Money Well Spent: Introduction Walking in San Francisco Prioritization Better Streets Plan Pedestrian Countdown Signals

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1 Money Well Spent: Benefit-Cost Analysis of Treating Pedestrian Injuries and Implementing an Effective Engineering Countermeasure Dahianna Lopez & Oliver Gajda 1 Agenda Gajda,O- SFMTA Introduction Walking in Prioritization Better Streets Plan Pedestrian Countdown Signals Lopez, D- UCSF, SF Pedestrian Injury and Its Associated Medical Costs Aims and Hypotheses Data Results & Findings 2

2 Introduction Picture courtesy of Picture courtesy of Walking in ~800,000 residents ~121 square km (Amsterdam 165 sq. km.) ~6,600 people/square km (~Amsterdam 4,500 people/ square km) 10% of the trips to work are walking trips vs. USA (3%) 4

3 Walking in Annual Pedestrian Collisions per Capita in California Cities with 250,000 or More Residents Annual Pedestrian Collisions per 100,000 residents Anaheim Riverside Bakersfield Fresno San Jose Santa Ana San Diego Stockton Sacramento Long Beach Oakland Los Angeles ESTIMATED PEDESTRIAN EXPOSURE RATE FOR CALIFORNIA CITIES WITH 250,000 OR MORE RESIDENTS Injury Collisions per 100,000 Estimated Walk Trips to Work Anaheim Oakland Sacramento San Diego Fresno San Jose Riverside Long Beach Los Angeles Stockton Santa Ana Bakersfield Sources: California Office of Traffic Safety, 2007 OTS Collision Rankings & U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 American Community Survey 5 Walking in 6

4 Walking in Walking in

5 Walking in Walking in

6 Better Streets Plan 11 Better Streets Plan Memorable Support Diverse Public Life Vibrant Places for Commerce Promote Human Use & Comfort Promote Human Health Safe Establish Convenient Connections Ecologically Sustainable Accessible Attractive, Inviting, Well-Cared For 12

7 Better Streets Plan Plan Elements Engineering Countermeasures Center median Trees Crosswalks Bulb-outs Stormwater High Visibility Parking crosswalk lane planter Lighting Furnishings PCS Raised crosswalk Engineering Countermeasures Advance limit lines with high visibility crosswalks Center median Center Median improvements Bulb-outs Sidewalk bulb-outs Improved Lighting High Visibility crosswalk Lighting Raised Crosswalks Pedestrian Countdown Signals (PCS) PCS Raised crosswalk

8 Engineering Countermeasures Pedestrian Countdown Signal 22% Reduction of Collisions after installation* *SafeTREC, Pedestrian Countdown Signal Cost Cost per location: $34,400 Currently: 342 locations without PCS *SFMTA,

9 Countermeasure Cost vs. Injury Cost 17 Aims & Hypotheses Test feasibility of conducting BCA Identify street intersections where PCS would be beneficial Hypothesis: At least 50% of intersections beneficial 18

10 Pedestrian Injury & Medical Costs* Admitted Patient : $74,750/patient average Emergency Dept Visit Only: $6,400/patient average *Dicker et al, Data Sources 2004 to 2008 Hospital Police 20

11 Inclusion Criteria Hospital cost & intersection 21 Inclusion Criteria Hospital cost & intersection Filed police report 22

12 Inclusion Criteria Hospital cost & intersection Filed police report Engineering data 23 Inclusion Criteria Hospital cost & intersection Filed police report Engineering data No PCS 24

13 Sample Data of three sources yielded: 73 AVP incidents 62 Intersections No PCS Present 25 Measure: Safety Improvement Index (SII) S R(C f C nf ) M Y Q ( (A A ) a b 1 A b L ) S B S 1 2 Q L 1.06 [(S 1 Q) (i 1)Q 2 ] (1.06) i i 2 SII B C 26

14 Result: Cost-Beneficial or Not SII > 1 SII < 1 Number of Intersections Median SII Total Cost of Injury $4.65 Million $583,590 Total Cost of PCS $1.14 Million $997, Results by Intersection SII Intersection SII Intersection FILLMORE & GEARY 0.2 GEARY & VAN NESS HAYES & VAN NESS 0.26 GEARY & LAGUNA ELLIS & LARKIN 0.3 IRVING & SUNSET BRAZIL & MISSION 0.33 MISSION & SILVER DIVISADERO & SACRAMENTO ND ST & DOLORES 6.22 BAY & POWELL ND ST & GUERRERO 0.4 ELLIS & TAYLOR 0.4 DOLORES & MARKET 28

15 Fillmore St. & Geary Blvd. SII = Geary Blvd. & Van Ness Ave. SII =

16 Cost Benefit Collision Areas with SII 31 Findings & Implications for Policy Overall, could save $2.40 for every $1 using PCS at cost-beneficial locations Recommendations: Use findings to advocate for funding Consider BCA in prioritizing projects 32

17 Source: National Geographic Jan How much does the U.S. spend on healthcare? 34

18 International Health System Ranking 35 Thank You Dharma Sunjaya Claire Rossignol Matt Lasky Catherine Wu Ajay Ohri Rochelle Dicker

19 Contact 37

20

21 Pedestrian Countdown Signals Countdown Signals Program Pilot - Countdown signals initially installed at 14 test locations Full-scale Replacement - City eventually replaced most pedestrian signals with Countdown Signals (over 800 intersections) More energy-efficient: electricity savings paying for LED device installation (over several years)

22 Countdown Signals Summary of Impacts : Pedestrians like additional information on how much time is left to cross the street Citywide installation about 22% drop in injuries at countdown locations vs. 2% rise at signalized intersections without pedestrian signals Significant reduction in pedestrians finishing crossing on red No significant reduction Pedestrians starting to cross at the beginning of the clearance interval No increase in red light running Countdown Behavioral Impacts 80% 76% 70% 60% % of Pedestrians 50% 40% 30% 34% 20% 10% 14 % 9% 13 % 8% Pre-Installation Post-Installation 0% Finish Crossing on Red Run or Abort Crossing Rating of Ped Signal as "Very Helpf ul" Note: All differences statistically significant, p<0.01

23 Collision Impacts Collisions as % of Pre- Installation Level 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 27 Pilot Countdown Locations vs. Control Locations Pre-Installation Post-Installation 0% Countdow n- Equipped Intersections Planned CDS Intersections No CDS-Planned Intersections Planned CDS Intersections - Higher Ped. Crashes Pre-Installation Note: Countdown reduction statistically significant, p<0.05 Recommend Collaboration 46

24 Limitations Data availability Data linking Broader context 47 Walking in : 92/100,000 USA: 62/100,000 HP2010 : 19/100,000 PHOTO: Armand Emamdjomeh 48

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