Handbook of. and manufacture. footwear design. TheTextile Institute. Edited by. A. Luximon. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles: Number 141

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1 Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles: Number 141 Handbook of footwear design and manufacture Edited by A. Luximon TheTextile Institute WP WOODHEAD PUBLISHING Oxford Cambridge Philadelphia New Delhi

2 Contents Contributor contact details Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xi xv Part I Fundamentals of footwear anatomy 1 1 The anatomy of the human foot 3 L.K. Chan, The University of Hong Kong, P. 1.1 Introduction The bones of the human foot The joints of the human foot The muscles and tendons of the human foot The arches of the human foot The neurovasculature of the human foot The surface anatomy of the human foot Conclusion Sources of further information 26 2 Foot biomechanics and gait 27 T. Schmeltzpfenning, University of Tubingen, Germany and T. Brauner, Technical University of Miinchen, Germany 2.1 Introduction Gait Kinetics Kinematics Dynamic morphology Future trends Conclusion Sources of further information and advice References 44

3 vi Contents 3 Foot development in childhood and adolescence 49 B. Fritz, University of Tubingen, Germany and M. Mauch, Praxisklinik Rennbahn AG, Switzerland 3.1 Introduction Development of the foot during childhood and adolescence Grouping foot types Conclusion References 68 4 Foot models and measurements 72 S. Xiong, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, South Korea and J. Zhao, Wuhan University, P. 4.1 Introduction Foot anthropometric measurements, foot variations and classifications of foot types Foot shape modeling Conclusion Sources of further information Acknowledgements References 86 5 Foot problems and their implications for footwear design 90 E. Y. L. No, Pedorthic Technology Ltd, P. 5.1 Introduction Common foot problems and their impact on footwear design Conclusion References 114 Part II Footwear design Shoe design development 117 O. Pelizzari, Nuova academia Di Belle arti Milan, Italy 6.1 Introduction Fashion trends Stages of the design process Case studies Conclusion References 127

4 Contents vii 7 Foot sketch templates and footwear design 128 G. X. Yuan and K. Jiang, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, P. 7.1 Introduction Anatomy of the human foot Elements of foot sketching Materials and tools Styles of foot sketch Conclusion References Footwear drawing templates and shoe design 150 W. C. Wong, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, P. and The Chinese University of Hong Kong, P., and A. Luximon, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, P. 8.1 Introduction Using a template Colouring and shadow Recommendations Sources of further information 174 Part III Shoe lasts and other aspects of footwear manufacture Design and manufacture of shoe lasts 177 X. Ma and A. Luximon, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, P. 9.1 Introduction Classification of shoe lasts Shoe last dimensions and terminology The relationship between the foot and the shoe last Shoe last design Manufacture of shoe lasts Sources of further information and advice Acknowledgements Bibliography Sizing and grading of shoe lasts 197 Y. Luximon and A. Luximon, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, P Introduction Sizing and grading Common sizing and grading scales 199

5 viii Contents 10.4 Future trends Conclusion References Shoe-last design templates 216 Y. Luximon and A. Luximon, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, P Introduction Definitions Shoe-last templates Conclusion Sources of further information and advice Acknowledgements References Shoe-last design for mass-customized footwear 236 Y. Zhang and A. Luximon, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, P Introduction Requirements for customized footwear Mass-customized footwear design Processes in shoe-last mass customization Shoe-last selection based on fit rating Conclusion Acknowledgements References The footwear business and advertising 254 Y. Luximon, M. Bhatia and A. Luximon, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, P The footwear industry The global footwear market Global consumption Advertising Footwear advertising Conclusion References The environmental impact of footwear and footwear materials 266 S. S. Muthu, SGS (HK) Ltd, P Introduction Footwear and footwear materials 267

6 Contents ix 14.3 Importance of the environmental impact of footwear and footwear materials Assessing the environmental impact of footwear products Environmental impact studies of footwear and footwear materials Conclusion and future trends References 276 Part IV Applications Footwear for cold weather conditions 283 K. Kuklane, Lund University, Sweden 15.1 Introduction The feet in cold environments Feet and footwear-related injuries in cold environments Design requirements of footwear for cold environments Footwear insulation Footwear evaporative resistance measurements Moisture management in footwear Effect of socks on feet insulation, moisture management and comfort References Textiles for protective military footwear 318 F. Wang, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland 16.1 Introduction Key requirements for military footwear The role of textiles in military footwear Examples of military footwear Conclusion Future trends Sources of further information References Textiles and other materials for orthopaedic footwear insoles 341 K. L. Yick, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, P. and C. Y. Tse, Centre for Orthopaedic Surgery, P Introduction Key requirements for orthopaedic footwear insoles Types of textiles and materials for orthopaedic footwear insoles 345

7 X Contents 17.4 Examples of orthopaedic footwear insoles Test methods and instruments Future trends Sources of further information and advice Acknowledgements References Design issues in geriatric footwear 372 A. E. Helfand, Temple University, USA 18.1 Introduction Geriatric foot problems: etiological and epidemiological factors Changes in the foot in relation to age Complicating foot problems Psychosocial and psychological considerations Considerations in shoe design Therapeutic footwear Conclusion References 397 Index 401

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