Retrofitting Urban Arterials into Complete Streets

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1 Retrofitting Urban Arterials into Complete Streets John N. LaPlante, P.E., P.T.O.E., T.Y. Lin International Prepared for: Illinois Traffic Engineering & Safety Conference Urbana, Illinois October 18, 2007

2 AASHTO Green Book Hierarchies of movement: Expressways Main travel movements High speeds Large traffic volumes Arterials Moderate speed Distribution Collectors Lower speeds Penetration of neighborhoods Local streets Local access FIGURE : Proportion of Service (1) Mobility to Land Use Continuum

3 Functional Class Consequences Arterials primarily to move traffic emphasizing: Operating speed Capacity Design requirements Wider lanes Increased turning radii Access management Ignores community impacts Pedestrians Bicycles Transit FIGURE : Proportion of Service (1) Mobility to Land Use Continuum

4 Functional Class Consequences

5 Functional Class Consequences

6 Context Sensitive Solutions in Designing Major Urban Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities ITE Proposed Recommended Practice

7 CSS Design Framework Context zones: Suburbs to downtowns

8 CSS Design Framework Context zones: Suburbs - downtowns Street classification: Functional class Arterial Collector Thoroughfare type Boulevard Avenue Street Compatibility

9 Thoroughfare Type in Design CSS Design criteria Physical configuration With surrounding context Dimensions for Roadside Traveled way Intersections Target speed (desirable operating speed)

10 Speed Matters High speeds lead to greater chance of serious injury & death

11 Child dart-out: speed is a factor! 150

12 First scenario: Speed 25 MPH 100 = distance covered in 2.5 sec. perception/reaction time Driver applies brakes

13 First scenario: Speed 25 MPH Driver applies brakes 50 stopping distance (wet pavement)

14 First scenario: Speed 25 MPH Result: Nothing happens beyond one scared child, driver & parent!

15 Second scenario: Speed 38MPH 140 = distance covered in 2.5 sec. perception/reaction time Driver applies brakes

16 Second scenario: Speed 38MPH Driver applies brakes

17 Second scenario: Speed 38MPH In the last 10 car slows to 36 MPH

18 Second scenario: Speed 38MPH Result: a high speed crash 150

19 Where do these two scenarios lie on the pedestrian fatality risk scale? Second scenario: Crash speed 36 MPH First scenario: no crash

20 Defining Mobility Typical experience: 45 mph speed 2 min wait at signal

21 Defining Mobility Viable alternative: 2-way progression set for 30 mph

22 Benefit/Cost Analysis Reducing speed from 45 mph to 30 mph For a 5-mile 5 trip, a 3.33-minute delay Assume 30,000 ADT and $20/hr driver cost $ million in loss to economy, right? Wrong! Delay for each person is still 3.33 minutes Less time than their daily stop for Starbucks Community benefit Slower operating speeds Safer and more comfortable ped crossings

23 Roadway Capacity Analysis Design urban roadways to LOS D Designing to LOS C for peak hour means: Unnecessary pavement, waste of tax dollars Increased ped crossing times, thus reducing vehicular movement times Increased operating speeds for other 22 hours

24 Retrofitting Urban Arterials Requires arterial traffic calming/taming: Controlling operating speeds Ped-friendly street crossings at unsignalized locations Ped-friendly signalized intersections Midblock crossing options

25 Retrofitting Urban Arterials Requires arterial traffic calming/taming: 1.Controlling operating speeds 2. Ped-friendly street crossings at unsignalized locations 3. Ped-friendly signalized intersections 4. Midblock crossing options

26 Control Operating Speeds Signal progression Narrower travel lanes

27 Narrower Travel Lanes 70 mph lane widths not needed to handle 30 mph traffic

28 Narrower Travel Lanes 10 and 11-foot lanes are just as safe as 12-foot lanes on urban arterials with posted speeds less than 45 mph

29 Control Operating Speeds Signal progression Narrower travel lanes Road diets

30 Road Diets Classic Road Diet 4-33 lanes

31 Road Diet Benefits Fewer midblock conflicts Conflict Points Four-lane undivided Three-lane

32 Road Diet Benefits Better left-turn turn sight distance

33 Road Diet Benefits No Change in ADTs Dolores Guerrero Valencia Mission S. Van Ness before bike lanes after bike lanes Mission District, San Francisco North-South ADTs

34 Control Operating Speeds Signal progression Narrower travel lanes Road diets Tighten corner curb radii

35 Effect of large radius on drivers They drive fast, ignoring pedestrians Tigard OR

36 Control Operating Speeds Signal progression Narrower travel lanes Road diets Tighten corner curb radii Eliminate free flow right turn lanes

37 Free Flow Right Turn Lanes Eliminate free flow turns across crosswalks/bikeways

38 Free Flow Right Turn Lanes Eliminate free flow turns across crosswalks/bikeways

39 Control Operating Speeds Signal progression Narrower travel lanes Road diets Tighten corner curb radii Eliminate free flow right turn lanes Raised medians

40 Raised Medians Continuous raised median

41 Raised Medians Flush median is not a refuge

42 Raised Medians Add a raised island

43 Control Operating Speeds Signal progression Narrower travel lanes Road diets Tighten corner curb radii Eliminate free flow right turn lanes Raised medians Median and parkway landscaping

44 Median/Parkway Landscaping

45 Control ol Operating Speeds Signal progression Narrower travel lanes Road diets Tighten corner curb radii Eliminate free flow right turn lanes Raised medians Median and parkway landscaping Retain curb parking

46 Retain Curb Parking Eliminating on-street parking allows more cars to go faster

47 Control Operating Speeds Signal progression Narrower travel lanes Road diets Tighten corner curb radii Eliminate free flow right turn lanes Raised medians Median and parkway landscaping Retain curb parking Curb bulb-outs

48 Curb Bulb-outs Sight distance and sight lines Rather than eliminate parking on approaches Add curb bulb-outs and retain parking

49 Retrofitting Urban Arterials Requires arterial traffic calming/taming: Controlling operating speeds Ped-friendly street crossings at unsignalized locations Ped-friendly signalized intersections Midblock crossing options

50 Pedestrian Crossings Narrower travel lanes Road diets

51 Road Diets Old centerline Reclaiming road space creates room for islands

52 Pedestrian Crossings Narrower travel lanes Road diets Tighten corner curb radii

53 Tighten Corner Curb Radii Intersection geometry: Large radii increase crossing distance, and affect crosswalk & ramp placement

54 Tighten Corner Curb Radii Actual curb radius (R1) Effective radius (R2)

55 Pedestrian Crossings Narrower travel lanes Road diets Tighten corner curb radii Corner pork chop islands

56 Corner Pork Chop Islands Benefits: Separate conflicts & decision points Reduce crossing distance Improve signal timing Reduce crashes

57 Pedestrian Crossings Narrower travel lanes Road diets Tighten corner curb radii Corner pork chop islands Raised medians

58 Raised Medians

59 Raised Medians

60 Pedestrian Crossings Narrower travel lanes Road diets Tighten corner curb radii Corner pork chop islands Raised medians Curb bulb-outs

61 Reduce crossing distance Improve sight distance and sight lines Prevent encroachment by parked cars Create space for curb ramps and landings Curb Bulb-outs

62 Retrofitting Urban Arterials Requires arterial traffic calming/taming: Controlling operating speeds Ped-friendly street crossings at unsignalized locations Ped-friendly signalized intersections Midblock crossing options

63 Signalized Intersections 3.5 fps walking speed for FDW and 3.0 fps for W + FDW

64 Pedestrian Crossing Time Old MUTCD Recommendations Ped clearance interval (flashing don t t walk): 4 ft/sec walking speed Where pedestrians who walk slower than normal or pedestrians who use wheelchairs routinely use a crosswalk, a walking speed of less than 4 ft/sec should be considered.

65 Pedestrian Crossing Time PROWAAC Recommendations New MUTCD Requirements Calculate pedestrian signal clearance phase timing using 3.5 ft/sec pedestrian walking speed Also calculate total walk crossing time (Walk plus Flashing Don t t Walk) using 3.0 ft/sec Include the length of the crosswalk and one curb ramp for calculating crossing distance

66 Signalized Intersections 3.5 fps walking speed for FDW and 3.0 fps for W + FDW Accessible ramp design

67 Accessible Ramp Design Eliminate movement barriers

68 Accessible Ramp Design

69 Accessible Ramp Design Important design consideration: crosswalks, ramps & sidewalks should line up

70 Signalized Intersections 3.5 fps walking speed for FDW and 3.0 fps for W + FDW Accessible ramp design Countdown clocks

71 Countdown Clocks

72 Signalized Intersections 3.5 fps walking speed for FDW and 3.0 fps for W + FDW Accessible ramp design Countdown clocks Leading pedestrian indications (LPI)

73 Leading Ped Indication (LPI) LPI : WALK comes on 2 to 5 seconds prior to the vehicular green; pedestrians enter crosswalk before turning vehicles arrive there. Salem OR

74 Signalized Intersections 3.5 fps walking speed for FDW and 3.0 fps for W + FDW Accessible ramp design Countdown clocks Leading pedestrian indications (LPI) Accessible pedestrian signals (APS)

75 Accessible Ped Signals (APS) On side of pole On pedestal at top of ramp

76 Retrofitting Urban Arterials Requires arterial traffic calming/taming: Controlling operating speeds Ped-friendly street crossings at unsignalized locations Ped-friendly signalized intersections Midblock crossing options

77 Midblock Crossings Visible crosswalks and ped warning signs

78 Visible Crosswalks What the pedestrian sees What the driver sees

79 Visible Crosswalks Continental Markings What the pedestrian sees What the driver sees

80 Midblock Crossings Visible crosswalks and ped warning signs Ped actuated crosswalk warning signs

81 Actuated Ped Warning Signs

82 Midblock Crossings Visible crosswalks and ped warning signs Ped actuated crosswalk warning signs Raised medians

83 Raised Medians Breaks long complex crossing into two simpler crossings

84 Midblock Crossings Visible crosswalks and ped warning signs Ped actuated crosswalk warning signs Raised medians Curb bulb-outs

85 Midblock Curb Bulb-outs

86 Midblock Crossings Visible crosswalks and ped warning signs Ped actuated crosswalk warning signs Raised medians Curb bulb-outs Ped actuated HAWK signals

87 Ped Actuated HAWK Signals

88 Midblock Crossings Visible crosswalks and ped warning signs Ped actuated crosswalk warning signs Raised medians Curb bulb-outs Ped actuated HAWK signals Full ped signalization

89 Full Ped Signalization

90 Complete Streets: We Can Get There from Here

91 Complete Streets: We Can Get There from Here Narrow travel lanes, add a bike lane

92 Complete Streets: We Can Get There from Here Add a median, trees and some texture

93 Complete Streets: We Can Get There from Here Bring the buildings in closer

94 Complete Streets: We Can Get There from Here Make sure the buildings face the street

95 Complete Streets: We Can Get There from Here Bring in more buildings (infill)

96 Complete Streets: We Can Get There from Here The street now has a life Thank you to Michael Ronkin for visuals

97 QUESTIONS?

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