Ocean Motion Notes. Chapter 13 & 14

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1 Ocean Motion Notes Chapter 13 & 14

2 What is a Wave? Wave: movement of energy through a body of water

3 How are Waves Caused? Caused mostly by wind Wind blowing on the water transmits energy to the water

4 Size of Wave Depends on the strength of the wind Depends on the length of time wind blows Depends on the distance over which wind blows

5 Wave Energy Energy moves toward the shore but water does not

6 Water Motion Surface Circular motion Deep Smaller circles Very deep No motion (Waves)

7

8 Characteristics of Waves Wavelength: horizontal distance between crests Long wavelength (rolling)

9 Classification of Waves Short wavelength (choppy)

10 Characteristic of Waves Crest: the highest point of the wave Trough: the lowest point of the wave

11 Characteristic of Waves Wave Height: the vertical distance from the crest to the trough Frequency: the number of waves that pass a point in a certain amount of time.

12

13 Wave Action How waves change near the shore Breakers: White capped waves that crash onto shore

14 Wave Action Friction between ocean floor and water causes wave to slow down. Speed decreases, shape changes Wave height increases Wave length decreases

15

16 Wave Action Surf: Wave breaks onto the shore Undertow: Water rushes back to the ocean

17 Tsunamis Tsunamis: Caused by earthquake beneath (under) the ocean floor In deep water: No problem Wave length 200 km Wave height less than 1 meter

18 Tsunami Near shore HUGE Problem! Friction causes water to pile up Wave height 20 meters (5 stories)

19

20

21 How waves affect the shore Long shore drift: Water washes sand straight down the beach Sand creates a sandbar

22

23 How waves affect the shore Rip Currents: Water breaks through sand bar Water flows back to the ocean floor Very dangerous to swimmers

24

25 Waves and beach erosion Waves shape a beach by eroding the shore in some places and building up in others

26 Waves and beach erosion Barrier Beaches: Natural land form protects the shore line Runs parallel to the beach Waves strike barrier beach instead of shore line

27

28 Waves and beach erosion Sand Dunes: Wind blown sand makes beach more stable Plants help keep sand in place

29 Waves and beach erosion Groins: manmade wall of rock or concrete Sand build up against the wall

30 Tides Daily rise and fall of the Earth s ocean Caused by Gravity

31

32 Tides Spring Tide Neap Tide

33

34

35

36 Ocean Water Chemistry The Salty Ocean Salinity: How salty the ocean is The amount of dissolved salt in the water

37 Ocean Water Chemistry 35 grams of salt in 1 kilogram of Dissolved Salts 3.5% water Water 96.5%

38

39 Ocean Water Chemistry NaCl (Sodium Chloride) most abundant salt in the ocean NaCl Breaks down into Na ions and Cl ions

40 Variations in Salinity Lower near the surface of the ocean Lower near the mouth of large rivers Evaporation increases salinity (Ex. Dead sea) Higher near the poles

41 Effects of Salinity Ocean water does not freeze easily Seawater is more dense so it has greater buoyancy things float better in it

42 Other Ocean Properties Temperature Cold water is more dense so it sinks Warm water rises to the surface

43 Other Ocean Properties Gases CO 2 and O 2 CO 2 is more abundant than O 2

44 Other Ocean Properties Changes with Depth Decreasing Temperature As you go down (descend) temperature decreases

45 Changes with Depth Three zones Surface Zone (Warmest) Transition Zone Deep Zone

46

47

48 Changes with Depth Increasing Pressure As you go down in the ocean, pressure increases continuously

49 Changes with Depth Submersible- underwater vehicle built to resist pressure

50 The Ocean Floor

51 The Ocean Floor

52 Currents and Climate Surface Currents Affects water to a depth of several hundred meters Driven mainly by Wind

53 Currents & Climate Coriolis Effect: Since the earth is round, the wind curves Northern Hemisphere: Curve to the right Southern Hemisphere: Curve to the left

54

55 Currents & Climate Gulf Stream: Largest most powerful current

56 Effects on Climate Warm water from the equator to the poles Cold water from the poles goes toward the equator

57

58 Effects on Climate Surface current warms or cools the air above it Influences the climate of the land near the coast

59 Effects on Climate El Nino: Causes shifts in the weather patterns Can cause flooding

60

61 Deep currents move and mix water around the world. Deep currents carry cold water from the poles toward the equator Deep Currents

62 Deep Currents Salinity increases near the poles Increased Salinity Increased Density Cold water moves along the ocean floor

63 Deep Currents Surface currents carry warm water toward the poles. Affected by Coriolis Effect Currents curve around the world

64 Upwelling Upwelling: the movement of cold water upward from the deep ocean

65 Upwelling As winds blow away the warm surface water, cold water rises to replace it. Brings microorganisms and nutrients back to the surface

66 Conservation of Water in the world

67 Water Conservation in the world

68 Water Conservation at Home

69

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