# Chapter 9 Progress in Performance

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2 Chapter 9: Progress in Performance 149 Badminton notation This is a method of recording badminton using a system of symbols. Each stroke-move is recorded by a symbol. It is simple and logical, easy to learn and quite accurate. The advantages of notation It is a cheap and effective method of accurately recording a game. Each stroke-move is recorded as the game progresses. A complete and detailed record of a match is written down and can be studied immediately. This is a tremendous advantage compared with film, video tape or even sound recording. Even if it were possible to set up the equipment and meet the cost of such methods, it would still be necessary to record details on paper in order to examine and compare the situations and details of the game. It would be interesting, from the historical point of view, to be able to read a notated record of some of the great players of the game: perhaps to study Hartono and compare him with Kops or Wong Peng Soon; see the stroke-moves used in certain situations, the effect of pressure, the reaction to vital stages of the match, the tactics used against different styles of player. It would certainly be useful information for the serious student of the game. The purpose of notation How can this information be used? Basically the purpose is to gain information. There are many aspects of the game which are open to examination and analysis. Briefly, notation records a match and allows the following areas of a game to be recorded: 1. It records the detail in a game. 2. It shows clearly the patterns of play and the movement behaviour of a player during a match. 3. It shows the strengths and weaknesses of a player. 4. It attracts immediate attention to a weakness and shows clearly the type of situation which causes the weakness. 5. It shows the effect of motivation or lack of it on the choice of strokemoves. 6. It emphasises fatigue periods during a match. 7. It shows the effect of pressure on the stroke-moves used. 8. It shows clearly the movement behaviour of a player in situations of d i h You can gain an accurate insight into and a sound knowledge of the opponent's game. With this knowledge and insight you can work out appropriate tactics and take calculated risks in set situations. You can examine your game, identify your weaknesses and any particular set habits you may be developing. Finally, for the coach, it is of obvious advantage. It draws attention to a recurring weakness. It directs the coach towards those aspects of the game that require his attention. He obtains accurate information which enables him to plan his work accordingly. Above all, it teaches

3 Part Three: Playing the Game 150 The symbols you to look critically at the game; and if you can do that you will learn and understand more about the game. They derive from the three basic moves. These are: 1. To hit the shuttle past the opponent to the rearcourt. The overhead clear or the underarm clear (lob) are used to hit the shuttle over his head and down the line to get past him to the rearcourt. 2. To hit the shuttle into the forecourt. Here the overhead drop-shot or the underarm block to the smash or net reply are used. 3. To hit the shuttle down so that it travels quickly to the midcourt. Here the smash and the variations on the smash are used to make the move. The symbols below show the basic moves and their replies, with additional symbols used to show other important information. Stroke-moves sl = serve low sh = serve high s = smash c = clear d = dropshot b = block 1 = lob w = whip n = net reply in forecourt h = hit down in forecourt Replies n h lw c d s b l w c d s n l h w n l w h d s s c d l h w b l c n Additional information x = cross-court fh = forehand bh = backhand wk= weak reply in a situation m = miss shuttle completely f = fail to return shuttle in court = in the net O = out of court Recording The recording sheet Method 1 The recording sheet should contain the details of the match. 1. Name of tournament 2. Venue 3. Date 4. Event 5. Round 6. Names of players Here are two methods of recording the play using this system of notation. The recording sheet contains vertical columns. Each column is divided into boxes to represent the court. Each box is divided in half across the width and along the length. The column reads from the top to the bottom and the symbols are placed in the box as if you were looking at the court from above. Thus one player is at the top end and the other at the bottom. Both players' courts are divided into a forehand and backhand side (see below, fig. 18).

4 Chapter 9: Progress in Performance 151 Recording the stroke-moves Each stroke is recorded as if you were sitting directly behind the player making the stroke-moves (see fig. 22). Scoring Fig. 18 The score is shown on the left side of each column. The server's score is written first to ensure clarity in the sequence of stroke-moves in each rally (see fig. 22). Recording a rally Each rally commences with the serve shown by the symbol `sl' or `sh' designating a low or high serve. Each rally is concluded by a double line. A game is concluded by a triple line. Each box is written in sequence of AB AB... When there is a change of serve, the serve commences in the box opposite the server's letter, A or B. The final event refers to the ending of the rally and is always recorded. It takes place in the court of the player whose turn it is to hit the shuttle whether he does so or not. For example, if A smashes and B fails to return the shuttle into the court or misses it completely then that fact is recorded. Fig. 19 Fig. 20 clear hit out Fig. 21 smash into the net A smashes and B misses it. The recording must show this for it draws attention to what B did or did not do in reply to the smash (see fig. 19). This is most important for in any analysis it helps to know how each rally was won. In fig. 19, A won the rally not because he hit the smash, but because B missed it. If B continually misses the smash then we want to look at the defence of B or his previous move in the situation that A created. In fig. 20, A lost the rally because he smashed out over B's rearcourt. In fig. 21, A lost the rally because he hit the shuttle into the net. All this information is necessary in order to make accurate judgements about performance in the game. The symbols for `out of court' (O) and `in the net'(*) are placed as shown in fig. 20 and fig. 21. The symbol ` O' is placed next to the line in the box near to the part of the court into which it failed to land. Learning to record To record a game in detail is quite demanding and can be hard work. Practice in using the symbols and in concentrating for long periods is essential. Begin by recording a few details and gradually progress towards recording every detail. Here are some practical suggestions. 1. Position yourself behind the court opposite one corner. The length of the court then corresponds to the vertical column of the recording sheet. From this position it is easier to observe the game and to record.

5 Part Three: Playing the Game Build up concentration slowly. Record only a few rallies at a time. Increase this to recording a game and finally a match. 3. Record only simple details at first. For example, record the symbol and don't worry about placing it accurately in the correct side of its box, i.e. forehand or backhand side. As you improve, place the symbol ac curately, in the approximate position in the box relative to the court. Regular practice in using the symbols will improve your accuracy, speed and concentration. Notation in operation Fig. 22 The example below shows a few rallies extracted from a recorded match. Player A versus player B.

6 Chapter 9: Progress in Performance 153 Description of play in the extract Play begins in column 1 on the left of the sheet. Read the play from the top downwards. Score: 1st game. Love all. Player A to serve. 0-0 Low serve Lob to the backhand rearcourt Drop to the forehand forecourt Net reply to the forecourt Whip x-court to backhand RC Weak clear to the forehand MC Smash to backhand MC Miss (fail to hit it). End of rally. 1-0 High serve to backhand RC Clear to backhand RC Clear to forehand RC Smash to backhand MC Block to backhand FC Net reply to forehand FC Whip to forehand RC Weak clear to backhand MC Smash to backhand MC Miss (fail to hit). End of rally. 2-0 Serve high to centre rearcort Continue and try to work out the remaining rallies yourself. Method 2 This method uses the same symbols and is easier and quicker to use. It provides you immediately with an outline of the patterns of play and the form the game is taking. However, it does not provide you with as much visual information about the situations from which the stroke-moves are made. In Method 1 it is not necessary to use the x-court symbol (x), for the direction is clearly shown within the boxes representing the court. In Method 2 this is necessary. The direction of each stroke-move is assumed to be `straight' unless shown by the x-court symbol. All stroke-moves are assumed to be forehands unless shown by the backhand symbol (bh). For example: xs represents the x-court smash bhc represents the backhand clear You may find the second method more desirable for the patterns of play become apparent as you record and so make subsequent analysis that much easier. This will become obvious as you study the method below.

7 Part Three: Playing the Game 154 The recording sheet The recording sheet contains horizontal rows divided into boxes to show the sequence of stroke-moves used in a rally. Each box records the stroke-move used by each player. A rally reads along the row from left to right. The sequence of rallies is from top to bottom of the sheet (see below, fig. 23). Fig. 23 The symbols '0' (in the net) and `O' (out of court) apply as in Method 1, except that the symbol `O' is placed in the box in which the next strokemove would be made (see fig. 24 below). Fig. 24 Recording a rally You simply record the stroke-move played by players A or B in sequence in the correct box in the row. The score is written before the player's letter (A or B) to show the score before the rally commences. When the rally ends the score is written in the row below, next to the server's letter. Then you continue to record the play. When there is a change of service remember to start recording in the box under the player who serves (see fig. 23 above). Notation in operation The rallies below are identical to the previous example, fig. 22. Fig. 25

8 Chapter 9: Progress in Performance 155 Even in these few rallies shown it is possible to discern similar patterns emerging. Study them and see if you can recognise them. If not then let us try to analyse the rallies and see what we find. We can begin by asking a few simple questions. How did A win his rallies? How did B lose his rallies? What did B do to prevent A winning the rallies? How did B win his rallies? How did A lose his rallies? Let's look at A first. What we will do, is write out the final moves of each rally that A won or lost and see if we can learn anything from that. Score preceding rally Player Result of rally Final event Preceding events Fig. 26 If we trace the stroke-moves back from the final event, a distinct pattern begins to emerge. A won his rallies by hitting a smash which B did not return. But that doesn't tell us very much. Of far more interest is the fact that A created the situation to obtain a weak return from B, by bringing B into the forecourt to play a net rally. Once B played a net return to A's net strokemove then A whipped the shuttle past B to the rearcourt, thus forcing a weak return. By the fourth rally B had caught on and changed his tactics. Instead of playing a reply to the forecourt, B lifted to the rearcourt and forced A back to the rearcourt. In opening up the game, B prevented A from using the whip

10 Chapter 9: Progress in Performance 157 How does he recover after making any stroke-move? What is the function of his move? What sort of reply do you think he expects to get from you? What reply(ies) would be effective against him? 4. Midcourt stroke-moves 5. Forecourt stroke-moves 6. General questions 7. Deception 8. Fitness What attitude does he adopt? What moves does he make from a high position, i.e. sides or centre, backhand and forehand side? What moves does he make from a low position on the forehand and backhand side? How does he recover after the different stroke-moves? What is the function of his move? What sort of reply does he expect from you? What reply (ies) would be effective against him? What attitude does he adopt? What moves does he make above net level, just below net level, and near the ground? How does he recover after a particular stroke-move? What sort of reply does he expect and prepare for? Does he cover all your possible replies? What replies might be effective against him in this situation? What is his favourite stroke-move, if any, in a particular situation? What is his strongest stroke-move in a particular situation, in relation to your game? What is his weakest stroke-move in a particular situation, in relation to your game? Is there any particular pattern of stroke-moves he uses to create a situation which enhances his chances of making a scoring hit? In what situation does he make most of his scoring hits? Does he use deception? In what situations does he use deception? What particular stroke-move does he use for deception? How does he try to deceive you? How does he recover after using deception? What sort of replies do you think he expects? Does he travel quickly between situations? Does he recover quickly after making a stroke-move? Does he attack continually? What is his state after a long hard rally: a. If he wins it? b. If he loses it?

11 Part Three: Playing the Game 158 After a long rally can he: a. Play another long rally? b. Does he try for a scoring blow before he has created the right situation? c. Does he make errors in his stroke production? How does fatigue affect his travelling? a. Speed or reaction time b. Ability to travel backwards c. Ability to travel forwards d. Ability to change direction quickly e. His recovery Does his state of fitness affect his attitude at different phases of the game? 9. Type of player What type of situation player is he: the sort that plays within a complete framework, incomplete or badly constructed framework? How does he react under pressure? Does he alter his game when he is losing or winning? If so, what does he do differently? 10. Anything else you can think of? Making use of the information gained about performance in the game There are a number of different ways this information can be used to improve your performance and enable you to become more successful in competition. They are interrelated but we will discuss each separately. 1. Profile of each opponent Use the questionnaire to complete a profile on each opponent. This way it is possible to maintain a detailed record of all possible opponents and to obtain information when necessary. A study of the profile prior to the game will recall all the various aspects of the opponent's performance. It is simply a case of reminding yourself of the sort of situations you are likely to find yourself in. It gives you time to think prior to going on court. You might plan some tactics along the following lines. What sort of moves does he make in various situations and what counter-moves can you make? Do his moves allow you to make use of them to create a situation in which to deliver a scoring hit? If so, write down the situation and the counter-moves you could make. Work out how the opponent might counter your move so you are ready to meet his counter. The order is: - his move -- your reply - his possible counters - your possible replies

13 Part Three: Playing the Game 160 restrictions and handicaps within your performance. A knowledge of what your opponent does has been a useful guide to designing meaningful practices. So in practice you will have learned to contend with any situation where there might have been a weakness. Now you can go on court and concentrate on playing in your own way, not having to worry about how your opponent plays. You can leave him to worry about how you play. This is one of the considerable benefits of the hard work that you do in preparation for match play. The more you study, think and prepare yourself mentally off the court, the less mental work you have to do on the court. The more physical work you do in training getting fit, the less you need that fitness in the game. The more time that you spend on technical and tactical practices, the easier it becomes to perform strokes and create situations in the contest. Your game eventually becomes more simplified in competition relative to how much work you put in developing it in practice and training. You do more work in preparation in order to do less work in competition. If you have done the work you should be able to step on the court fully confident that you are prepared. Once the game begins you should become absorbed in the present moment, without thought for the past or for the future, and become totally immersed in the battle. You should focus all your attention and direct all your energy towards your opponent. And play with one target only. To win!

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