1 OCN 201: Coastal Erosion and Beach Loss This lecture was prepared from slides and notes kindly provided by: Prof. Chip Fletcher Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii Chip Fletcher shows what a meter of sea level rise by 2100 will look like along the Ala Wai Canal in Waikiki. (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 9/23/07)
2 Sea Level Summary Sea level is rising! Sea level fell from ~125 Ka to ~20 Ka due to ice buildup. Sea level has been rising for the past 20 Ka. Global sea level rose 17 ± 5 cm in the 20 th century, due to ocean warming and melting of glacial ice. Current rate is 3.6 ± 0.7 cm per decade: twice as fast and rising. There is a local effect of Hawaiian geology on sea level rise. 4 to 6 m higher than today
3 20th century ~1-2 mm/yr Since ~1990 ~3.4 mm/yr
4 The rate of global sea level rise has more than doubled from the average of the 20 th Century. 20 th century = mm/yr = 3.4 mm/yr = 3.75 mm/yr Beckley et al., 2007, TOPEX/Jason-1 altimetry, GRL, 34(14)
5 Why is sea level rising? Domingues et al., 2008, Nature Sea level (mm) Alpine glaciers Greenland and Antarctica Thermal expansion (shallow) Thermal expansion (deep) Water in reservoirs
6 Sea level is rising as Earth s s climate warms! ~7 in. (17 cm) in the 20 th century; faster in the future! IPCC 2007 Sea level is likely to rise 26 cm (10 inches) by 2050 and 55 cm (2 feet) by U.S. EPA U.S. EPA Northern lands are rebounding from the weight of the glacial ice sheets. Alaska is rebounding fastest.
7 Kauai Kauai Coastal erosion will only worsen with time. This issue will not go away! Future sea level rise may accelerate due to global warming. (IPCC 4th Assessment Report, 2007)
8 Global and Local Sea-Level Rise Every island has its own rate of sea-level rise. Downward push at hotspot causes upward bulge under Oahu. As the Pacific Plate moves, every island rides over the bulge causing uplift. The young Big Island is so heavy it bends the lithosphere.
9 Honolulu Star Bulletin, 9/23/07 The Drowning of Hawaii: Warmer waters. Melting ice caps. Disappearing glaciers. They are all expected to raise ocean levels by 39 inches in the next century, forever reshaping Hawaii. Oceanfront property in Honolulu, about the year 2100: McKinley High School The Blaisdell Center Iolani School Honolulu Stadium park in Moiliili
10 COURTESY UH-MANOA SCHOOL OF OCEAN AND EARTH SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Waikiki in the year 2100, after sea level rises 1 meter (39 inches) as predicted by leading climate scientists.
11 Vineyard Beretania Aloha Tower King A view of downtown Honolulu in 2100 when ocean levels are expected to be 1 meter (39 inches) higher.
12 Highest tide of Summer, 2008 (July 2)
13 Sunday, May 11, 1997 Oahu has lost 25% of its beaches over the past few decades! Maui has lost 30%!
14 Over 50% of Waikiki Beach is lost! Tourism supports over 60% of Hawaii s s jobs (35% directly), and 75% of income. As visitors see beaches disappearing, they won t t return!
15 An example of chronic coastal erosion: a 1970 s s condominium at Honokowai Point, West Maui
16 Sandy shorelines erode 150 increments for every 1 increment of sea-level rise. For a 0.24 m rise by 2050, beaches will recede 36 m (118 ft). Future shoreline
17 Seawalls here Lead to erosion here Erosion is caused by: W. Maui 1. Sea-level rise forcing shoreline retreat 2. Waves and currents moving sand 3. Human impacts to sand availability.
18 Boat ramp exposed Boat ramp buried Seasonal changes in waves can cause temporary erosion.
19 Summer vs. Winter Beach Profiles: in winter, beach sand is stored in offshore bar
20 Longshore Drift: movement of sand along the shore in response to a current along shore, that results from waves hitting the shore at an angle
21 4. Why ruin beaches when the highway and houses could be moved here? 1. Tradewinds drive longshore sand transport. Human Impacts: 1. Sand impoundment 2. Longshore trapping 3. End scour 4. Drainage channel dredging 5. Dune leveling/filling 6. Sand mining 2. Groin traps sand, new land is developed. 3. Accelerated erosion due to sand starvation ~9 ft /yr! = Poor Sand Management! Windward Oahu immediately north of Kualoa Beach Park
22 Beach sand was used as lime to fertilize sugar cane crops. Jump rock used to be buried in sand! Sand mining at Waimea Bay caused over 200 feet of erosion.
23 True or False: Beaches are naturally stable features of a coastline, and would not change at all if humans did not interfere with them. a) True b) False
24 But walls and lawns impound the sand!
25 This beach is eroding because the wall traps sand. Hardening Seawalls are constructed where there is erosion, but they do not solve the erosion, they simply protect the land without protecting the beach. This would be a wide beach without the wall.
26 Private rights vs. public rights Whose rights should prevail? The public owns the beach, but the landowner has the right to protect private land. Sand freed by erosion Sand impoundment
27 Armoring this shoreline will eventually impact the sand volume available for natural beach dynamics.
28 Homeowner trying to protect his land from erosion public beach is being destroyed to save private land. Is this fair to the public? Is it fair to stop the homeowner? Chronic coastal erosion is a statewide problem. More walls are built in response, saving the land but eliminating g the beach. (This house was built 100 from the shoreline!)
29 The main cause of coastal erosion in Hawaii is: a) sand mining. b) armoring of the coast by building sea walls. c) rising sea level. d) too much construction along the coast. e) failure of state and local government.
30 Reflected wave Sea wall Water quality suffers on armored shores: High turbulence from wave reflection Fleshy algal growth Septic discharge Tidal ecosystem heavily damaged.
31 Notice change in housing styles. Which is more appropriate on moving shores? Beach Loss 17 miles on Oahu 9 miles on Maui Beaches are 50-75% narrower in front of walls! Impacts Access to the ocean is lost. Marine ecosystem is damaged. Dune plants and ecosystem damaged. Cultural practices with ocean are lost. Tourism economy is impacted. Lanikai beach access path former beach extended beyond bottom of photo: two volley-ball courts wide in 1970 s!
32 Present setbacks do not offer adequate protection. Older lots are being subdivided. Development density continues to rise on all shores. Despite recommendations of many studies, shoreline management rules still fail to discriminate chronically eroding shores, and zoning ordinances make no allowance for long-term erosion trends and rates.
33 Beaches lie in a jurisdictional no-man man s s land! --Setback --Zoning State protects beach. County develops land.
34 Political problems can never be resolved, only managed. The way to manage them is through education, demonstration, information and leadership. Leadership can be displayed by involved citizens and active state and county government elect people who care about the environment!
35 Policy Development Avoid development of eroding lands. Discourage additional development in erosion hazard zones. Plan at the littoral level. Acquire high value coastal lands. Develop construction guidelines for hazard areas. Nourish eroding shores.
36 Five options for erosion management 1. Harden the shoreline beach loss, access decreased, environmental impacts 2. Control the erosion rate with sand fill and structures - expensive, community rejection of structures 3. Adapt human occupancy to accommodate erosion - difficult, impractical, requires new zoning 4. Abandon the shoreline impractical on heavily developed shores the beach - increasing costs with time, long-term sand mining impacts? 5. Restore the beach
37 Erosion Control: Kuhio Beach, Waikiki
39 Abandonment what criteria support abandoning the shoreline? (economics, environment, public use)
40 Beach restoration by sand nourishment is a world-wide wide tool in managing coastal erosion. Great Lakes Dredge and Dock Co.
42 Sand fields are found adjacent to most Hawaiian shorelines.
43 Is beach-grade sand abundant in offshore fields? Can offshore sand be sustainably mined with minimal environmental impact?
44 Small-Scale Beach Nourishment State Program General Permit: Designed to streamline permitting for 10,000yd 3 sand replenishment projects.
45 Demonstration project showed minimal impact: No turbidity Stable beach configuration ( yds 3 /ft) Community acceptance (20 ft increase)
46 Unfortunately, the largest and most immediate source of beach sand often lies under our homes and roads. This sand is released by erosion of the coastline.
47 Aloha, see you next time
48 Sea level on Oahu was much lower 10-20,000 yrs ago and then rose rapidly to a highstand of 1-2 m above present at about 3500 yrs BP, after which it gradually dropped to near present levels (Grossman and Fletcher, 1998).
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