Exemplar for Internal Assessment Resource Geography Level 3. Resource title: The Coastal Environment Kaikoura

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1 Exemplar for internal assessment resource Geography 3.5A for Achievement Standard Exemplar for Internal Assessment Resource Geography Level 3 Resource title: The Coastal Environment Kaikoura This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard Conduct geographic research with consultation Student and grade boundary specific exemplar The material has been gathered from student material specific to an A or B assessment resource. Date version published by Ministry of Education December 2012 To support internal assessment from 2013 This research activity focuses on coastal processes, but the setting differs from the one in the task. Crown 2012

2 Exemplar for internal assessment resource Geography 3.5A for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: Low Excellence To achieve this standard at Excellence the student needs to conduct comprehensive geographic research with consultation. This involves: critically analysing findings critically evaluating the research process by building on the detailed evaluation through a discussion of alternative research methods and their implications. The following are extracts only from the student response to illustrate both how the requirements for Excellence have been met and aspects that could be developed further. The analysis of wave action findings is detailed, clearly expressed and incorporates an extensive range of data. The analysis shows evidence expected of a critical analysis where irregularities and relationships are examined. On the day of the field trip the swell had decreased and this was reflected in the data collected, but could explain the occasional larger waves. These waves are big enough to break the threshold to be considered destructive waves. This lines up with the observations on the day that some of the waves were spilling and others were plunging. [A] The evaluation is detailed and discusses alternative methods and their implications. The response shows insight when the actual value of technical equipment is questioned for this particular research activity. Even though this would give use more accurate data it may not necessarily alter the final conclusions of our research. [B] The analysis would be a more convincing Excellence if it also included aspects of wave angle and longshore drift; each of which was included in the research, but not critically analysed. These two features would affect the beach profiles. The evaluation could have given specific evidence from the research to illustrate how the validity of the findings and or conclusion could have been affected. The sample contains extracts only from the student work that illustrate the comments above. Crown 2012

3 Student 1: Low Excellence Research aim: Is there a difference in the magnitude of wave action at either end of Bream Bay resulting in different beach profiles. The measurements of the waves at both Ruakaka and Waipu indicated that they were constructive. The average wave height at Ruakaka was 0.682m with a wave period of 7.2 seconds and frequency of per minute, a length of m, and an average steepness of The waves at Waipu at the southern end of the beach had an average height of m, a wave period of 6.92 seconds and a wave frequency of per minute, a deep water wave length of m and an average wave steepness of Over the days preceding the field trip a low pressure system passed over Northland generating a large swell. On the day of the field trip the swell had decreased and this was reflected in the data collected, but could explain the occasional larger waves. All these features fall within the range of what is considered a constructive wave. These are a wave frequency of usually 6-8 per minute, but are not often considered destructive until a frequency of greater than 21 per minute. Also wave steepness for a constructive wave tends to be less than These results are limited in the fact that not every wave was able to be measured due to their height extending beyond the capability of our equipment. It is estimated that there would have been 5 waves in this category per 3 minutes, and they were estimated to be over 2m at both locations. These waves are big enough to break the threshold to be considered destructive waves. This lines up with the observations on the day that some of the waves were spilling and others were plunging. [A]

4 Data collection was compromised as we were using 1m rulers to measure waves that exceeded this height. Consequently some of the results were estimated and this weakens the validity of our findings More accurate and specialized equipment such as bottom mounted measuring poles, wave buoys or an insitu sensor would have increased the accuracy of our data and the conclusions drawn. The insitu sensor is able to calculate the exact height of a wave. Even though this would give use more accurate data it may not necessarily alter the final conclusions of our research. The issue of tidal differences for each beach when we recorded data could have more significant issues and an alternative method would be two groups to carry out the same data collection at the same time at each site. The implications of this idea are the problems of human error and if slightly different techniques were used e.g. timing of waves etc. [B]

5 Exemplar for internal assessment resource Geography 3.5A for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: High Merit To achieve this standard at Merit the student needs to conduct in-depth geographic research with consultation. This involves: effectively presenting a map(s) and statistical and visual data analysing findings, in detail providing a conclusion(s), in detail, that relates to the aim of the research evaluating in detail the research process and how this affects the validity of the research findings and/or conclusions. This exemplifies a High Merit as the analysis contains significant relevant detail. Much of the analysis focused on the total area which supports the aim of the research. There are the beginnings of critical analysis, Focusing on wave height alone would not determine wave type as the data gathered sits in the middle of the two wave types and These figures lean toward being constructive waves, but are not definitive. [A] The evaluation is in detail, covering a range of strengths and weaknesses including specific evidence of how the weaknesses could impact on the findings and conclusions. This affects the validity of the research findings as the data indicated that the waves were constructive. Even though other aspects of the field work indicated this was highly likely accurate data could contradict this. The student identifies methods that could improve the research process. [B] To improve to Excellence the student needed to develop the critical analysis further. To achieve this, the idea of inconsistency of wave height data could have been elaborated on and explanation suggested for the difference in long shore drift data. The evaluation needed to discuss the alternative technique such as using GPS and the implication of this equipment. The sample is part of the response that illustrates the comments above. Crown 2012

6 Student 2: High Merit Aim: Are the major processes at Bream Bay erosional or depositional? Constructive waves typically have a steepness less than and destructive over The waves found at Waipu Cove and Ruakaka have a wave steepness of and This definitely puts these waves within the range of a constructive waves. Waipu Cove S=wave height/wave length S=0.7375/87.75 S= Another characteristic of constructive wave is a low frequency, ranging between 6-8/ minute. The waves at Bream Bay had a frequency between 8-9/minute. This is again in the range of constructive waves. Wave height and wave length are also indicators what type of waves they are. The average height of the waves at Bream Bay varies between 0.2 and 1.4 metres and have an average wave height of 0.73 metres. Focusing on wave height alone would not determine wave type as the data gathered sits in the middle of the two wave types. Destructive waves typically have a wave height of >1 metre and constructive waves can be as low as 0.2 metres. Looking at the wave length is another way to determine what type of waves are present. From looking at the wave height alone it would be very difficult to decide if the waves were constructive or destructive as the wave height data was not totally reliable with larger waves only estimated. The two beaches we investigated had a wave length of 87 and 68 metres. These figures lean toward being constructive waves, but are not definitive. By looking at the longshore shore drift figures they give us an idea how much sediment get transported along the beach. At the two beaches that we investigated the average longshore drift was 16 and 39 metres respectively. This shows that the beaches had high amounts of energy due to the large distance that the sediment travels Looking at the beach profile it further enforces that the waves that were present were constructive waves. It shows that the shoreline is has a fairly gentle slope, which is a characteristic of constructive waves being present [A]

7 Evaluation; Data collection was limited due to the equipment we used. The waves measured at both beaches indicated that the waves were constructive The data however could be an underestimation because every wave was not measured. Some because heights of the previous waves were still being figured out when the next occurred or some waves were too big to be measured and estimating was inaccurate. The range at Ruakaka was 0.35m 1.1m, but some of the missed waves could have been greater than 1.5m and maybe even 2m high. The range at Waipu was 0.2m 1m+. the 1m+ could represent any number over 1m, but for purposes of the investigation I felt it better to use the data as 1m in the calculations, knowing it was an underestimation rather than guessing a random height over 1m. The heights of the missed waves at Waipu would have been in the range of 1.5m greater than 2m. This affects the validity of the research findings as the data indicated that the waves were constructive. Even though other aspects of the field work indicated this was highly likely accurate data could contradict this. The conclusions could also be affected as they lead to assumptions being made that cannot be proven The method of measuring longshore drift could have been improved. The measuring poles were lined up on the beach rather than in the water. This meant there was potential error in the positioning of the poles There were some significant weaknesses of the collection of data which could be remedied with more technical equipment such as GPS for measuring longshore drift. The strengths of the research process was that similar data collection methods were used at each site allowing for direct comparison of data. All data collected was relevant to the research aim due to the comprehensive planning prior to the trip. Supporting secondary data was useful such as the weather reports for the days prior to the trip and theory on wave action [B]

8 Exemplar for internal assessment resource Geography 3.5A for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: Low Merit The student has met the requirements of an in-depth geographic research. The planning was thorough as shown in Student 4, some effectively presented data, detailed conclusions relating to the aim and an evaluation of the research process. A map, statistical and visual data were effectively presented. Locating the statistical evidence with the profile provides for ease of analysis and combining the profile shows visual comparison of both sites. [A] The analysis makes good use of statistical evidence and accurately reflects the presented data, The gradient of the beach is steeper at Ruakaka reaching 6 metres in height less than 70 metres [B] To be a more convincing Merit: More specific detail is needed throughout to convincingly achieve at this level. As well as selected data compared there could be overview pages for each site showing data for the key processes at each location, especially as location influenced the processes. The analysis extract was the strongest provided by the student. The analysis of wave and wind data needed to show the same application of data. The sample contains extracts only from the student work that illustrate the comments above. Crown 2012

9 Student 3: Low Merit Graphing Ruakaka Beach Waipu Cove Length Height Length Height The profiles were supported with photographs and a map showing where the measurements were taken. [A]

10 The beach profiles are similar but the two profiles show subtle differences when displayed together. The gradient of the beach is steeper at Ruakaka reaching 6 metres in height less than 70 metres from the shore line, whereas Waipu Cove beach did not reach a height of 6 metres until over 80 metres from the shore line. The foredune at Ruakaka is more evenly sloping and reaches a final height of 6.0m. Waipu Cove beach shows a distinct change in slope after a gentle beach rising 3 metres to reach a final height of just over 7 metres. The foredune is considerably steeper. [B]

11 Exemplar for internal assessment resource Geography 3.5A for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: High Achieved To achieve this standard the student needs to conduct geographic research with consultation. This involves: identifying the aim of the research planning the research collecting and recording data relevant to the aim of the research presenting a map(s) and statistical and/or visual data analysing findings providing a conclusion(s) that relates to the aim of the research providing an evaluation of the research process, and how this affects the validity of the research findings. This is a High Achieved response as the planning is thorough and provides detail demonstrating that the student clearly understands the relevant research techniques. Effective planning is essential as a platform for sound research. To research this question these processes will need to be identified by first analysing the wave movements, water currents, wind movements, dune vegetation growth, a weather reports, and any human adjustments made to the locations. [A] Presented data included a map, photographs, graphs and profiles. The analysis of the profiles is indicative of the analysis for most of the presented data. Some detail is provided and both study areas are compared and appropriate geographic terminology is used. [B] The conclusion relates to the aim of the research providing broad summary statements for the analysed data. [C] To meet the requirements for Merit: The presented data could have been more effectively presented by locating comparative data together e.g. combining the profiles using the same scale. The analysis of data needed to use more of the collected statistical evidence and could have referred directly to the profile. This could have been achieved by annotating the profile. The conclusion, while clearly summing up the analysis, would be more effective if the aim was examined more holistically rather than addressing each section of the analysis The sample contains extracts only from the student work that illustrate the comments above. Crown 2012

12 Student 4: High Achieved Research question: How has erosion affected R. Beach and W. Bay? Different processes on a beach can erode, deposit, or create an equilibrium and to research this question these processes will need to be identified by first analysing the wave movements, water currents, wind movements, dune vegetation growth, a weather reports, and any human adjustments made to the locations. At Ruakaka Beach and Waipu Bay we will collect wave heights, number of waves per every three minutes, and angle to the shoreline, and from this data we will then be able to calculate the waves period and length. We will also collect the wind speed, the water currents long-shore drift, a weather report, record any human modifications, and a beach profile at both locations To record the beach profile of both locations an inclinometer will be used to measure the angle from the top of the first marker pole to the second marker pole top while a third person uses a ruler to measure the distance between the two marker poles. [A] The beach profiles showed a number of subtle differences. At Waipu Cove the fore dune is very steep, while the beach face is a relatively gentle slope from the start of the measurement to the area that I decided was the Mean High Water Level, where the beach began to slope more steeply rising over 2.5 metres in just over 4 metres and where there was a small berm. At Ruakaka the beach has much less variation in

13 the angle of the slope. There is a more obvious berm and the beach face is much more steeply sloped. The fore dune is much less sloped and is not as high as the fore dune at Waipu Cove. [B] Conclusion Erosion has created distinct profiles at both sites. The beach profiles suggest that erosion has been more dominant at Waipu because of its very gradual increase in height up the beach until it gets to the foredune. At this point the gradient increases as a result of the beach between the foredune and the waters edge being eroded by waves and creating an almost flat gradient Coastal erosion by both the waves and wind have formed a cliff like front of the dune clearly showing how erosion processes have affected this feature. [C]

14 Exemplar for internal assessment resource Geography 3.5A for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: Low Achieved The student has met the requirements of the standard by conducting geographic research, gathering and presenting primary data, analysing the data to reach conclusions and evaluating the research process. Understanding the components of geographic research and the context are evident. The report was considered at low Achievement due to limited amount of data processed. Despite collated data for two profiles only one was drawn. A map showed the general location of the beach and relevant photographs were presented. [A] The analysis was based on the profile, collected photographs and wave data, with some relevant comments made This suggests that neither constructive wave action nor long term destructive wave action [B] The conclusions are related to the research aims and linked to the data and photographs My hypothesis/research question stated that the Bream Bay coastal environment was in dynamic equilibrium. Relevant terminology shows understanding of beach processes and the features they produce. Longshore drift aids in the process of accretion through the interaction between waves, wind and beach sediment [C] In order to reach a clear achievement: More of the collected data could be presented, especially the wave data as it was significant to the aim of the research The profile needed a complete title to identify which beach it was and the map needed more detail, specifically the location of the two data collection sites and other relevant features. The analysis needed to use specific data, or the photographs could have been annotated to clearly provide evidence. The conclusion could have included a statement explaining the concepts of dynamic equilibrium. Dynamic equilibrium could have been used as the focus for the conclusion rather than approaching it as a series of summaries of the findings. The sample is part of the response that illustrates the comments above. Crown 2012

15 Student 5: Low Achieved Aim: Is Bream Bay in dynamic equilibrium? Waipu Cove Length Height Ruakaka Beach Length Height A map and photographs completed the data. [A] Analysis Beach profile: There is virtually no large berm, besides a relatively small one at the front or the dune face. The beach profile is relatively wide and flat, rather than steep and narrow. This suggests that neither constructive wave action nor long term destructive wave action has been occurring in the

16 recent past. A small amount of deposition seems to be occurring at the foredune with the small berm. Wave action: Both wave periods lead to the assumption that they are constructive waves. Waipu Cove has a slightly higher wave height than Ruakaka, however, this is not clear enough to make a conclusion. Photo: the upper part of the dune here shows sand particles that have been swept up from the beach from Aeolian forces accumulating on the windward side of the plants, aiding in dune formation. This is some sort of evidence for dune building, rather than erosion. [B] Conclusion My hypothesis/research question stated that the Bream Bay coastal environment was in dynamic equilibrium. Before obtaining the data on a relatively fine day, the low pressure system that dominated the east coast during the earlier weekend created stormy weather conditions. The resulting waves would have been destructive and would significantly erode berms that would have formed on the beach under the influence of constructive waves. When waves break and swash rushes up the berm face, some water is normally lost by percolation into the sand. Heavy rain associated with the depression may cause runoff from the land such that the backwash is greater than swash, increasing erosion Waves are stronger and more concentrated at the headland. They attack the headland slowly eroding the rock. The headland exists due to the harder rock that reduces the rate of erosion Longshore drift aids in the process of accretion through the interaction between waves, wind and beach sediment Human factors were also discussed. All these factors seem to support my research question that bream bay may be in constant dynamic change, or is it in dynamic equilibrium. [C]

17 Exemplar for internal assessment resource Geography 3.5A for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: High Not Achieved This sample shows that some of the evidence is at or nearly reaching the standard, but there is insufficient quality overall. The planning is very simplistic, the aim is clear and indicates that the student identifies key data needed, but there is no evidence as to the field techniques to be used. [A] A range of presentation methods were used including a map, photographs and a beach profile. Some pieces of presented data lacked basic conventions e.g. scale on the profile. Two profiles have been combined for comparison, but this is not actually required by the students research aim. [B] The analysis of some of the presented data shows some relevance to the aim, but little use is made of the collected data. Wind erosion in clearly evident planted grasses on the dunes to reduce erosion [C] To meet the standard: A more detailed research plan would be beneficial, as this would have provided some structure to the research process and kept the focus on the aim. Basic geographic conventions on presented data must be used and is expected at this level. The analysis of the findings needed to directly link to the data and be supported with evidence. Use of the data is needed to justify discussion points, without this much of the analysis is circumstantial. Geographic terminology is expected at this level. The sample contains extracts only from the student work that illustrate the comments above. Crown 2012

18 Student 6: High Not Achieved Planning: I will investigate the following research question: Is erosion a problem and if so what methods have been used to stop it at Bream Bay? The data that is needed to answer this question? First it is necessary to identify what is causing the erosion and secondly methods to stop it. 1. I will measure wave action to see if it is destructive. 2. Measure wind to see if it can affect the dunes. 3. Examine techniques currently used and look for evidence that erosion is occurring. Presenting data: A location map, Beach profile and photographs. [A] A map and photographs were included. [B]

19 Analysis Wind erosion is the erosion of sediment due to prevailing winds loosening sediment/san and moving it, this can be by the process of saltation or soil creep. This is responsible for building of dunes. The shape of the dunes in the profile, show the impact of wind erosion and the formation of parallel dunes. Wind erosion is clearly evident around the car park People have planted grasses on the dunes to reduce erosion and built walkways to prevent people walking on fragile dunes, loosening sand and damaging the plants Dune vegetation is an important part of the ecological up-keep of the dunes. Grasses trap the sand and stabilize the sand The shape of the beach profile is evidence that erosion is taking place. [C]

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