. The lighter line in the figure represents the shape of the cord at t = 0; the darker line the shape of the cord at time t = 0.10 s. (Note that the horizontal and vertical scales are different.) What are (a) the amplitude and (b) the wavelength of the wave? (c) What is the speed of the wave? What are (d) the frequency and (e) the period of the wave? (a) The amplitude corresponds to the largest (or smallest value of y) A 2.6cm (b) The wavelength is the distance it takes for the pattern to repeat itself. Looking at peak to peak distance in the lighter plot 19.5m 5.5m 14m (c) The speed of the wave is the distance traveled divided by the time. Use the distance between the adjacent peaks on the lighter and darker plots, x v t 7.5m 5.5m 20m/s 0.10s (d) The frequency can be found from the speed and the wavelength, f v 20m/s 1.43Hz 14m (e) The period is the inverse of the frequency 1 T f Hz 0.70s

6 Superposition of Waves Suppose that two wave of the same type pass through the same region of space. Do they affect each other? Let s try a simple test, everyone start talking. Do other waves affect your wave? If the displacements in the wave are not too great, the disturbances do not effect each other and the waves pass through each other. Principle of Superposition - When two or more waves overlap, the net disturbance at any time is the sum of the individual disturbances due to each wave.

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