# A simplified design method for plunge pools scour control downstream of large dam spillways, and its applications

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1 6 th International Congress on Scour & Erosion ICSE 6 - Paris - August 2012 A simplified design method for plunge pools scour control downstream of large dam spillways, and its applications Dr Etienne FROSSARD Technical Director - Dams & Hydropower CHOOSE EXPERTS, FIND PARTNERS

2 SCOPE 2 I- Introduction II Hydrodynamic rationales Flat bottom plunge pool Scour hole configuration III Applications in design Principles for basic design stages Example for a construction design IV - Conclusions

3 I- Introduction As a key concern for long term stability of downstream dam toes (eg Kariba), scour development process has been widely investigated since early times of dam engineering. 3 Reference state-of-the-art documents on the matter published over last 30 years (listed in the paper). The most up to date general methods require parameters delicate to get at early design stages. Simplified methods for basic design stages still needed, preferably on the side of lower resistance river beds.

4 II- Hydrodynamic rationales 4 For free falling plane water jets, final scour prediction given by numerous available empirical formulas (ref. list in paper). Key features of most of these formulas: - the final scour depth d appears essentially function of unit discharge q at impact, total head H, and others (river bed resistance); - most often unit discharge q is given more weight than the head H.

5 II- Hydrodynamic rationales Flat bottomed plunge pool Hydrodynamic actions exerted on bottom: - steady average dynamic pressure P due to deflection of flow lines; - instantaneous pressure fluctuations P(t), due to turbulence generated by motion; - erosion disintegration of bottom material due to fluctuating forces. Local instantaneous pressure on bottom: P(t) = gd + P+ P(t) Hydrodynamic data =>determination of d required to keep fluctuations below a given threshold. Definition of «Jet agressivity depth» = d required to avoid cavitation Resolution: 1/2 1/4 + «jet agressivity sector» d 1,4. q. H dp(t ) 5

6 II- Hydrodynamic rationales Scour hole configuration In case of pitting development on pool bottom, deviation of flow lines on bottom is becoming about 180 instead of 90 => steady average dynamic pressure term increased by a factor about 2. Assuming velocity diffusion fan and pressure fluctuation spectrum similar 6 Resolution of «Jet agressivity depth» = d required to avoid cavitation : d Scour hole d Flat Bottom. 2 then 2 d. q. H Scour hole 1/2 1/4 Compare to the still used empirical Veronese limit scour formula (1937) d 1, 9. q. H Scour 0,54 0,225

7 II- Hydrodynamic rationales 7 Four key comments on preceding results: - predict inherent instability of flat bottomed plunge pools in case of accidental pitting, as estimated «jet agressivity depths» are significantly greater for scour hole configuration: d d. 2 Scour hole Flat Bottom - coincidence with empirical Veronese limit formula provides global experimental basic support; - In the formula for «jet agressivity depth», the weight of unit discharge at impact q occurs to be twice the weight of head H: dscour hole 2. q. H => so for scour control it will be more efficient to try first to reduce q 1/2 1/4 - as proper resistance and strength of bottom materials are neglected, these simple hydrodynamic rationales are more appropriate for fragile soft rocks or movable granular river beds

8 III- Applications in design Principles For a given spillway problem, above rationales, together with aeration concerns, lead to: - organize the restitution by dividing total spilled discharge in various water jets more or less parallels, in narrow gorges better achieved by jets distributing water longitudinally; 8 - Use the concept of «jet agressivity sector» to organize the relative positioning of water jets at impact, by optimizing the distribution of total discharge within the different water jets.

9 III- Applications in design Principles 9 Restitution features to provide this kind of water jet longitudinal distribution: - either dispersion teeths (eg Aldeadavila spillway in Spain, or Karakaya spillway in Turkey); - or simpler «longitudinal distribution flip buckets», easy to handle at basic design stages;

10 III- Applications in design Example of implementation 7000 m 3 /s Gravity dam project 120m high in Algeria, with exceptionally difficult geological conditions revealed during foundations preparation => in-depth reconsideration of the whole project during construction. 10 a) Plan View b) Downstream view and transverse section

11 III- Applications in design Example of implementation 11 Final configuration of Koudiat-Acerdoune Dam in Algeria (7000m 3 /s spillway,120m high), commissioned in Photo Nicolas Vercellino Photo Nicolas Vercellino

12 IV - Conclusions 12 The method provides original simple design approaches to problems of scour control downstream of large dam spillways. More suitable for: - heavy discharges to be spilled in narrow valleys; - lower resistance river beds. Some of the key simplifying assumptions may be refined in future developments.

13 IV - Conclusions 13

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