2014 ANNUAL REPORT - TO THE CITY OF NORTH WILDWOOD ON THE CONDITION OF THE CITY BEACHES

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1 2014 ANNUAL REPORT - TO THE CITY OF NORTH WILDWOOD ON THE CONDITION OF THE CITY BEACHES View on September 25, 2014 looking northwest into Hereford Inlet. Considerable southerly expansion of the tip of Stone Harbor s beaches is shown in the distance extending only a few hundred feet from the North Wildwood rock revetment wall. The main channel can be seen as the linear darker-colored water running along the north end inlet beaches. The western portion of Champagne Island is exposed at the higher tide cycle and the distinct outline of the remainder of the island is visible just below the surface. (Aerial photo taken by Ted Kingston) PREPARED FOR: THE CITY OF NORTH WILDWOOD 901 ATLANTIC AVENUE NORTH WILDWOOD, NJ PREPARED BY: THE STOCKTON UNIVERSITY COASTAL RESEARCH CENTER 30 WILSON AVENUE PORT REPBULIC, NJ APRIL 30, 2015

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Engineered Beach Performance 1 Engineered Beach History 2 Oceanfront Beach Surveys 2 Figure 1 Location Map of six of the 54 profile stations 3 Figure 2 Digital Elevation Model 1-Month Post-Fill & 10-Month Post-Fill 4 Figure 3 Digital Elevation Model 5-Month Post-Fill & 10-Month Post-Fill 5 Figure 4 Digital Elevation Model April 2014 & November Individual Site Reviews 7 Figures 5-8 Site photograph and cross sections 8 Figures 9-12 Site photograph and cross sections 11 Figures Site photograph and cross sections 14 Figures Site photograph and cross sections 16 Figures Site photograph and cross sections 20 Figures Site photograph and cross sections 23 Summary 26 i

3 2014 ANNUAL REPORT - TO THE CITY OF NORTH WILDWOOD ON THE CONDITION OF THE CITY BEACHES Introduction: This annual report presents the status of the beaches within the City of North Wildwood for Following Hurricane Sandy the focus in 2013 was on restoration of the Jersey shore, its beaches and dunes. Local, State and Federal efforts have helped shore communities devastated by the storm recover and rebuild. In North Wildwood those efforts included a beach nourishment maintenance project to restore the engineered project beaches. Over the course of the last four years there has been five Presidential disaster declarations made for New Jersey s coast in response to three northeast storms and two hurricanes, starting with a strong northeaster November 11-13, 2009 to most recently Hurricane Sandy on October 29, Each of these presidential declarations has allowed the City to be eligible for FEMA reimbursement under Category G losses to an engineered beach project to share the cost of sand replacement following each storm event. Norfolk Dredging commenced beach nourishment efforts on June 12, 2013 and by July 2, 2013 had placed 150,530 cubic yards of sand in North Wildwood to restore the erosion caused by Sandy. In addition, natural recovery added to the placed sand totaling an amount of 283,285 cubic yards or 132,755 cubic yards of sand returned to the beach naturally above the volume placed during the restoration effort. The fall/winter was generally without major events though there were ten moderate wind events (>40 knots) that impacted eastern Cape May County and resulted in property damages (NOAA, 2015). The event that occurred on and around October 10, 2013 lasted 72 hours and generated 40+ knot onshore winds. This was the initial event on the list of storms that occurred between October 2013 and April A calmer weather pattern returned in late spring/summer Engineered Beach Performance: Norfolk Dredging commenced beach filling June 12, 2013 and by July 2, 2013 had placed 150,530 cubic yards at the south end and north end of the North Wildwood engineered beach. The region in between was at or above design template and required no action to restore. In addition, natural recovery added to the placed sand totaling an amount of 283,285 cubic yards to the beach and the dunes. This means that the North Wildwood engineered beach recovered over half the 519,853 cubic yards of sand lost since Irene from the 2009 design template that was created originally. The placement of sand plus the natural recovery has brought the beach back to just 236,578 cubic yards below the 1.4 million cubic yard initial sand volume placed in 2009 (83.1% of the initial fill). Much of this reduced volume is related to limits placed on the initial project beach extents. Regulatory agencies have curtailed further work along the Hereford Inlet portion of the initial project for endangered and threatened species reasons, plus the City of Wildwood had requested that the project end at some 762 feet less than the original project extent. This reduction in project extent reduced the sand quantity necessary to restore the full design template. Therefore, the re-defined North Wildwood beach project appeared to be near its revised design template as a result of both natural recovery and the sand placement volume calculated to restore the direct impacts of Hurricane Sandy. Unfortunately rapid erosion occurred during the fall likely related to the 72 hours of onshore winds in October. By November the beach berm widths and elevations were dramatically reduced and the seaward dune slope exposed to wave run up in the recent project areas. At the northend waves cut into the dune slope along the seaward dune toe leaving a modest scarp. In front of the southern piers a similar trend occurred that intensified north to south. At 21 st Street the dune remained stable and gained a veneer of sand but at 23 rd Street a 2-3 foot high scarp was cut and by 26 th Street the scarp increased to 6-7 feet as the seaward slope was cut landward to the crest. This erosion returned the beach to essentially its pre-sandy configuration. 1

4 Engineered Beach History: Included here is a brief description of the engineered beach timeline of events since construction in the fall of The initial beach nourishment project several years in development was co-sponsored by the City and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) started in fall 2009 and was just short of the completion of construction when it was interrupted by the November 2009 northeast storm. The dredging company, Great Lakes Dredge and Dock, Inc. (GLDD), was forced off the beach by the storm (the third in a nine-storm series) on November 11, 2009 with under 70,000 cubic yards of sand left to pump. That storm produced a US Presidential disaster declaration (DSR-NJ 1867) on December 22, This allowed the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to review the losses to the community including the new beach (covered under Category G loss to parks and recreation facilities). Since the project was funded initially by a cooperative agreement with the NJDEP (75% of cost) and the City (25% of cost), the project qualified for 75% of the cost to replace the sand lost to the storm as a recovery, when and if the City determined to restore the project. GLDD completed the initial 2009 fill project during the fall of 2009; placing 1,400,000 cubic yards (cy) of sand between a point 600 feet west along the Hereford Inlet shoreline eastward to 2 nd Avenue groin and south 600 feet into the City of Wildwood. That winter had a particularly active storm season and as a result, the northeast beaches suffered substantial erosion as sand from the inlet area was moved to the area south of 6 th Avenue. Another northeast storm in March 2010 removed an additional volume of sand impacting the southern end of the City (DR-NJ 1897). In the spring of 2010, the City of North Wildwood entered into a restoration/maintenance contract with GLDD to pump sand from the same borrow area and place some sand from 2 nd Avenue south to 6 th Avenue (the shoreline adjacent to Hereford Inlet and most affected by the storms). This work was partially funded by FEMA disaster relief money as a result of the two declared northeast storm events. Pumping resumed at 11 th Avenue and continued south to the City of Wildwood boundary. Data collected by GLDD showed that the northern section of the beach received 58,000 CY of sand while the area to the south received 406,000 CY for a total of 464,000 cubic yards. This work was completed by July 10, The El Nino phenomenon that dominated the winters strong northeast storm season abated and in the winter of there were fewer northeasters or significant storms. One of the more memorable storms that affected the Cape May County shoreline during the winter of was the Christmas Blizzard (Dec. 26 th ) which brought high winds and water levels and caused some beach erosion in parts of the county. Hurricane Irene made landfall in New Jersey on August 29, 2011the engineered beach lost 82,252 cubic yards of sand. In response to losses from Irene the city once again made a commitment to restore eroded sand from the engineered beach. The City under FEMA DR-NJ 4021 incorporated a claim for Category G reimbursement. During the spring of 2012 the city proceeded with a sand back-pass program to haul up to 96,000 cubic yards of sand from Wildwood Crest to the northern erosional zone between 2nd and 7th Avenues. Hurricane Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City on October 29, 2012 in North Wildwood the beach lost 153,000 cubic yards of sand. Norfolk Dredging commenced beach nourishment work on June 12, 2013 and by July 2, 2013 had placed 150,530 cubic yards of sand in North Wildwood. The project restored the beach to approximately 83% of the initial fill template volume. As such the project would again be eligible for FEMA reimbursement under Category G losses to an engineered beach project. Oceanfront Beach Surveys: The CRC surveyed shoreline changes at all 54 oceanfront profile stations three times in 2014 to depict annual and seasonal trends as well as document changes from the 2013 beach nourishment project. These surveying 2

5 activities continue a monitoring program that began in 2009 following the initial City/State beach restoration project. The profile stations are spaced 200-feet apart and were established to determine cumulative changes and performance of the beach restoration project. Figure 1 shows the locations of a few selected profile survey locations that were extracted from the 54 profile dataset: Lines 04+00; 20+00; 40+00; 52+00; 58+00; and These sites were chosen to show the range of performance changes across the project. The two northern sites document changes in the erosional zone, the middle two sites show that sand has been deposited in the mid-section, and the southern two sites cross the eroded dune system that surrounds the ends of the four piers south of 21 st Avenue. A discussion of the changes at each of these locations is provided in a later section of this report. The following is a list of the studies included in this report and the surveys: Survey 17 July 2013 Post-fill Survey 18 November 2013 Survey 20 April 2014 Survey 21 November Figure 1. Shown above are locations of six representative profile sites of the 54 profile stations where shoreline changes were measured on the City s oceanfront from July 2013 to November For each of the six profile stations descriptions and cross sections are provided to show typical changes over the year 3

6 Figure 2. A digital elevation model for the North Wildwood City shoreline. This elevation difference map of the North Wildwood City engineered beaches shows the change in elevations between July 2013 post-fill and April month post-fill surveys. The dark green area is concentrated around the northern jetty rocks extending northwest into the inlet. The reddish band that sweeps from end to end of the City s shoreline reveals the erosional hotspots at the northern and southern project reaches. A breakdown by regions of sand volume gains vs losses is include in the volume change table on the map. Cumulative volume losses for the this time period amounted to 269,350 cubic yards concentrated in front of the southern piers and between the 2 nd Avenue jetty and 6 th Avenue. 4

7 Figure 3. A digital elevation model for the North Wildwood City shoreline showing the conditions of the engineered beach between a point in time 5 months to 10 months following the 2013 project. Losses were concentrated in front of the southern piers as depicted in the darker red colors. Overall the beaches showed a loss of 126,090 cubic yards of sand for this time interval. The shades of color intensify with the magnitude of the change both positive and negative, with the yellow color showing regions with no change over the interval. 5

8 Figure 4. This map shows the elevation difference from the spring to fall surveys conducted by the CRC s land and boat survey crews in Regions of red show the areas of the greatest losses while greens are regions of elevation gains. A distinct scour hole is visible between the Atlantic and Central Avenue street ends on the North Wildwood inlet side as depicted by the dark red colors. The typically erosional zone in front of the southern piers has displayed gains for this study period (light green colors). Onshore between 6 th and 22 nd Avenues the beach was extremely stable. The overall volume change was a loss of 161,959 cubic yards of sand. Large volumes of sand have been added all around the 2 nd Avenue jetty area, formerly very erosional. 6

9 Individual Site Review: This section describes the shoreline and volume changes documented at selected profile locations to show general trends in sediment movement along the City s beaches for Beach volume and shoreline changes were calculated from July 2013 to November Site (between 3 rd and 4 th Avenues) The site is located in the northern portion of the island adjacent to Hereford Inlet 400 feet south of the 2 nd Avenue jetty. This area has typically been an erosional shoreline due to the proximity to the inlet and the impact from northeast storms. The beaches rapidly eroded following sand placement when Hurricane Sandy was followed by winter storm Saturn which flattened the remaining beach and dune to the street end revetment. During the 2013 restoration project to repair erosion caused by Sandy, Norfolk Dredging Company placed 83,022 cubic yards of sand in this region from the 2 nd Avenue jetty to approximately 6 th Avenue. Erosion occurred rapidly with a 3-foot high scarp cut into the beach berm on July 2, 2013 just as the project was completed. By November 11, 2013 just five months following construction the inlet tidal currents and wave climate combined to erode the project berm and the seaward slope of the dune. The site lost yds 3 /ft. of sand from the beach and dune with nearly 134 feet of shoreline retreat. The beach berm elevation decreased from 7 feet NAVD88 to barely 4 feet NAVD88 at the dune toe that resulted in a 2 foot high dune scarp in the seaward slope. Onshore the November 2013 beach configuration mimicked the October 2012 conditions except the dune system was lower in elevation (4 feet) and slightly landward. From November 2013 through November 2014 the survey line at and its surrounding areas remained relatively stable following the initial losses from the 2013 restoration project. Cumulative gains during this this period amounted to 6.39 yds 3 /ft. with a negligible loss in shoreline position (0.15 feet) recorded. Over the past year the inlet ebb-tidal flow has produced a substantial deposit of sand extending north into the inlet beyond the extent of the North Wildwood municipal development. Inlet surveys document a far shallower platform extending well over a thousand feet seaward at elevations ending at -6.0 feet elevation. The feature forms a submerged spit that could be walked at low tide to points 600 to 800 feet north of the jetty. These processes are likely related to the spectacular growth of South Point of Stone Harbor over 7,200 feet south in 18 months due to post-sandy and earlier beach nourishment projects. 7

10 Figure 5. View from 4th Avenue looking north taken on November 12, 2013 approximately 5 months following the 2013 maintenance project. The dune had been restored during the summer project with new fence installed on the seaward slope to capture aeolian sand and prevent foot traffic. The beach berm elevation has been lowered and the width landward nearly 200 feet following the project but the beach width prevented major dune erosion and allowed continued vehicle access to the beach at 2 nd Avenue. Figure 6. View from 5th Avenue looking north taken on April 23, 2014 approximately 10 months following the 2013 maintenance project. The dune and beachface remained stable over the winter months gaining 2 feet of shoreline and yds 3 /ft. between November 2013 and April

11 Figure 7. View from 5th Avenue looking north taken on November 7, 2014 displaying truckedin piles of sand at the seaward dunetoe. Nearshore bar gains had taken place since April 2014 while the dune and beachface remained stable. From November 2013 to November 2014 the shoreline remained virtually unchanged while below datum gains of 8.81 yds 3 /ft. were recorded. 9

12 Figure 8. The 2013 maintenance beach nourishment project (Survey 17) restored the dune to with a crest elevation of 16 feet NAVD88. A beach berm at elevation 7 feet NAVD88 extended seaward over 200 feet from the seaward dune toe. Unfortunately the fall wave climate and Hereford inlet tidal currents combined to erode the beach berm landward to the dune toe removing nearly 200 feet of recreational beach in 5 months (Survey 18). Following the fall 2013 survey the profile remained relatively stable gaining 6.39 yds 3 /ft. of material between Surveys 18 and

13 Site (between 9 th and 10 th Avenues) This site is located approximately 2,000 feet south of the inlet and has represented a transition zone (from erosion to deposition) in previous years. Hurricane Sandy had temporarily reversed this trend as the storms waves and surge severely eroded the beachface and recreational beach berm that reduced the overall dry beach width by 160 feet. The dune was unaffected by the storm due to the 400-foot wide beach attenuating the breaking waves and absorbing the energy before they reached the dunes. Despite the severe erosion the beach remained over 250 feet wide and supports recreational activities and continued to provide sufficient storm protection for the dune and oceanfront properties and infrastructure. The beach was still within the design template configuration parameters. As a result no sand was placed in this region during the 2013 maintenance project. Prior to this study interval, the profile site at benefited from downdrift material from the northern end of North Wildwood beaches advancing its shoreline position and recreational beach elevations. However, from November 2013 through November 2014 the survey line at and its surrounding areas were dominated by erosional processes. The berm, beachface, and nearshore regions had all lost material to the offshore. The shoreline position retreated 192 feet and yds 3 /ft. were lost from Survey 17 to Survey 21. Figure 9. View to the north taken from the berm at 12th Avenue on November 11, The beach width and elevation returned to its post-sandy configuration during the second half of No sand was placed here directly during the summer 2013 beach maintenance project but the site has benefited from cross-shore and longshore sediment transport at the time this photo was taken. The wide dry recreational beach berm provides substantial storm protection for the dune system. 11

14 Figure 10. View to the north taken from the berm at 13th Avenue on April 24, The berm, beachface, and seaward dune toe all have eroded since Survey 18. During this time the shoreline retreated 82 feet and cumulative losses amounted to yds 3 /ft. Figure 11. View to the north taken from the berm at 13th Avenue on November 10, The beachface, seaward dune toe, as well as the nearshore area continued to erode material offshore. For the November to November surveys the shoreline retreated 158 feet with sand volume losses of yds 3 /ft. recorded. 12

15 Figure 12. The beachface and nearshore regions were dominated by erosion following the summer months in Material continued to shift offshore beyond the survey limits of this profile. A marginal increase in the berm elevation was recorded by Survey 21 but its landward regression negates any positive impact for wave protection. Overall from Survey 18 to Survey 21 the shoreline retreated 158 feet at line

16 Site (17 th Ave.) Positioned 4,000 feet south of the 2 nd Avenue jetty, this site is located two blocks south of the lifeguard station in the mid-section of the City s oceanfront beaches. Following initial construction this region has remained relatively stable. The wide beach has protected the dune ridge, constructed during the initial project phase, from erosion through multiple storm events including Hurricanes Irene and Sandy. Waves and storm surge from Sandy and winter storm Saturn combined flattened the beachface slope and reduced the recreational beach berm width nearly 180 feet. Although the beach was severely eroded it absorbed the wave energy and effectively provided wave attenuation protecting the dune system, oceanfront properties and public infrastructure for wave damage during Sandy. Prior to Sandy the beach width extended seaward of the dune system approximately 575 feet. With nearly two thirds of the massive beach width or nearly 400 feet of dry beach still intact seaward of the dune following Sandy there was no need to place sand in this region during the 2013 maintenance project. This site continued to suffer modest erosion in the second half of 2013, the shoreline position retreated 42 feet with a loss of yds 3 /ft. of sand mostly stripped from the beachface slope during the fall of From November 2013 through November 2014 the survey line at and its surrounding areas remained relatively stable. By the spring 2014 survey a marginal scouring had taken place at the seaward dunetoe which remained through the subsequent survey. A landward repositioning of the offshore bar had taken place by the fall 2014 survey as well as nearshore elevation gains. From the fall 2013 to the fall 2014 survey interval the shoreline retreated 24 feet and minimal volume losses (10.30 yds 3 /ft.) were recorded. Figure 13. View to the north from the beach located near 18 th Avenue on April 25, The recreational beach berm width is massive extending seaward approximately 300 feet from the dune toe at between elevations 6-7 feet NAVD88. No sand was placed here during the 2013 beachfill project as the beach remained above the design template following Sandy and Saturn. 14

17 Figure 14. For the annual comparison (Survey 18 to Survey 20) the recreational beach and berm position remained relatively stable. Cumulative volume losses of yds 3 /ft. were recorded with a modest shoreline retreat of 24 feet. By April 2014 a scour pocket formed at the seaward dunetoe that remained in place through the final survey November 10 th. 15

18 Site (21 st Ave.) Several hundred feet of dry beach still protected the dune system at this location and to the north, to the south the beach width seaward of the dune was diminished significantly by the initial project design. Immediately south of this location, the engineered dune initially begun its seaward jog in its alignment from just seaward of the boardwalk to run seaward of the eastern ends of the southern piers. This was a requirement imposed by the NJDEP staff for coastal enforcement reasons not related to dune stability. Located just north of the northern fill taper of the pier section for the 2013 project this site did not receive sand directly but likely benefited from sand transport from the project area. By the end of June 2013 the beachface accumulated sand that expanded the beach berm width nearly 40 feet. Sand also filled in the nearshore scour trough cut by Sandy and Saturn over the summer and fall as sand moved longshore and cross-shore towards this beach. During the second half of 2013 the site gained a net yds 3 /ft. of sand added both onshore and nearshore as well as aeolian sand added to the seaward dune slope (Survey 18). The annual changes from November 8, 2013 to November 11, 2014 were still dominated by erosion along the recreational beach and beachface slope. For the year the net volume change was a loss of 8.94 yds 3 /ft. of sand with a moderate shoreline position retreat of 41 feet. Due to the width of the beach seaward of the dune windtransported sand was added to the dune s crest and portions of the seaward duneface throughout Figure 15. View to the south from the beach located near 22nd Avenue on April 25, This location did not receive any sand directly during the 2013 beachfill. Erosional processes prevailed in 2014 overall but the wider beach width seaward of the dune allowed for aeolian sand to be deposited at the dunecrest. 16

19 Figure 16. A close up view of the dune looking to the south from the dunetoe located near 22 nd Avenue on April 25, This feature is positioned far enough landward to capture wind-blown sand from the recreational beach and add protection to the boardwalk and surrounding infrastructure. 17

20 Figure 17. The recreational beach and beachface experienced an erosional trend overall during Aeolian accretion at the dunecrest and seaward dune face can be seen by Survey 18. For the November 2013 to November 2014 comparison the net volume change was a loss of 8.94 yds 3 /ft. of sand with a moderate shoreline position retreat of 41 feet. 18

21 Site (between 23 rd and 24 th Aves.) This site is located in the southern section of the City s oceanfront where the engineered dune system was originally constructed seaward of the piers. The seaward jog in the dune system has made them vulnerable to the spate of frequent storms since With limited beach width seaward of the feature to attenuate wave action and absorb the energy before impacting the seaward slope the feature suffered severe erosion. During Sandy the proximity of the dunes to the shoreline, made them no match for this event. Dunes were entirely washed away south of 22 nd Avenue and the beachface and berm flattened by the storm waves and surge. As a result of this damage the city imitated a beach maintenance project in 2013 to restore the engineered beach seaward of the piers. Norfolk dredging placed 67,508 cubic yards of sand in this region to rebuild the dune and beach to approximate design template. The dune was reconstructed to a crest elevation of 12 feet NAVD88 and approximately 100 feet wide at the toe. A recreational berm was built that extended over 100 feet seaward of the dune toe at elevation 6.75 feet NAVD88. Again rapid erosion followed the project and by the end of June 2013 a 2.5 foot high beach scarp was cut into the berm as the beachface retreated under the wave climate. Through fall 2014 erosion continued to cut away the beach berm and by November 11, 2013 the waves were impacting the seaward dune slope at higher tides that cut a 3 foot high scarp in the seaward dune slope. The berm retreated 140 feet and the elevation lowered 4 feet cutting away the seaward dune toe. Sand was also scoured from the nearshore slope by the fall wave climate that increased the depth by up to 5 feet. There was little evidence in the survey data to indicate sand was transferred offshore in large quantities. It is more likely that predominate currents and waves swept the sand south. As a result of these losses the second half survey showed a retreat in the shoreline position of 113 feet with the net loss of yds 3 /ft. of sand split fairly evenly between the onshore and nearshore regions of the profile. By the spring 2014 survey (April 25 th ) the dune had been eroded to a point where the City was forced to reposition this feature landward of the easternmost point of the piers. This allowed for a wider beach area seaward of the dune system to capture wind-blown sand transported to the duneface. From November 11, 2013 to November 11, 2014 the site lost 9.28 yds 3 /ft. ( yds 3 /ft. above the datum) of sand while the shoreline position was relatively stable retreating just 12 feet. 19

22 Figure 18. View to the north taken on June 26, 2013 from near 23 rd Avenue showing the 2013 beachfill in progress. Discharge pipeline is still on the beach while summer beach patrons enjoy the recently restored beach. A dune ridge was re-established with a row of dune fence installed along the seaward toe to limit cross-over and collect aeolian sand. No grass was planted on this new ridge as compared to the preexisting dune in the upper left distance where the dune grass begins. Figure 19. View to the north taken on November 11, 2014 near 24 th Avenue showing the extent of dune erosion and repositioning of the initial dune system landward of the eastern portion of the southern piers. By February 2014 the majority of the dune system had eroded due to the requirement that its position be constructed seaward of the piers. 20

23 Figure 20. Natural erosion of the constructed dune system forced the landward repositioning of this feature in early By the April 2014 survey there are no remnants of the original dune. The nearshore and offshore bars shifted landward by Survey 21 adding to the beach elevation. From November 11, 2013 to November 11, 2014 the site lost 9.28 yds 3 /ft. ( yds 3 /ft. above the datum) of sand while the shoreline position was relatively stable retreating 12 feet. 21

24 Site (between 25 th and 26 th Avenues) This is the southern-most cross section of the selected profiles within the larger database. Located seaward of the Surfside Pier and Ocean Oasis Water Park and Beach Club this site represents conditions at the south end engineered beach and taper near the Wildwood and North Wildwood border. Initially the engineered beach design template placed the dune feature 30 feet seaward of the pier s steel bulkhead. A series of storm events that followed construction in 2009 has resulted in multiply episodes of erosion followed by restoration efforts to maintain this section of dune. The beach seaward of the feature is narrow and prone to storm erosion. Hurricane Sandy struck the New Jersey shoreline following completion of restoration efforts to replace losses suffered during Hurricane Irene. A narrow lower elevation dune ridge was rebuilt with a modest beach berm to help protect the pier steel bulkhead from wave impact. Sandy s waves and storm surge flattened the beach and dune but the steel bulkhead held and protected the pier and water park from direct wave impact once the sand eroded under the fury of the storm. Again the 2013 maintenance restoration project placed 67,508 cubic yards of sand on the beach in this region. The restored dune was nearly 100 feet wide at the toe with a crest elevation of 12 NAVD 88. The beach berm extended seaward of the dune toe 100 feet at elevation 6 NAVD 88 that pushed the shoreline position seaward 125 feet with sand added to the nearshore slope. Unfortunately the fall ocean wave climate quickly eroded the new project beach. The berm was nearly completely removed and flattened that allowed wave propagation and higher tides to impact the seaward dune slope. By November 11, 2013 nearly half the dune was eroded leaving a 7-8 foot high scarp along the seaward dune crest. The beach berm elevation was reduced from 6-7 feet NAVD 88 to 2-4 feet NAVD 88 that continued to allow higher tides to reach the seaward dune slope. Like the profile at Line located to the north, by the spring 2014 survey (April 25 th ), the dune had been eroded to a point where the City was forced to reposition this feature landward of the easternmost point of the piers. This also allotted for a wider beach area configuration seaward of the dune system to capture aeolian sand transported to the duneface. From June 26, 2013 to November 11, 2014 the shoreline continued to retreat (156 feet overall). By the fall 2014 survey the offshore bar had shifted landward through cross-shore transport while cumulative volume losses of yds 3 /ft. were recorded for the annual comparison (November 2013 to November 2014). 22

25 Figure 21. View from near 26 th Avenue looking to the north along the newly established fence line on June 27, 2013 just following completion of the 2013 beachfill project from approximately where the dune crest at profile line location existed. The engineered beach width and elevation was re-established during the project along with a modest dune ridge. During the fall 2013 the wave climate again eroded the beach and dune. Figure 22. View to the north taken on November 23, 2013 from near 26 th Avenue showing the dune constructed seaward of the southern piers. A minimal beach width rendered this dune system extremely vulnerable to wave attack. 23

26 Figure 23. View to the north taken on April 28, 2014 from near 26 th Avenue showing the extent of dune erosion and repositioning of the initial dune system landward of the eastern-most portion of the southern piers. By February 2014 the majority of the dune system had eroded due the dune being constructed seaward of the piers. 24

27 Figure 24. The project beach and sand placed nearshore immediately began to erode as the fall wave climate driven by 72 hours of 30 knots plus onshore winds in October 2013 removed nearly the entire project beach berm by November Natural erosion of the constructed dune system forced the landward repositioning of this feature in early The shoreline continued to erode retreating 156 feet for the entire study period from June 2013 to November

28 Summary The 2009 beach restoration project was constructed to create an engineered beach, provide dune and shore stability and enhance storm protection for the City s eroding oceanfront shoreline. Regular monitoring has identified two erosional hotspots and a wide middle zone of sand accumulation. The shoreline at the piers showed itself to be unstable due to the NJDEP requirement that any dune be built seaward of the piers in a position far too close to the ocean. Erosion of the shoreline adjacent to Hereford Inlet is related to tidal current impacts on sand stability associated with the alignment of the main ebb-tidal channel in Hereford Inlet. While both of these sections have been erosional, the beaches located in central section of the engineered beach have fared significantly better since the initial construction, as the sand eroded from the northern project beaches is swept south, deposited along the municipal beach between 15 th and 22 nd Avenues. Sand from the erosional zone seaward of the pier is predominantly transported by storm waves south into the City of Wildwood although temporary seasonal reversals in sand transport occur. Norfolk Dredging commenced beach nourishment efforts on June 12, 2013 and by July 2, 2013 had placed 150,530 cubic yards in North Wildwood to restore the erosion caused by Hurricane Sandy. The project placed 83,022 cubic yards of sand on the beach between the 2 nd Avenue jetty and 6 th Avenue and 67,508 cubic yards between 22 nd Avenue and 26 th Street and restored the dune and beach width. Following completion of the project the fall wave climate driven by 72 hours of persistent 30 knot plus onshore winds generated around October 10, 2013 cut into the project beach and caused extensive beach erosion in the erosional hotspot regions recently restored. The engineered beach has performed as designed with the beaches and dune system absorbing wave energy and protecting the community during two hurricanes and several northeast storms that all resulted in storm disaster declarations following the initial construction in Wider beaches provide ample recreational space for summer beach patrons while enhancing storm preparedness and community resilience. Although the mid-section of the City s oceanfront shoreline has remained relatively stable the north and south ends continue to suffer erosion and require frequent re-nourishment to maintain the design dune and beach template. At the north end, inlet dynamics, orientation to the northeast and tidal flow exposes this region to near continuous erosional processes associated with its proximity to Hereford Inlet. In contrast the south end erosional concerns stem from the original engineered beach design concept to include the seaward pier ends within the sheltered protection of the dune system. To do so required a 250-foot seaward offset in the dune alignment. This re-alignment reduced the beach berm width seaward of the dune by 200 feet to accommodate the dune and still allow an access road seaward of the piers. The reduced beach width proved insufficient to absorb and attenuate the recent wave climate with the increased frequency of severe storm events. Once the beach erodes the dune system is exposed to direct wave assault. As a result the City has followed recent recommendations to restore the dune alignment in compliance with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) design template in the proposed federal project for the Wildwoods. This design shifted the dune landward about 250 feet under the piers that effectively increases the beach width seaward of the dune feature by the same amount. The additional beach width will protect the dune from frequent wave run up, reduce erosion and help enhance storm preparedness for the community. In addition intervals between required beach and dune maintenance should be extended thereby reducing the expense associated with frequent re-nourishment efforts in this region. Future problems may be moderated as tidal flow at the mouth of Hereford Inlet continue to move the inlet orientation back to the traditional channel position close to the North Wildwood development. This position 26

29 did result in massive investment in a rock revetment that now completely protects the upland properties from future loss. This channel configuration tends to drop ebb-tidally transported sand into the ocean directly seaward of the northern City oceanfront blocks. This acts to enhance the beach width and may ultimately restore the 1990 beach width of 1,300 feet at 15 th Avenue. This process is cyclic and has repeated previously in the early 1960 s as maps show. There is a good possibility of the final act of sand repositioning repeating yet again to the benefit of the City s oceanfront. 27

FINAL REPORT FOR 2011 ON THE CONDITION OF THE MUNICIPAL BEACHES IN THE CITY OF BRIGANTINE BEACH, ATLANTIC COUNTY, NEW JERSEY

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