CITY OF PASADENA PEDESTRIAN SAFETY STUDY AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

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1 CITY OF PASADENA PEDESTRIAN SAFETY STUDY AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Prepared for: City of Pasadea Submitted by: FEHR & PEERS 201 Sata Moica Blvd., Suite 500 Sata Moica, Califoria (310) I associatio with: Traffex Egieers Ic. P. O. Box 5784 Vetura CA (805) Ref. SM Jauary 2011

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Itroductio Programs, Policies, ad Practices Bechmarkig Aalysis... 3 Pasadea Bechmarkig Aalysis... 3 Key Stregths... 3 Ehacemet Opportuity Literature Review ad Summary of Best Practices for Pedestria Treatmets at Sigalized Itersectios Pedestria Safety Toolbox Itroductio Treatmets at Sigalized Locatios Treatmets at Stop-Cotrolled Locatios Determiig Where ad How to Mark Ucotrolled Crosswalks Treatmets at Ucotrolled Locatios Educatio, Eforcemet ad Ecouragemet Collisio History Review ad Aalysis Five Year ( ) Collisio Review ad Mappig Review of Collisio Data at Sigalized Locatios Summary of Collisio Review Recommedatios for Walkig Audit Locatios Walkig Audit Results ad Recommedatios Selectio of Focus Areas Next Steps... 92

3 Appedix A: Field Visit Checklist APPENDICES

4 LIST OF CHARTS AND FIGURES Chart 1 Recommeded Selectio Process for Ucotrolled ad Mid-Block Crosswalk Locatios Chart 2 Feasibility Aalysis for Treatmets at Ucotrolled Locatios Figure 1 Pasadea Pedestria-Vehicle Collisios Figure 2 Pasadea Pedestria-Vehicle Collisios Frequecy at Sigalized Itersectios Figure 3 Pasadea Pedestria-Vehicle Collisios Resultig i Ijuries ad/or Fatalities Figure 4 Walkig Audit Locatios Figure 5 City of Pasadea Walkig Audit Recommedatios for Colorado Boulevard ad Marego Aveue Figure 6 City of Pasadea Walkig Audit Recommedatios for Lake Aveue ad Moutai Street Figure 7 City of Pasadea Walkig Audit Recommedatios for Colorado Boulevard ad Fair Oaks Aveue Figure 8 City of Pasadea Walkig Audit Recommedatios for Orage Grove Boulevard ad Raymod Aveue Figure 9 City of Pasadea Walkig Audit Recommedatios for Lake Aveue ad Corso Street

5 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Summary of Programs, Policies, ad Practices Bechmarkig Aalysis for Pasadea... 4 Table 2 Preferred Pedestria Treatmets for Sigalized Locatios Table 3 Ehaced Pedestria Treatmets for Sigalized Locatios Table 4 Preferred Pedestria Treatmets for Stop-Cotrolled Locatios Table 5 Ehaced Pedestria Treatmets for Stop-Cotrolled Locatios Table 6 Preferred Pedestria Treatmets for Ucotrolled Locatios* Table 7 Ehaced Pedestria Treatmets for Ucotrolled Locatios Table 8 Applicatio of Ehaced Treatmets for Ucotrolled Locatios Table 9 - Top Te Pedestria-Vehicle Collisio Locatios i Pasadea Table 10 - Pedestria Fatality Locatios i Pasadea, Table 11 - Top Te Sigalized Pedestria-Vehicle Collisio Locatios i Pasadea Table 12 Primary Collisio Factors (PCFs) For Pedestria-Vehicle Collisios at Sigalized Locatios i Pasadea, Table 13 Age Rages for Pedestria-Vehicle Collisios at Sigalized Locatios i Pasadea, Table 14 Time of Day for Pedestria-Vehicle Collisios at Sigalized Locatios i Pasadea, Table 15 Ivolvemet of Alcohol for Pedestria-Vehicle Collisios at Sigalized Locatios I Pasadea,

6 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary INTRODUCTION The City of Pasadea is the seveth most populous city i Los Ageles Couty ad cosists of approximately 23 square miles. Residets of Pasadea use may modes of trasportatio icludig persoal vehicles, trasit, bicyclig, ad walkig. This report focuses o the walkig mode of travel. This report documets research aimed at ehacig pedestria safety i geeral, though the overall focus of this report is o sigalized itersectios. Recet data compiled by the City of Pasadea idicates that approximately 70 percet of vehicle-pedestria collisios resultig i ijury or fatality occurred at sigalized itersectios, over a sigle year. Several areas i Pasadea such as Old Pasadea, Metro Gold Lie Statios, the Rose Bowl, ad other districts are kow to experiece high levels of pedestria activity o a regular basis. I the cotext of ehacig sigalized itersectios, this report geerally otes two types of ehacemets, operatioal ad geometric. Operatioal treatmets such as right-tur-o-red restrictios or LED sigs that illumiate tur restrictios whe pedestrias are detected ca help improve pedestria visibility, driver compliace with traffic cotrol devices, ad address some vehicle-pedestria coflicts. Geometric treatmets at itersectios ca be used to ehace the pedestria eviromet by providig for compact itersectio desig, media refuge islads, ad additioal pedestria accommodatios. Other treatmets iclude usig sigig ad stripig to alert motorists to the presece of pedestrias at itersectios. Examples of educatio, eforcemet, ad ecouragemet are all icluded as importat compoets to a effective pedestria safety program. This report was produced i cooperatio with the City of Pasadea. Fudig for this program was provided by a grat from the Califoria Office of Traffic Safety, through the Natioal Highway Traffic Safety Admiistratio. The suggestios preseted i this report are based o field observatios ad time spet i the City of Pasadea by the authors. These suggestios, which are based o geeral kowledge of best practices i pedestria desig ad safety, are iteded to guide City staff i makig decisios for future safety improvemet projects i the City, ad they may ot icorporate all factors that may be relevat to the pedestria safety issues i the City. This report is divided ito seve chapters as described below: 1. Chapter 1 Itroductio discusses the purpose ad orgaizatio of this report. 2. Chapter 2 Programs, Policies, ad Practices Bechmarkig Aalysis reviews the City s existig practices relatig to pedestrias ad provides suggestios for potetial ehacemets. 3. Chapter 3 Literature Review ad Summary of Best Practices for Pedestria Treatmets at Sigalized Itersectios presets a review of research o treatmets ad strategies for accommodatig pedestrias at sigalized itersectios. 4. Chapter 4 Pedestria Safety Toolbox presets a array of tools to ehace pedestria safety at stop-cotrolled, sigalized, ad ucotrolled locatios, ad strategies for providig educatio, eforcemet ad ecouragemet for pedestrias ad motorists. 5. Chapter 5 Collisio History Review ad Aalysis provides a aalysis of five years of pedestria-vehicle collisio data from the City of Pasadea. 6. Chapter 6 Recommedatios for Walkig Audit Locatios presets potetial treatmets for five itersectios that were visited with City staff ad help to serve as prototypical examples for other locatios i Pasadea. 1

7 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary Chapter 7 Next Steps provides ideas for potetial fudig sources for recommedatios i this report ad other activities that ca be used to cotiue promotig pedestria safety ad motorist awareess. 2

8 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary PROGRAMS, POLICIES, AND PRACTICES BENCHMARKING ANALYSIS I this chapter we preset a bechmarkig aalysis of Pasadea s pedestria programs, polices, ad practices. The bechmarkig aalysis is based o the two-hour i perso iterview coducted with City staff o Friday, October 3, 2010, ad subsequet review of City documets ad resources available olie or provided i-perso. The results of the bechmarkig are first provided i a summary table, followed by a brief discussio ad applicable suggestios for each subject area. PASADENA BENCHMARKING ANALYSIS A pedestria safety iterview was coducted with City staff to gai a uderstadig of the existig pedestria policies, programs, ad practices i Pasadea. This iterview formed the basis for a bechmarkig process that categorized the City s programs, practices, ad policies ito three groups: Key stregth (areas where the City is exceedig atioal best practices) Ehacemet (areas where the City is meetig best practices) Opportuity (areas where the City appears ot to meet best practices) The bechmarkig aalysis aims to provide the City with iformatio o curret best practices ad how the City compares. Cities have differig physical, demographic, ad istitutioal characteristics that may make certai goals or policies more appropriate i some jurisdictios tha others. Ultimately, City staff may determie where resources ad efforts are best placed for meetig local developmet ad ifrastructure goals for pedestrias. The results of the bechmarkig aalysis are provided i Table 1. The suggestios for potetial improvemet to the City s existig programs ad policies for each topic described above iclude the followig: KEY STRENGTHS (a) Ivetory of Sidewalks, Iformal Pathways, ad Key Pedestria Opportuity Areas A GIS-based sidewalk ivetory eables project idetificatio ad prioritizatio, as well as project coordiatio with ew developmet, roadway resurfacig, etc. The City has udertake a ivetory of existig iformal pathways, sidewalks, ad uprooted sidewalks with the itet of updatig it every five years. The ivetory has bee utilized to develop safe routes to school projects ad idetify potetial street treatmets ad ehacemets where facilities are deficiet. Sidewalk treatmet projects are icluded i the CIP at a typical fudig level of $200,000 per fiscal year. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Complete geo-codig (curretly uderway) the existig ivetory of sidewalks i the City ad add iformal pathways ad key pedestria opportuity areas. 3

9 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF PROGRAMS, POLICIES, AND PRACTICES BENCHMARKING ANALYSIS FOR PASADENA Bechmark Topic Key Stregth Ehacemet Opportuity Ivetory of sidewalks, iformal pathways, ad key pedestria opportuity areas Safe-Routes-to-School Program ad Grat Fudig Preparatio of a Pedestria Pla Updated ADA Trasitio Pla for Streets ad Sidewalks Specific Plas, Redevelopmet Areas, ad Overlay Zoes Traffic Calmig Programs Ecoomic Vitality Trasportatio Demad Maagemet Programs Use of Leadig Pedestria Itervals ad Scrambles Adoptio of Bicycle Parkig Requiremets Use of Street Furiture Requiremets Adoptio of Newspaper Rack Ordiace Adoptio of Ope Space Requiremets Attetio to Crossig Barriers Access Maagemet Implemetatio of Americas with Disabilities Act (ADA) Improvemets Ivetory ad moitorig of Pedestria traffic cotrol devices (Sigs, Markigs, ad Sigals) Collisio History ad Collisio Reportig Practices Pedestria-Orieted Speed Limits ad Speed Surveys Public Ivolvemet ad Feedback Process Pedestria Safety Program ad Walkig Audits X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 4

10 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF PROGRAMS, POLICIES, AND PRACTICES BENCHMARKING ANALYSIS FOR PASADENA Bechmark Topic Key Stregth Ehacemet Opportuity Desig Policies ad Developmet Stadards Pedestria-Orieted Traffic Sigal ad Stop Sig Warrats Collectio of Pedestria Volumes Pedestria/Bicycle Coordiator Formal Advisory Committee Eforcemet Historic Sites Geeral Pla: Provisio for Pedestria Nodes Coordiatio with Health Agecies Proactive Approach to Istitutioal Challeges Use of Neighborhood-sized Schools Adoptio of Street Tree Requiremets Crosswalk Istallatio, Removal, ad Ehacemet Policy Routie Accommodatios/ Complete Streets X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 5

11 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 (b) Safe-Routes-to-School/Suggested Routes to School Safe-Routes-to-School programs ecourage childre to safely walk or bicycle to school. The Mari Couty Bicycle Coalitio was a early champio of the cocept, which has spread atioally (refer to best practices at Safe-Routes-to-School programs are importat both for icreasig physical activity (ad reducig childhood obesity) ad for reducig morig traffic associated with school drop-off. Fudig for Safe-Routes-to-School programs ad/or projects is available at the state ad federal levels. Pasadea applied for ad received Safe-Routes-to- Schools grats i recet years. With awarded grats Pasadea has fuded the istallatio of over 400 school-area sigs, iroadway pavemet warig lights, trasit access pads, sidewalks, curb ramps, ad educatioal programs. Also, the City has worked with schools o implemetig o-site valet pick-up/drop-off at schools. Pasadea has a City-wide program called Safe Moves that has icluded bike rodeos ad eforcemet activities ad provides maps of suggested routes to local schools. Pasadea Public Works ad Police offer local schools their assistace to improve circulatio, pick-up/drop-off, ad walkability. The Public Works departmet provides pamphlets promotig safety ad the City has a website with a video ad other materials addressig pedestria safety. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cotiue applyig for grat fudig; apply for o-ifrastructure as well as ifrastructure projects. (c) Pedestria Pla This type of pla icludes a large meu of policy, program, ad practice recommedatios, as well as site-specific (ad prototypical) egieerig treatmet recommedatios. A Pedestria (or Pedestria/Bicycle) Pla documets a city s visio for improvig walkability ad pedestria safety; establishes policies, programs, ad practices; ad outlies the prioritizatio ad budgetig process for project implemetatio. Pasadea has a Pedestria Pla that was adopted i Pasadea also has a Bicycle Master Pla adopted i 2000 with a update aticipated to be complete i

12 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 (d) Trasitio Pla for Streets ad Sidewalks A Americas with Disability Act (ADA) Trasitio Pla sets forth the process for brigig public facilities ito compliace with ADA regulatios. A ADA Trasitio Pla typically addresses public buildigs, sidewalks, ramps, ad other pedestria facilities. A ADA Coordiator is typically resposible for admiisterig a City s ADA Trasitio Pla. Pasadea has a ADA Trasitio Pla, updated i 2009, that addresses areas of the public right-of-way. The City also has a staff perso (Robert Gorski) who acts as part-time ADA Coordiator. (e) Specific Plas, Redevelopmet Areas, ad Overlay Zoes Trasit-orieted developmet (TOD) icludes mixed-use, walkable areas cetered o trasit statios ad/or alog trasit corridors. Whe mixed-use developmet is coveiet to trasit service, logdistace travel ca be accommodated o buses or trais, while short-distace travel is accommodated by bicyclig or walkig. TOD i tur has the potetial to reduce automobile depedecy ad usage, ad ca result i reduced vehicle-miles traveled. Pasadea has trasit-orieted ad mixed-use developmet i the cetral busiess district ad ear Metro Gold Lie Statios. Additioally, area plas such as the Cetral District ad Fair Oaks/Orage Grove Specific Plas stress walkability ad pedestria accommodatios through a pedestria etwork. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cosider TOD, mixed-uses, walkability, bikeability, ad pedestria orietatio as a high priority for redevelopmet. (f) Traffic Calmig Programs Traffic calmig programs ad policies set forth a cosesus threshold o eighborhood requests ad approvals, as well as stadard treatmets ad criteria. Traffic calmig programs i the City are geerally localized efforts govered by the Neighborhood Traffic Maagemet Program (NTMP). Whe residets are cocered over vehicle speeds, public safety, cutthrough traffic, or cogestio, they may request the City explore traffic calmig optios i their eighborhood. Pasadea also has stad-aloe Speed Hump Stadards. Pasadea icludes a variety of traffic calmig measures i their NTMP icludig: half-street closures, chicaes, bulb-outs, traffic circles, sigig, ad eforcemet. Approximately $150,000 (ot icludig staff time) is dedicated i the CIP for NTMP fuds. 7

13 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 (g) Ecoomic Vitality Improvig pedestria safety ad walkability ca ehace ecoomic vitality. Similarly, ehacig ecoomic vitality through iovative fudig optios such as Busiess Improvemet Districts (BIDs), parkig maagemet, ad façade improvemet programs ca lead to more active pedestria areas ad ecourage walkig. The City has three BIDs: Old Pasadea, the Playhouse District, ad South Lake Aveue. I additio, the City has a façade improvemet program that will cotribute up to 50% of façade improvemet costs for commercial properties. Pasadea fosters a park-oce eviromet ad provides metered parkig i areas of high-demad o-street parkig. I particular, Pasadea is a atioal leader i dedicatig reveue from parkig meters to fud maiteace ad streetscape improvemets. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cosider establishig additioal BIDs i commercial areas of the City ad apply fuds towards pedestria-related improvemets. (h) Trasportatio Demad Maagemet Programs Trasportatio Demad Maagemet (TDM) programs ecourage multi-modal travel by icetivizig oauto optios. As ew developmet occurs, TDM programs ca be expaded, formalized, ad stregtheed. Pasadea has a comprehesive TDM program. The Pasadea Trasportatio Maagemet Associatio (TMA) is a volutary, o-profit, City-directed orgaizatio aimed at developig ad implemetig strategies for rideshare programs. Pasadea also has a Trip Reductio Ordiace (TRO) that applies to various uses ad existig ad proposed lad uses, with some exceptios. Image source: Existig TDM efforts by the City ad other employers uder the TRO iclude: Provisio of bicycle ad pedestria ameities Private vapools Trasit subsidies Pay parkig for employees Alterative work hours Capital improvemets for trasit services The City has several staff leadig these TDM efforts ad coducts aual moitorig for large employers i the City. 8

14 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cosider establishig TDM programs for clusters of retail or employmet where efforts such as subsidized public trasit, eco-passes, shared parkig, bicycle sharig, car sharig, ad other programs ca ecourage various modes of trasportatio. (i) Leadig Pedestria Iterval ad Scrambles Leadig Pedestria Itervals (LPI) provide pedestrias with a head start sigal timig before vehicles o the parallel street are allowed to proceed through a itersectio. A 2000 study by the Isurace Istitute for Highway Safety foud that the LPI reduces coflicts betwee turig vehicles ad pedestrias by ehacig the visibility of the pedestria i the crosswalk. 1 Pedestria scrambles provide a pedestriaoly crossig phase, ofte allowig for diagoal crossigs. LPIs ad scramble phases are istalled i Pasadea. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cosider istallig additioal LPIs i areas of high pedestria activity throughout Pasadea, providig a right-tur o red restrictio as ecessary per recet research fidigs. 2 Evaluate the feasibility of istallig additioal scrambles i commercial districts with high pedestria volumes. (j) Bicycle Parkig Requiremets Bicyclists become pedestrias after parkig their bicycles. Safe ad coveiet bicycle parkig is essetial for ecouragig bicycle travel (especially i-lieu of vehicle travel). The City has bicycle parkig requiremets for ew developmet or additios to existig structures exceedig 15,000 square feet. Additioally, Pasadea classifies parkig facilities ito Class 1 ad Class 1 Va Houte, R.; Rettig, R.A.; Farmer, C.M.; ad Va Houte, J Field evaluatio of a leadig pedestria iterval sigal phase at three urba itersectios. Trasportatio Research Record 1734: Hubbard, S, Bullock, D ad J. Thai, Trial Implemetatio of a Leadig Pedestria Iterval: Lessos Leared, ITE Joural, October 2008, pp

15 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary parkig facilities. Class 1 bicycle parkig may iclude a full eclosed lockable space, a attedat, or a locked structure desigated for storig bicycles. Class 2 bicycle parkig cosists of a rack, stad, or other similar device for securig bicycles. No-residetial structures are required to provide a miimum of four parkig spaces while multi-family residetial structures are required to provide oe space for every six uits. Retail uses are required to provide 25% Class 1 parkig spaces ad 75% Class 2 parkig spaces. Multi-family residetial structures are required to provide 100% Class 1 spaces, while idustrial or office uses are required to provide 75% Class 1 spaces ad 25% Class 2 spaces. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cosider implemetatio of braded racks for Pasadea (with a uique desig or City symbol). The Bicycle Parkig Guidelies, published by the Associatio of Pedestria ad Bicycle Professioals (APBP), is a resource for best practices i bicycle parkig desig (see Additioal iformatio o bicycle parkig is summarized o adhttp://www.bicycligifo.org/egieerig/parkig.cfm (k) Street Furiture Requiremets Street furiture ecourages walkig by accommodatig pedestrias with beches to rest alog the route or wait for trasit; trash receptacles to maitai a clea eviromet; street trees for shade, etc. Uiform street furiture requiremets also ehace the desig of the pedestria realm ad may improve ecoomic vitality. Pasadea icludes street furiture requiremets for the various specific plas; however, a City-wide street furiture ordiace is ot i place. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cosider establishig a City-wide Street Furiture Ordiace, buildig off requiremets withi specific plas, that requires street furiture for high pedestria activity areas ad trasit stops. (l) Newspaper Rack Ordiace Newspaper racks may obstruct walkways ad reduce accessibility ad pedestria cospicuity whe ordiaces are ot i place. A Newspaper Rack Ordiace improves the pedestria realm by reducig clutter ad orgaizig sidewalk zoes. A Newspaper Rack Ordiace details size, locatio, ad maiteace requiremets. Pasadea has a Newspaper Rack Ordiace that regulates the appearace ad locatio of ewspaper racks. (m) Ope Space Requiremets Residets typically rate ope space as amog a city s key assets ad eeds. The City of Pasadea has ope space requiremets for various lad uses. The Ope Space Elemet of the City s Geeral Pla emphasizes policies for preservig ope space. The Greespace, Recreatio ad Parks Master Pla provides policies for preservig the City s trail system. Pasadea also collects residetial impact fees, a portio of which are allocated to maitaiig or ehacig existig parks ad ope space. 10

16 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 () Attetio to Crossig Barriers Crossig barriers such as railroads, freeways, ad major arterials, may discourage or eve prohibit pedestria access. Additioally, crossig barriers are ofte associated with vehicle-pedestria collisios (icludig severe ijuries ad fatalities). Idetifyig ad removig barriers, as well as prevetig ew barriers, is essetial for improvig walkability ad pedestria safety. The City does ot have a formal policy idetifyig ad addressig barriers i the City, although the City does have barriers such as freeways, o- ad off-ramps, ad light-rail tracks. The City has a successful track record of dealig with at-grade light-rail crossigs through the use of pedestria barriers ad other devices. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Idetify ad create a GIS ivetory of pedestria barriers. Develop policies for reducig the barriers through prioritizig projects ad requiremets with future developmet. (o) Access Maagemet Access maagemet seeks to limit ad cosolidate access alog major roadways, while promotig a supportig street system ad uified access ad circulatio systems for developmet. I additio to driveways, access maagemet ivolves the cotrol of the locatio, spacig, desig, ad operatio of media opeigs, iterchages, ad street coectios. Access maagemet aims to provide efficiecy ad safety of access operatios for all users icludig motorists ad pedestrias. The Pasadea Departmet of Trasportatio developed Draft Policies ad Procedures for Driveway Desig that provide basic criteria for review of driveway locatios. These guidelies discuss muicipal code requiremets for driveways, call for the miimum umber of driveways eeded, prohibited driveway locatios, ad preferred driveway locatios based o street classificatio ad proximity to streets ad other driveways. These guidelies explicitly state that cosideratio of pedestria safety is a basic priciple i driveway desig. ENHANCEMENT (a) ADA Improvemets Image source: City of Pasadea Compliace with the Americas with Disability Act (ADA) guidelies is importat ot oly to ehace commuity accessibility, but also to improve walkig coditios for all pedestrias. Pasadea follows Federal ADA guidelies. Curb ramps i Pasadea are primarily diagoal curb ramps due to rightof-way, geometric, ad budgetary costraits. Pasadea istalls trucated domes for all ew crosswalks. Additioally, wheever a project results i the removal, replacemet, or resurfacig of a facility, the facility is improved to be cosistet with curret ADA requiremets. 11

17 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Pasadea also has a policy to address requests for o-street disabled parkig that requires a accessible route from the parkig spot to the frot door of the busiess or residece. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Whe the right-of-way is available, provide a stated goal of two curb ramps per corer i the Trasitio Pla. (b) Traffic Sigals The 2009 Federal Maual of Uiform Traffic Cotrol Devices (MUTCD), which is i the process of beig adopted by Califoria, requires that all ew ad retrofitted pedestria sigals heads have coutdow idicatios. Replacig traffic sigal bulbs with LED bulbs is also a best practice to icrease visibility ad improve efficiecy. Virtually all vehicle idicatios i the city are LED. All pedestria sigals have bee outfitted with coutdow idicatios. City specificatios require that ew pedestria sigals have coutdow LED idicators. The City maitais a ivetory of sigage i school zoes, but does ot maitai a ivetory of sigs, markigs, ad traffic sigals with pedestria facilities. Pasadea also has a ivetory of work orders, may of which result from traffic ivestigatios. Basic problems are typically brought to the attetio of City staff via calls, iteret requests, ad persoal visits. Traffic cotrol devices ear school areas are moitored before school starts. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Develop a proactive moitorig program for traffic cotrol devices. Develop a GIS ivetory of pedestria traffic cotrol devices, sigs, ad markigs ad iclude maiteace records i the GIS database. (c) Collisio History ad Collisio Reports Coductig routie reviews of collisio data may eable the idetificatio of treds ad iform coutermeasure selectio. The Pasadea Police Departmet immediately reviews pedestria-vehicle collisios resultig i fatalities or serious ijuries utilizig the Crossroads software. Bimothly meetigs betwee the Trasportatio Departmet ad the Police Departmet may also iclude review of pedestria-vehicle collisio data. If the City idetifies collisio treds with applicable egieerig solutios, the City may iitiate a improvemet project. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet I additio to mappig pedestria-vehicle collisios with the Crossroads software, cosider udertakig a field ivetory of collisio locatios ad pedestria volume couts to ehace comprehesive moitorig. With sufficiet pedestria volume data, the City could prioritize collisio locatios based o collisio rates (i.e., collisios/daily pedestria volume), a practice that results i a more complete safety eeds assessmet. Treatmets could the be idetified for 12

18 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 each locatio ad programmatic fudig allocated i the City s Capital Improvemets Program (CIP). Coduct a aual review of all pedestria-vehicle collisios. (d) Speed Limits ad Speed Surveys As show i the image below, pedestria fatality rates icrease expoetially with vehicle speed. Thus, reducig vehicle speeds i pedestria zoes may be oe of the most importat strategies for ehacig pedestria safety. I Pasadea, speed surveys follow the Califoria Vehicle Code (CVC); City staff coduct surveys every seve years; ad idepedet compaies calibrate the speed radar gus. Speed limits sigs are typically posted o arterials ad collectors, ad o residetial streets where eeded. Fatal Ijury Rates by Vehicle Speed for Several Pedestria Age Groups Image source: Arterial speed maagemet falls uder the purview of Pasadea s Departmet of Trasportatio. Pasadea recetly completed a report documetig best practices for arterial speed maagemet for higher speed ad volume streets where the strategies foud i the NTMP are geerally ot applicable. 13

19 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cosider pedestria volumes whe settig speed limits ad employ traffic calmig strategies i locatios where speed surveys suggest traffic speeds are too high for pedestria areas. Esure desig stadards/ desig speeds i pedestria areas do ot cotribute to a routie eed for traffic calmig. (e) Public Ivolvemet ad Feedback Process Respodig to public cocers through public feedback mechaisms represets a more proactive ad iclusive approach to pedestria safety compared to a covetioal approach of reactig to pedestria collisios. Public ivolvemet ad feedback practices i the City iclude the followig: Various City departmets receive complaits ad/or requests for safety improvemets o City streets via phoe, , ad persoal visits. Pasadea also has a web-based public feedback system where residets ca submit requests to the City. Residets are asked to provide cotact iformatio so that the city ca reach them, if ecessary. Traffic ivestigatio process ca be iitiated through a public request ad icludes a site visit ad other data such as a collisio history report. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cosider providig a trackig umber for requests made o-lie so residets ca track their requests electroically. (f) Pedestria Safety Program ad Walkig Audits Walkig audits provide a iteractive opportuity to receive feedback from key stakeholders about the study area as well as discuss potetial solutios ad their feasibility. They ca be led by city staff, advocacy groups, eighborhood groups, or cosultats. The Playhouse District recetly coducted a walkabout for residets ad stakeholders to review the pedestria eviromet i this area. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cosider establishig a City-wide pedestria safety program to iclude regular walkig audits, based o the grat-fuded program i 14

20 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 the City of Pasadea ad recommedatios of this PSA. This effort could complemet other gree programs i the City. Develop educatioal campaigs: Campaigs may iclude advertisemets o buses ad bus shelters, a i-school curriculum, commuity school courses, public service aoucemets, ad/or brochures, amog may other strategies. The Street Smarts program i Sa José, Califoria, provides a model pedestria safety educatio program (see for more iformatio). The Bicycle Trasportatio Alliace has developed a pedestria safety curriculum for 2d-3rd graders, which icorporates physical educatio, health, ad social resposibility (refer to Other safety curriculum resources are available at: Additioal pedestria safety brochures are available at: ad (g) Desig Policies ad Developmet Stadards Desig policies ad developmet stadards ca improve the pedestria walkig experiece, ecourage walkig, ehace ecoomic vitality, ad offer fudig opportuities for pedestria improvemets. The City has various specific plas that provide ample desig ad pedestria cosideratios, a Urba Forestry Program, ad a desig review process. Several City desig stadards address the pedestria eviromet, particularly i commercial areas. City staff ecourages pedestria friedly developmet through iteral review i the etitlemet process. Additioally, Pasadea is i the process of developig street typologies for classified streets. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cotiue cosideratio of form-based zoig to ifluece the look ad feel of eighborhoods throughout the City. Example Sidewalk Corridor (h) Pedestria-Orieted Sigal ad Stop Warrats Providig all-way stop cotrol (stop sigs for every approach) at a itersectio improves pedestria safety by reducig speeds ad pedestria-vehicle coflicts. Best practices iclude: Requirig a crash history of three istead of five collisios based o routie uderreportig Reducig traffic volume thresholds based o latet demad Providig cosideratio for school childre/pedestrias ad traffic speeds Pasadea geerally follows MUTCD requiremets for sigal ad stop sig warrats. Pasadea has adopted a residetial stop sig warrat. (i) Pedestria Volumes Pedestria volume data is importat for prioritizig projects, developig collisio rates, ad determiig appropriate pedestria ifrastructure. Pasadea does ot require that bicycle or pedestria couts be collected with all maual itersectio couts. The City geerally collects pedestria volumes o a ad 15

21 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 hoc basis i respose to issues that have bee brought to the City s attetio or will require with developmets expected to geerate sigificat pedestria traffic. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cosider routiely collectig pedestria ad bicycle volumes by requirig them to be coducted i cojuctio with maual itersectio couts. Geocode pedestria volume data with GIS software alog with other data such as pedestria cotrol devices ad collisios to aalyze data for treds or hotspots related to pedestria safety. (j) Pedestria/Bicycle Coordiator I a samplig of pedestria-orieted Califoria cities, a full-time pedestria/bicycle coordiator is typically provided for cities exceedig 100,000 populatio. Pasadea has a staff member who speds approximately 25% of his time actig as Pedestria/Bicycle Coordiator. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet With a populatio of approximately 150,000, Pasadea may cosider employig a full-time Pedestria/Bicycle Coordiator, i additio to curret staff. The Coordiator could be ivolved i activities such as iterdepartmetal coordiatio, grat writig, project maagemet for a Pedestria Pla update, ad staff liaiso to a ew pedestria subcommittee. (k) Formal Advisory Committee Advisory committees serve as importat soudig boards for ew policies, programs, ad practices. A citizes pedestria advisory committee is also a key compoet of proactive public ivolvemet for idetifyig pedestria safety issues ad opportuities. The City has a appoited Trasportatio Advisory Commissio (TAC) that reviews pedestria policies as warrated, through the ad-hoc pedestria subcommittee that was formed for developmet of the Pedestria Pla. Pasadea also forms a Bicycle Pla Advisory Committee for the periodic update to the Bicycle Master Pla. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cotiue meetig with TAC pedestria ad bicycle subcommittee to address pedestria eeds. (l) Eforcemet Eforcemet of pedestria right-of-way laws ad speed limits is a importat complemet to egieerig treatmets ad educatio programs. The Pasadea Police Departmet (PPD) has officers that are assiged to the traffic sectio i Pasadea. They sped approximately twety percet of their time o pedestria related issues. Motor officers atted a course specifically focused o pedestria safety ad law eforcemet ad provide eforcemet assistace to schools at their request. Pasadea Police are also ivolved i special evet eforcemet activities. 16

22 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 The Departmet of Trasportatio ad PPD meet mothly to discuss traffic operatios ad eforcemet issues. The PPD has established a radar gu checkout program for commuity voluteers to moitor residetial areas where speedig is a cocer. Additioally, the PPD coducts special eforcemet activities through the Califoria Office of Traffic Safety (OTS) grats. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cotiue pursuig OTS fudig for special eforcemet activities. Share police resources with eighborig cities. The Cities of Suyvale ad Hermosa Beach, Califoria, amog others, participate i police sharig with other cities to ehace policy resources for activities such as pedestria stigs. (m) Historic Sites Historic walkig routes, such as the famous Freedom Trail i Bosto, ecourage walkig ad ehace ecoomic vitality. Pasadea has several historic sites such as the Blacker House ad Castle Gree/Hotel Gree Apartmets. Additioally, Pasadea has a Desig ad Historic Preservatio sectio withi the Plaig Divisio. A review of these documets idicated that pedestria orietatio is ot prioritized for historic site plaig. A walkig route highlightig Pasadea s public art is available o the City s website through the cultural affairs divisio. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Create a historic site/district map ad establish ad implemet a wayfidig program, icludig sigs ad maps, to ehace ad coect the historic sites. Cosider developig a walkig route orieted toward atural or uique elemets i Pasadea, such historical markers alog the Rose Bowl Parade Route. () Geeral Pla: Pedestria Nodes Plaig priciples cotaied i a city s Geeral Pla ca provide a importat policy cotext for developig pedestria-orieted, walkable areas. Trasit-orieted developmet, higher desities, ad mixed uses are importat plaig tools for pedestria-orieted areas. Pasadea s Geeral Pla does ot idetify pedestria odes but does discuss some pedestria cosideratios for high-pedestria activity areas. 17

23 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Idetify pedestria odes i future updates to Geeral Pla ad provide pedestria-orieted policies ad objectives i these areas. (o) Health Agecies Ivolvig o-traditioal parters such as Emergecy Medical Service (EMS) persoel, public health agecies, pediatricias, etc., i the plaig or desig of pedestria facilities may create opportuities to be more proactive with pedestria safety, idetify pedestria safety challeges ad educatio veues, ad secure fudig. Additioally, uder-reportig of pedestria-vehicle collisios could be a problem that may be partially mitigated by ivolvig the medical commuity i pedestria safety plaig. 3 While health professioals do ot have direct participatio i the plaig or desig of pedestria facilities i Pasadea, developmet review is coordiated with the Fire Departmet. I additio, the Departmet of Public Health was cosulted durig the developmet of the Pedestria Pla ad the Bicycle Master Pla. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cotiue to seek opportuities for techical collaboratio ad fudig with public health ad health care professioals. (p) Proactive Approach to Istitutioal Challeges Numerous agecies have jurisdictio over compoets of the Pasadea trasportatio etwork, icludig Metro, Pasadea Uified School District, Los Ageles Commuity College District (LACCD), ad Caltras. Istitutioal coordiatio associated with multiple agecies is ecessary because of o-local cotrol of right-of-way ad differig policies regardig pedestria accommodatio. For example, Caltras policies have historically discouraged proposals for bulbouts, wider sidewalks, ad other pedestriaorieted improvemets. Pasadea has ecoutered istitutioal obstacles related to pedestria issues resultig from a lack of collaboratio with local commuity colleges ad schools o issues that traverse the school property lie ito the City s right-of-way. Other obstacles have arise attemptig to implemet bicycle/pedestria facilities because Caltras geerally deies deviatio from their desig stadards. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Recet Cotext Sesitive Solutios ad Routie Accommodatios policies withi Caltras (refer to the revised Deputy Directive 64: ow require the agecy to cosider multimodal eeds ad egage i collaborative commuity plaig. These ew 3 Sciortio, S., Vassar, M., Radetsky, M. ad M. Kudso, Sa Fracisco Pedestria Ijury Surveillace: Mappig, Uderreportig, ad Ijury Severity i Police ad Hospital Records, Accidet Aalysis ad Prevetio, Volume 37, Issue 6, November 2005, Pages

24 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 policies may reduce istitutioal challeges, ad the City may work with Caltras ad other agecies to idetify ew opportuities for joit plaig of trasportatio facilities. Cosider additioal efforts at meetig ad coordiatig with LACCD o dealig with multi-modal trasportatio issues. (q) Neighborhood-sized Schools Neighborhood-sized schools, as opposed to mega schools o the periphery, are a key igrediet for ecouragig walkig ad bicyclig to school. Pasadea may request, but does ot require eighborhoodsized schools, as this is uder the purview of the local school district. I Pasadea, use of school grouds for ight ad weeked recreatioal activity is permitted. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cotiue workig with the local school districts to maitai eighborhood-sized ad orieted schools as part of a Suggested-Routes-to-School policy. (r) Street Tree Requiremets Street trees ehace the pedestria eviromet by providig shade ad a buffer from vehicles. Street trees may also ehace property values, especially i residetial eighborhoods. However, street trees, whe improperly selected, plated, or maitaied, may cause damage to adjacet public utilities. Pasadea has a Tree Protectio Ordiace, tree removal list, ad Urba Forestry Program that provide guidace o the platig, removal, ad maiteace of trees i the public right-of-way. However, a review of these documets ad the muicipal code did ot idicate ay requiremets for the provisios of street trees with ew developmet or i pedestria zoes. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet Cosider adoptig a Street Tree Ordiace requirig the platig of trees ad specifyig where ad how ofte street trees could be plated/ replaced. Specificatio of which types of trees are appropriate ca be foud i the documets listed above. The ordiace could also allow trees i the parkig lae or parkig lots, where feasible. OPPORTUNITY (a) Crosswalk Istallatio, Removal, ad Ehacemet Policy A formal policy for crosswalk istallatio, removal, ad ehacemet provides trasparecy i decisio-makig ad adopts best practices i pedestria safety ad accommodatio. The City utilizes a case-by-case approach to crosswalk istallatio that icludes followig the CAMUTCD ad Istitute of Trasportatio Egieers best practices. This icludes a crosswalk markig threshold of Example High Visibility Crosswalk 19

25 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary pedestrias per hour for two hours (ot ecessarily cosecutive) ad ehaced treatmets for crosswalks at locatios exceedig 10,000 ADT. The City does ot have a formal crosswalk policy that provides guidace for the istallatio or removal of crosswalks, or ehacemets to the marked crosswalks at u-sigalized itersectios. Decisios regardig crosswalks are made o a case-by-case basis. Pasadea geerally discourages marked crosswalks at ucotrolled locatios. This pedestria safety study is developig such a policy, which will covert this bechmark to a key stregth. (b) Routie Accommodatios/Complete Streets Policy Routie Accommodatios or Complete Streets Policies accommodate all modes of travel ad travelers of all ages ad abilities. The City does ot have a Complete Streets policy but does assess a impact fee for ew developmets that fuds traffic improvemets, which ca be a key buildig block for such a policy. The City also addresses pedestria accommodatios through the developmet review process ad has o-goig bus priority projects o major corridors. This policy would complemet the developmet of street typologies uder way ad metioed above. Suggestio for Potetial Improvemet To support Complete Streets policies, the City may cosider codifyig their subdivisio ad developmet requiremets by establishig a Complete Streets Policy ad accommodatig all modes i stadard cross-sectios for collectors ad arterials. This policy could iclude a checklist for use durig developmet applicatio review. The followig jurisdictios have established practices for Complete Streets ad Routie Accommodatios, icludig implemetatio of these policies through multi-modal level of service thresholds, ad may serve as models for Pasadea: Charlotte, North Carolia s Urba Street Desig Guidelies: Sacrameto Trasportatio ad Air Quality Collaborative Best Practices for Complete Streets: Sa Fracisco, Califoria, Departmet of Public Health s Pedestria Quality Idex: 20

26 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary LITERATURE REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF BEST PRACTICES FOR PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS The documets summarized below represet a review of recet literature ad a overview of best practice documets for pedestria safety treatmets at sigalized itersectios. For each documet we provide a brief summary of the research ad treatmets, idetify best practices, ad discuss major fidigs from case studies. For brevity, where a best practice is metioed i a documet already summarized i the memo, the strategy is ot repeated uless a additioal case study is preseted. 1. Lalai, N., et al., Alterative Treatmets for At-Grade Pedestria Crossigs, Istitute of Trasportatio Egieers, Alterative Treatmets for At-Grade Pedestria Crossigs provides a compilatio of pedestria crossig treatmets beyod marked crosswalks. It was iitiated after previous research foud that marked crosswalks at ucotrolled locatios resulted i icreased pedestria collisios. Although a large portio of this report is focused o usigalized locatios, oe sectio of the report is devoted to sigalized itersectio crossigs. Lalai idetifies the followig treatmets as best practices for ehacig safety at sigalized itersectios: Leadig Pedestria Sigal Itervals With this device, a sigal modificatio is made such that the pedestria walk phase begis three secods i advace of turig vehicles with permitted left-tur or right-tur movemets. The objective is to permit pedestrias to cross several secods before potetially coflictig motor vehicles receive a gree idicatio. Case studies ote the beefits of istallig leadig pedestria itervals. I St. Image source: Petersburg, FL, Rettig et al. (1997) observed a decrease i right-of-way violatios whe leadig pedestria itervals were istalled. I Sa Fracisco, Fleck (2000) oted similar results. Accessible Pedestria Sigals at Sigalized Itersectios These treatmets are audible or trasmitted toes or speech messages to assist visually impaired pedestrias i idetifyig whe they have the right-of-way at a sigalized itersectio. The istallatio of accessible pedestria sigals is a recommeded practice of the ADA Accessibility Guidelies (ADAAG). Per the ADAAG, accessible pedestria sigals should be istalled at ewly sigalized itersectios with actuated pedestria sigals. The documet cites Betze et al. (1999), a study that evaluated the ability of visually impaired pedestrias to successfully cross a sigalized itersectio with ad without Talkig Sigs, a type of remote ifrared Accessible Pedestria Sigal (APS). A Image source: 21

27 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 successful crossig was recorded if the pedestria was able to cross the itersectio without coflict or without chagig directio. The measures of evaluatio were: bega crossig durig walk iterval, bega crossig withi crosswalk, bega crossig facig up curb, eded crossig withi crosswalk, ad eeded o help decidig whe to cross. I all five cases, the percetage of successful crossigs was higher with the APS tha without it. Pedestria Coutdow Sigal This device displays a coutdow of the umber of secods remaiig for a pedestria crossig iterval durig the flash/do t walk stage. The documet cites Leoard et al. (1999), a study that evaluated coutdow-type sigals ad foud that while they did ot prevet pedestrias from iitiatig crossig at the begiig of the flashdo t walk phase, they did deter some pedestrias from startig to cross with too few secods left. Additioal iformatio o pedestria coutdow sigals is icluded i the followig sectio. Image source: 22

28 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary FHWA, Pedestria Safety Guide ad Coutermeasure Selectio System (PedSafe), The US Federal Highway Admiistratio (FHWA) s pedestria safety guide ad coutermeasure selectio system icludes iteractive selectio tools ad matrices, descriptios of coutermeasures, ad case studies of implemeted treatmets. The guide otes the factors related to pedestria crashes, meas by which to select treatmets, ad compoets for implemetatio. The guide provides the followig case studies related to improvig safety at sigalized itersectios: ADA Curb Ramps The City of Austi, Texas worked closely with the US Access Board as ADA guidelies evolved ad has cotiually adapted its desigs to create accessible desigs for all modes of trasportatio. This icludes the provisio of directioal curb ramps with trucated domes. The implemetatio of curb ramps i Austi illustrated that eve a simple policy requires a detailed uderstadig of eed, coordiatio betwee several stakeholders, ad a strog uderstadig of best practices. The collaborative evaluatio of the curb ramps while policy was evolvig allowed for the Access Board to also uderstad the success of ew guidelies. Image source: City of Pasadea Large Itersectio Solutios I St. Petersburg, FL, wide itersectios stalled operatios ad icreased the potetial for pedestria crashes because they required log crossig times (i excess of 30 secods). The City worked to develop a set of treatmets for that could be used to improve pedestria safety ad vehicle operatios at large itersectios. These treatmets were implemeted at the itersectio of Highway 98 ad 74 th Aveue. This icluded providig media refuges, arrowig vehicle travel laes to reduce speeds, ad addig right tur slip laes to reduce crossig distaces. I doig so, the City foud that pedestria safety improved while gree time made available to motorists icreased. Additioally, the maximum distace that a pedestria had to cross was reduced by approximately 50 feet. Pedestria Scramble I Beverly Hills, CA, daytime pedestria activity is very high i the dowtow area. Vehicle/pedestria coflicts occur at may high-pedestria volume itersectios, sice large pedestria flows ca block crosswalks to turig traffic for the etire gree sigal phase. I respose to this problem, the City of Beverly Hills modified traffic sigals to iclude a scramble phase at eight itersectios with high pedestria volumes. Durig this phase, o vehicles are i the itersectio, so pedestrias ca cross diagoally or covetioally. A evaluatio of vehicle operatios usig ICU aalysis idetified that most itersectios cotiued to operate sufficietly despite the added phase. After ie years of implemetatio, a before-ad-after study was coducted by the City to 23

29 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 evaluate pedestria safety at the itersectios. A overall decrease i vehicle/pedestria collisios of 66% was realized. Image source: Mai Street Redesig I Hedersoville, NC, pedestrias i the dowtow shoppig district had a difficult time crossig a wide street with heavy traffic. A group of treatmets was applied at itersectios: marked crosswalks at all four legs ad curb bulbouts at the Mai Street legs to shorte crossig distace. With these treatmets ad mid-block traffic calmig, vehicles ow travel at 20 miles per hour ad crossig is more comfortable for pedestrias. Pedestria activity i the Mai Street area has also icreased sice the implemetatio of these treatmets. Reduced Curb Radii I Bethesda, MD, high vehicle speeds were posig problems for local pedestrias o Lelad Street, a arterial roadway. Amogst the coutermeasures employed to calm traffic o the street were reducig curb radii from 50 feet to 30 feet. With the redesiged streets, the 85 th percetile speed was reduced from 32 mph to 27 mph. Image source: Pedestria Coutdow Sigals (additioal case studies) The City of Moterey, CA has a high volume of pedestria activity. At some busy itersectios, pedestrias had large distaces to cross ad there was cofusio ad coflicts betwee pedestrias ad motorists. The City decided to test pedestria coutdow sigals at sigalized itersectios to see whether it would improve clarity betwee pedestrias ad motorists. The City chose two itersectios for implemetatio that were equipped with coutdow devices. Studies oted that prior to implemetatio of coutdows, pedestrias would eter the itersectio durig the flash do t walk phase, whereas afterwards most pedestrias waited for the ext phase oce the coutdow was less tha 10 secods. Additioally, pedestrias iterviewed oted that havig the coutdow device helped i uderstadig pedestria sigals. Pedestria Coutdow Sigals were also istalled i Sa Fracisco, where subsequet studies idetified that with coutdows there were fewer pedestrias i the crosswalk oce the sigal tured red (decrease from 14% to 9%), ad the observed vehicle/pedestria coflicts decreased. 24

30 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary ITE. Toolbox of Coutermeasures ad Their Potetial Effectiveess for Pedestria Crashes. A pedestria issue brief released by ITE i 2007 reviewed available literature ad provided estimates of the crash reductio factor (CRF) for various coutermeasures, icludig coutdow pedestria sigals. A CRF of 25 percet was estimated at locatios istallig coutdow pedestria sigals for pedestria crashes i urba areas with a crash severity of ijury or fatal. The CRF is the percetage crash reductio that might be expected followig the istallatio of a coutermeasure ad are regarded as geeric estimates of effectiveess based o prior research. 4. FHWA. Safety at Sigalized Itersectios. x.cfm This website provides a oe-hour presetatio o safety coutermeasures for sigalized itersectios. May of the coutermeasures are relevat to pedestria safety. I particular, the followig coutermeasure is recommeded to ehace pedestria safety at sigalized itersectios: Protected Left-Tur Phasig Left turs are the highestrisk movemet at a itersectio. Providig a protected left-tur phase improves safety ad itersectio efficiecy for all modes. Image source: 5. Metropolita Trasportatio Commissio (MTC). Pedestria Safety Toolbox. As developed by Fehr & Peers (S. Reyolds ad M. Ridgway) for MTC. The Metropolita Trasportatio Commissio i the Sa Fracisco Bay Area developed a toolbox of strategies for promotig a safe ad welcomig eviromet for bicyclists ad pedestrias. The toolbox icludes descriptios ad implemetatio of educatio, egieerig, ad eforcemet treatmets ad ca be sorted by cost, crash type, ad target populatio. Poiters ad costs associated with implemetatio are icluded withi this report. Refereces for further readig ad the idetificatio of locatios where treatmets have bee implemeted are icluded i this toolbox. I additio to treatmets idetified above, this toolbox icludes the followig coutermeasures: Image source: Tur Restrictios With this tool, sigs are placed prohibitig right turs o red (RTOR) at sigalized itersectios (o oe-way streets, this could ivolve prohibitig left turs o red), all right turs, or all left turs. The restrictios may apply all day or oly durig certai hours. I additio to sigs, a curbed islad ca be used to restrict left turs from side street approaches oto the street where marked crosswalks are located. This tool is used to reduce the umber of turig movemets coflictig with pedestrias usig the crossig. The City of Philadelphia, PA, New York City, NY, ad the City of Atlata, GA frequetly use this tool. Further readig o this tool: 25

31 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 o Zegeer, C.V., ad M.J. Cyecki. Icreased Safety at Right-Tur-o-Red Itersectios Aual Meetig Compedium of Papers, Washigto, DC: ITE, 1997 o Zegeer, C.V., ad M.J. Cyecki. Evaluatio of Coutermeasures Related to RTOR Collisios That Ivolved Pedestrias. Trasportatio Research Record 1059:24-34, 1986 o Zador, P., J. Moshma, ad L. Marcus, Adoptio of Right Tur o Red: Effects o Crashes at Sigalized Itersectios, Accidet Aalysis ad Prevetio 14 (1982), pp o Rettig, R.A., M. Nitzburg, C.M. Farmer, ad R. Koblauch. Field Evaluatio of Two Methods for Restrictig Right-Turs-o-Red to Promote Pedestria Safety. Washigto, DC: Isurace Istitute for Highway Safety, April Advace Stop Bars With this tool, a stop lie is placed i advace of crosswalk to icrease pedestria visibility to vehicles ad reduce vehicle ecroachmet upo the crosswalk. This tool is used to ecourage motorists to stop farther away from the marked crosswalk. This tool is used frequetly i the City of St. Petersburg, FL ad the City of Sacrameto, CA. Further readig o this tool: o Rettig, R., ad R. Va Houte. Safety Beefits of Advace STOP Lies at Sigalized Itersectios: Results of a Field Evaluatio. ITE Joural, September Image source: Fehr & Peers Pedestria Detectio For this tool, ifrared, microwave, or video detectors are istalled at sigalized itersectios to detect pedestrias. This ca be used to icrease the legth of a pedestria sigal or to actuate a pedestria phase. While this device is promisig, its effectiveess is still uder study ad it should be cosider a experimetal device. The tool has bee used i Los Ageles, CA. Further readig o this tool: Image source: o Hughes, R., H. Huag, C. Zegeer, ad M. Cyecki. Evaluatio of Automated Detectio at Sigalized Itersectios. Washigto, DC: US DOT, FHWA, February Sigal Timig Extesios With this tool, the amout of time for pedestria clearace is icreased to allow for slower walk speeds through a itersectio. Geerally, the extesio allows for a pedestria to cross the itersectio while walkig at a speed of feet/secod istead of the stadard 4 feet/secod. The timig may be icreased with a separate butto or a loger butto push. Additioal Marked Crosswalks With this tool, marked crosswalks are applied to all legs of a sigalized itersectio where crossig is allowed, with a preferece for marked crossigs across all legs. Marked crosswalks war motorists to expect pedestria crossigs. At 26

32 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 crosswalks with high pedestria volumes, ear schools, or with skewed crossigs, high visibility stripig may be appropriate. Further readig o this tool: o o o Pedestria Crossig Study, Fial Submittal, Pedestria Traffic Cotrol Measures, Arctic Slope Cosultig Group, Ic. Zegeer, C., J. Stuart, ad H. Huag, Safety Effects of Marked vs. Umarked Crosswalks at Ucotrolled Crossig Locatios, Federal Highway Admiistratio, Washigto, DC, 2001 Glock, J.W., R.B. Nassi, R.E. Hut, ad B.W. Fairfax. Implemetatio of a Program to Reduce Pedestria-Related Accidets ad Facilitate Pedestria Crossigs. Paper submitted for the Pedestria Project Award, Partership for a Walkable America ad ITE, August Bus Stop Relocatio For this tool, trasit stops are relocated to the far side of the itersectio to allow pedestrias to cross behid the bus ad improve driver s visibility to pedestrias. This practice also improves trasit operatios. Driveway Treatmets/Access Maagemet Driveway treatmets iclude arrowig or closig driveways, tighteig turig radii, covertig driveways to right-i-oly or right-out oly movemets, ad providig media dividers o wide driveways. Whe driveways cross sidewalks, a sidewalk level should be maitaied across the driveway of o more tha 2 percet sideslope. Large sigs ad bushes at driveways should be miimized to improve the visibility betwee motorists ad pedestrias. The sidewalk material should be maitaied across the driveway as well. This tool reduces pedestria ad motor vehicle coflicts, improves access for people with disabilities, ad improves visibility betwee cars ad pedestrias at driveways. Image source: 27

33 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Curb Extesio This tool icludes the extesio of a curb ito the parkig lae to reduce the crossig distace for pedestrias ad to slow traffic. Curb extesios are used frequetly i dowtow areas, icludig i the cities of Sa Fracisco ad Philadelphia. Further readig o this tool: o Ewig, R. Traffic Calmig, State of the Practice. Report o. FHWA-RD-135. Washigto, DC: ITE uder cotract with US DOT, FHWA, o Caadia Guide to Neighborhood Traffic Calmig. Ottawa, Otario: Trasportatio Associatio of Caada, December Image source: Fehr & Peers Pedestria Refuge Islad A raised islad is istalled i the roadway s media to separate opposig traffic. This allows pedestrias to focus o each directio of traffic ad provides a restig poit should the pedestria be uable to cross the street i oe cycle legth. The City of Sa Luis Obispo, CA has istalled pedestria refuge islads, offerig a best practice case study. Further readig o this tool: o Lalai, N. Road Safety at Pedestria Refuges. Traffic Egieerig ad Cotrol, September o Bowma, B.L. ad Vecellio, R.L., Ivestigatio of the Impact of Medias o Road Users, Fial Report No. FHWA-RD , o Bacquie, P., D. Ega, ad L. Ig. Pedestria Refuge Islad Safety Audit. Compedium of Papers, ITE Sprig Coferece, Moterey, Califoria, USA, March Image source: City of Pasadea Sigs to Prompt Pedestrias Sigs istalled at sigalized crossigs urge pedestrias to wait for the WALK sigal. Pavemet stecils may also be used. This tool istructs ad directs pedestrias to use proper techiques whe crossig a street. The City of St. Petersburg, FL uses pedestria prompt sigage. Image source: 28

34 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Sigs to Prompt Motorist Behavior Motoristpromptig sigs commuicate variatios of the basic message of "Yield to Pedestrias", icludig "Yield to Pedestrias i Crosswalk", which are sometimes supplemeted by sigs with strog laguage, such as "State Law" or "It's the Law"; ad "Turig Traffic Must Yield to Pedestrias." Image source: Image source: Educatio ad Commuity Behavior The MTC Toolbox promotes commuity activism to help raise the profile of bicycle ad pedestria issues, imbue childre with safe bicyclig ad walkig habits, ad covice local elected officials to create ew bike laes or improve sidewalks. Strategies iclude: o o o o o o Neighborhood pace car program Neighborhood watch program School itervetio programs Billboards, electroic message boards, brochures, etc. Walk-your-child-to-school day Speed moitorig trailer Eforcemet The MTC Toolbox also icludes eforcemet strategies for ehacig pedestria safety. Targeted police eforcemet supports eighborhood ad commuity goals for improvig safety. Eforcemet tools ca require a sigificat ivestmet from local agecies. Newer tools like red-light ruig cameras ad radar 'wagos' ca miimize the amout of staff time required of local law eforcemet agecies. Strategies i the toolbox iclude: o Ordiace chages Image source: o o o Ehaced police eforcemet Pedestria stig operatios Photo eforcemet 29

35 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary Mitma, M., M. Ridgway, ad T. Chira-Chavala. A Techical Guide for Coductig Pedestria Safety Assessmets for Califoria Cities. UC Berkeley Techology Trasfer Program This documet is a techical guide for coductig pedestria safety assessmets. The UC Berkeley Tech Trasfer Program has bee coductig pedestria safety assessmet as a free service to cities i Califoria sice The objective of the PSAs is to improve pedestria safety at specific locatios, ehace walkability ad livability, ad create a safe ad comfortable pedestria eviromet. The guide details a method by which to coduct safety assessmets, icludig ivolvig stakeholders, collectig data, coductig walkig audits, ad recommedig treatmets. The guide provides a meu of treatmets that may be appropriate to recommed to cities, icludig egieerig, educatio, eforcemet, ad ecouragemet coutermeasures. The guide also provides a prompt list of questios, bechmarks, ad a toolbox of best practices. The toolbox of best practices was selected based o a comprehesive literature review ad recommedatios from a pael of experts icludig academics, practitioers, ad state ad federal agecy officials. I additio to treatmets idetified i the documets discussed above, the guide idetifies the followig egieerig coutermeasures for sigalized itersectios ad corridors: Road Diet This decide icludes the reductio i umber of travel laes o a roadway achieved by wideig sidewalks or addig bicycle or parkig lies. O streets with o-street parkig, roadways ca be arrowed by covertig parallel parkig to agled parkig. Image source: Before After 30

36 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Improved Right-Tur Slip-Lae Desig For this tool, a roadway pork chop islad is desiged to chaelize right-tur laes from other travel laes. Image source: Fehr & Peers 7. FHWA s Pedestria/Bicycle Iformatio Ceter: The Pedestria ad Bicycle Iformatio Ceter (PBIC) is a atioal clearighouse for iformatio about health ad safety, egieerig, advocacy, educatio, eforcemet, access, ad pedestria mobility. They have collected iformatio regardig implemetatio guidelies ad walkig solutios, i additio to a compedium of case studies last updated i July Key studies related to sigalized itersectios iclude the followig: Comprehesive School-Age Pedestria Safety Program Orage Couty, FL formed a K- 12 curriculum to address pedestria safety i the area. The safety team is comprised of voluteers from local agecies, with the program beig led by the local School Board. Programs such as Walk Your Child to School Day were implemeted ad curriculum icluded books, posters, presetatios, ad videos. Local Media Campaigs The City of Toroto created a media campaig to spread their message Cross the Street As If Your Life Depeds O It, Because It Does, with posters ad safety brochures set to 900 commuity agecies ad posted i high visibility areas. The cost totaled just over $20,000 ad the media lauch for the campaig was covered by several ewspapers. Over 867,000 viewed the ad show i movie theaters ad media images evaluated were foud to educate readers ad viewers. Videos I Madiso, Wiscosi, pedestria safety eforcemet DVDs were created to better trai safety officers ad the public o how to determie right of way ad properly cross at itersectios. Despite groups iitially reluctat to egage i pedestria safety traiig, the DVD proved successful i places where it was show with a subsequet traiig book to come. Icetives/Cotests May Atlata residets choose ot to walk eve for short trips. I respose to this problem, Atlata s Dowtow Trasportatio Maagemet Associatio (TMA) bega a educatio program to icrease walkig for short trips through a walk there challege. Participats receive a pedometer to track the umber of steps they take ad 31

37 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 weekly ad mothly wiers receive prizes. Nearly 2,000 pedometers were distributed durig the Walk There! Challege ad was quite successful with elected officials. 8. FHWA s Natioal Ceter for Safe Routes to School: The Safe Routes to School program is iteded to eable commuity leaders, schools, ad parets across the US to improve safety ad ecourage childre to walk ad bicycle to school. The Federal Highway Admiistratio has developed a Safe Routes to School guide to support the developmet of SRTS programs. It is based o the teet that there eeds to be implemetatio of egieerig, educatio, eforcemet, ad evaluatio measures to be fully successful. The guide also idetifies various treatmets for itersectios ad thigs to cosider for implemetatio. Some case studies described iclude the followig: Pedestria Decoy Miami Beach, FL implemeted a pedestria decoy operatio i which police acted as plai-clothed pedestria crossig the street. Whe motorists did ot yield to the police officer, they were pulled over ad provided with iformatioal fliers ad writte ad verbal warigs. The operatio icreased the percetage of motorists yieldig to pedestrias with a icrease i yieldig over a period of more tha a year. Traffic Complait Hotlie Phoeix, AZ operates a traffic complait hotlie. Residets ca call to make complaits regardig traffic violatios, ad locatios with several complaits receive police eforcemet. After a period of eforcemet, violatios ad warigs are tallied with additioal eforcemet scheduled whe ecessary. Those who call the hotlie with complaits receive follow-up from the call ceter with the results of the eforcemet stig. 9. FHWA s Pedestria Road Safety Audit Guidelies ad Prompt Lists. This documet provides agecies coductig Road Safety Audits with a better uderstadig o the eeds of pedestrias through the provisio of guidelies ad prompt lists. The master prompt list idetifies potetial issues that should be addressed at all times while the detail prompt list idetifies whe certai prompts eed to be cosidered. Sectio B focuses o street crossigs ad asks questios particularly regardig the visibility of pedestrias, whether traffic cotrols address eeds of all users, ad how pedestrias iteract with other modes of traffic. 10. Victoria Trasport Policy Istitute, Walkig ad Cyclig Ecouragemet. TDM Ecyclopedia. The Victoria Trasport Policy Istitute idetifies best practices for ecouragig walkig. The VTPI TDM Ecyclopedia cites a Cleary ad McClitock (2000) paper regardig a employee-based program developmet. Best practices iclude: creatig a clear, cosistet ad positive message about omotorized travel beefits, usig promotioal campaigs withi the overall program, fidig opportuities for coordiatig with other orgaizatios, ad usig cyclig ad walkig orgaizatios to help elist voluteers. 11. U.S. Access Board. The U.S. Access Board is a federal agecy committed to accessible desig. This site provides a repository of iformatio regardig ADA accessibility. It idetifies research related to pedestria treatmets that are ewly required by the ADA, ad also provides guidace towards implemetatio ad caveats associated with applicatio of various treatmets. 32

38 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary City of Sacrameto Pedestria Safety Guidelies (2003). The City of Sacrameto has established a set of pedestria safety guidelies that icludes treatmets at sigalized itersectios. The guidelies make ote of the use of Leadig Pedestria Itervals, referecig the Istitute of Highway Safety study that demostrated LPIs reducig the umber of pedestria/vehicle coflicts. The City has istalled leadig pedestria itervals at four locatios. At sigalized itersectios with high pedestriavehicle coflicts, the City idetified the followig coutermeasures to implemet: right tur o red restrictios, reduced corer radii, watch turig vehicle ad yield to pedestria sigage, leadig pedestria itervals ad protected lefttur vehicle phases, ad aimated eye LED sigals. Aimated Eye LED sigals This device shows a shiftig pair of eyes. They are iteded to remid pedestrias to watch for turig vehicles ad are istalled at locatios with high turig movemet volumes. Image source: Image source: 13. NCHRP Report 616: Multimodal Level of Service Aalysis for Urba Streets. Natioal Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 616 is orieted toward public agecies that are resposible for the plaig, desig, ad operatio of urba streets. This report icludes a method for measurig the performace of a urba street for all of its users icludig: motorists, trasit patros, bicycle riders, ad pedestrias. This documet reviews existig literature ad models for evaluatig the Level of Service (LOS) for the various users of urba streets. Followig a discussio of LOS for each mode, the report cocludes with a itegrated Multimodal LOS Framework for urba streets that reports a sigle average LOS for the four modes. While this does ot relate directly to pedestria safety, LOS may have a idirect effect o pedestria safety whe ifrastructure decisios are made based o automobile LOS oly. This may result i wider, higher speed roadways ad itersectios, with reduced pedestria LOS ad safety. 14. City of Pasadea. Best Practices i Arterial Speed Maagemet (2009). As developed by Kimley-Hor ad Associates, Ic., for Pasadea. This report provides cadidate measures to be used i the maagemet of vehicular speeds o major streets (major collectors ad arterials). Pasadea has a Neighborhood Traffic Maagemet Pla; however, may of the treatmets i the Pla are ot appropriate for streets with higher speeds ad volumes tha residetial streets. I respose, this documet suggests a tiered approach for streets exceedig 20,000 vehicles per day ad those with less tha 20,000 vehicles per day. Measures icluded i this report iclude, but are ot limited to, roudabouts, road diets, traffic sigal techiques, eforcemet, ad deflectio. The selectio ad applicability of treatmets i this report are based o literature reviews ad iterviews with trasportatio professioals with expertise i speed maagemet. 33

39 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 With speed directly related to pedestria ijury severity for pedestria-vehicle collisios, effective speed maagemet ca have a sigificat impact for improvig pedestria safety. 15. Pasadea Pedestria Pla (2006). The Pasadea Pedestria Pla is aimed at maitaiig ad ehacig walkability i the City. This is accomplished by idetifyig areas with high pedestria activity, idetifyig pedestria-orieted projects, providig desig recommedatios with pedestria accommodatios, ad outliig guidace for the itegratio of pedestria treatmets ito street maiteace, traffic maagemet programs, ad the developmet review process. Additioally, educatio ad eforcemet programs are two compoets of the pla that are aimed at icreasig comfort ad safety. This documet also discusses the Suggested Routes to School program i Pasadea, fudig mechaisms, desig guidelies, specific treatmets, ad implemetatio for the seve specific pla areas i Pasadea. 16. Dowtow Pasadea Walkabout Report (2008). report pdf The Dowtow Pasadea Walkabout was held i March of 2008 ad icluded over 120 people. The walkabout was sposored by the Playhouse District Associatio ad coducted with various stakeholders icludig residets, busiess owers, ad commuity members. The walkabouts also icluded a cosultat team focused o urba desig ad plaig. The walkabout was followed-up with a commuity meetig i August 2008 to preset the fidigs of the walkabout ad draft report. I additio to the walkabout goals ad study methodology, this report icludes ifrastructure ad oifrastructure recommedatios for all of dowtow ad specific districts. The districts i the walkabout iclude: Playhouse District Old Pasadea District Civic Ceter/Mid-tow District South Lake District Metro Gold Lie Statios Recommeded treatmets rage from improvig sidewalk coditios to slowig speedig drivers to promotig ecoomic vitality ad a park-oce eviromet. Fially the report idetifies potetial fudig ad implemetatio mechaisms for the proposed treatmets ad other local, state, ad federal resources that could be used to implemet the recommedatios provided. 34

40 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary PEDESTRIAN SAFETY TOOLBOX INTRODUCTION A comprehesive pedestria safety strategy cotais a three-proged approach icludig egieerig, eforcemet, ad educatio programs. The pedestria safety toolbox i this documet will assist the City of Pasadea i makig decisios about where basic crosswalks (two stripes) ca be marked; where crosswalks with special treatmets, such as high visibility crosswalks, flashig beacos, ad other special features, should be employed; ad where crosswalks will ot be marked due to safety cocers resultig from volume, speed, or sight distace issues. This documet cotais a toolbox of elemets to improve pedestria mobility, visibility, ad safety. I additio to stadard tools, the toolbox icludes very promisig devices, such as the HAWK/ Pedestria Hybrid Beaco (approved uder the 2009 Federal Maual o Uiform Traffic Cotrol Devices, MUTCD) ad the Rectagular Rapid Flashig Beaco (approved at the Federal level for experimetal use). Image source: Based o research from the Natioal Cooperative Highway Research Program ad Federal Highway Admiistratio, amog other best practice documets, this toolbox provides guidace about the type of treatmets appropriate o various streets ad uder various coditios. Preferred ad ehaced optios are provided for sigalized locatios, stop-cotrolled locatios, ad ucotrolled locatios. While the strategies i the toolbox reflect best practices ad local prioirties, the toolbox guidace is ot meat to replace egieerig judgmet. Each situatio is uique ad pedestria safety treatmets must be selected o a case-by-case basis. Potetial educatio ad eforcemet stategies are also icluded i this toolbox to complemet the egieerig strategies ad provide a comprehesive approach to improvig pedestria safety i Pasadea. This documet is ot a official City policy or adopted documet. This documet is iteded to be a tool for City staff to use i evaluatig the locatio of pedestria treatmets. Fudig for this program was provided by a grat from the Califoria Office of Traffic Safety, through the Natioal Highway Traffic Safety Admistratio. 35

41 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TREATMENTS AT SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS This sectio presets a discussio of preferred ad ehaced practices for pedestria treatmets at sigalized locatios i Pasadea. Preferred Pedestria Treatmets The preferred treatmets icluded i the toolbox for sigalized itersectios should geerally be deployed as best practice. These treatmets are typically those that are required (i.e., coutdow sigals required by the 2009 Federal MUTCD) or commoly recommeded as best practices (i.e., ADA suggested treatmets i Public Rights-of-Way Accessibility Guidace [PROWAG]). These measures are iteded to: Improve the visibility of pedestrias to motorists ad vice-versa Commuicate to motorists ad pedestrias who has the right-of-way Accommodate vulerable populatios such as the disabled, childre, ad the elderly Reduce coflicts betwee pedestrias ad vehicles Reduce vehicular speeds at locatios with potetial pedestria coflicts Table 2 presets a descriptio of the preferred pedestria safety treatmets for sigalized locatios. TABLE 2 PREFERRED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS Stripig Stripig Type Measure Descriptio Marked Crosswalk Image source: Advace Limit Lie Marked crosswalks should be istalled to provide desigated pedestria crossigs at sigalized locatios, o all feasible approaches. Exceptios for stripig crosswalks o all four legs of a sigalized itersectio may be allowed due to operatioal ad physical cosideratios. Stadard advace limit (white stop) lies are placed four feet i advace of marked crosswalks. Image source: Fehr & Peers 36

42 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 2 PREFERRED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS Sigal Treatmet Type Measure Descriptio Coutdow Sigal Displays a coutdow of the umber of secods remaiig for the pedestria crossig iterval. Image source: Sigal Treatmet Slower Walkig Speed The 2009 Federal MUTCD requires reductio of the pedestria walkig speed from 4.0 feet per secod to 3.5 feet per secod to reflect average Image source: pedestria walkig speeds. The Califoria MUTCD has ot yet adopted this chage, which is likely to be approved i The walkig speed could be further reduced to accommodate vulerable populatios such as childre ad the elderly. Sigal Treatmet Peak Hour Pedestria Recall i High Activity Pedestria Areas Peak Hour Pedestria Recall provides a guarateed walk phase for each crossig at the sigal durig peak hours, regardless of whether the pedestria push butto has bee activated. This esures ample time is provided for pedestria crossigs whe pedestrias are typically preset (eve if a pedestria fails to push the butto). Image source: 37

43 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 2 PREFERRED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS Geometrics/ ADA Treatmets Geometrics Type Measure Descriptio Directioal Curb Ramp with Trucated Domes ad Separated Pedestria Push Buttos (PPB) Far-Side Bus Stops Image source: City of Pasadea Whe right-of-way is available, directioal curb ramps are istalled two per corer ad guide pedestrias ito the crosswalk. Trucated domes provide a tactile sigal to the visually impaired that they are leavig the sidewalk area. Separated push buttos are placed withi five feet of each curb ramp, oe per crosswalk. Exceptios for directioal curb ramps may be allowed whe physical cosideratios such as existig draiage or required tur radius deem ifeasible. Selectig directioal curb ramps as a preferred treatmet does ot call for retrofit of existig curb ramps, rather istallatio will be doe oppurtuistically i scearios such as grat fudig, developmet review, ew costructio, ad recostructio. Far-side bus stops allow pedestrias to cross behid the bus, improvig pedestria visibility. Far side bus stops also ehace trasit operatios by provided a guarateed mergig opportuity for buses. Exceptios for far-side bus stops iclude cosideratios for bus routig, sufficiet sidewalk area, ad coflicts with parkig, lad uses, or driveways. Geometrics Image source: Fehr & Peers Reduced Turig Radius as Determied by Desig Vehicle Image source: The size of the curb radius determies the speed at which approachig vehicles ca avigate a tur. Reduced tur radii force approachig vehicles to slow dow whe turig, while still accommodatig emergecy vehicles ad the largest vehicle expected to typically avigate the itersectio (i.e., the desig vehicle). 38

44 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 2 PREFERRED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Geometrics Removal of Sight Distace Obstructios Geometrics Sigage Image source: Nazir Lalai Driveway Access Maagamet Image source: High-Visibility Sigs ad Markigs If objects impede sight distace, this may result i a usafe coditio where motorists ad pedestrias are uable to see each other. Items such as parked cars, sigage, ladscapig, fecig, ad street furiture should be placed i a locatio that will ot obstruct sight distace. Pasadea has a policy requirig a sight distace triagle with legs measurig 25 feet from the property lie. Access maagemet strategies ca reduce the umber of driveway crossigs pedestrias ecouter ad result i a wider sidewalk through more efficiet allocatio of space. Pasadea s Departmet of Trasportatio recetly drafted Policies ad Procedures ad Driveway Desig to help address potetial coflicts. High-visibility fluorescet yellow gree sigs are posted to icrease the visibility of a pedestria crossig. Image source: 39

45 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 2 PREFERRED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS Sigage Type Measure Descriptio Limited Sigage/Sig Clutter Evaluatio Road sigs ad street sigs at itersectios may distract motorists from the road. Uecessary sigage should be removed ad relocated so as to preset motorists with oly sigage relevat to the operatio of the itersectio. Image source: Fehr & Peers Streetscape Pedestria-Scale Lightig Pedestria-scale lightig improves motorists visibility of pedestrias. Image source: 40

46 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Ehaced Pedestria Treatmets I additio to the preferred treatmets described above, the City of Pasadea s crosswalk toolbox icludes several ehaced treatmets. The ehaced pedestria treatmets for sigalized locatios may ot be appropriate at all locatios or are coutermeasures to address a particular issue at a give locatio. Table 3 icludes the list of ehaced treatmets for sigalized locatios. TABLE 3 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Stripig Ladder or Triple Four Image source: Image source: Fehr & Peers High-visibility markigs iclude a family of crosswalk stripig styles such as the ladder ad the cotietal. High-visibility stripig should be provided for crosswalks with heavy pedestria volumes, with frequet pedestria-vehicle coflicts (such as with permissive left turs), or at skewed itersectios. Oe style of high-visibility stripig should be selected as the City s preferred style. Road Diet Road Diets The umber of laes of travel is reduced by wideig sidewalks, addig bicycle ad parkig laes, ad covertig parallel parkig to agled or perpedicular parkig. ADA Treatmets Image Source: Accessibile Pedestrai Sigals Image source: Accessible pedestria sigals commuicate iformatio about pedestria crossigs i o-visual format such as audible toes, verbal messages, ad/or vibratig surfaces, providig access to the pedestria sigals for the visually impaired. Locatios for accessible pedestria sigals are coordiated with the Accessibility Disability Commissio. 41

47 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 3 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Sigal Treatmet All Red Clearace Provides a phase (1-2 secods) where all vehicle idicators hold the red at a itersectio. Sigal Treatmet Image source: Leadig Pedestria Iterval (LPI) Provides pedestrias with a walk idicator while all vehicle idicators hold the red ball. This allows pedestrias to get a head start crossig the street before vehicles get the gree idicatio. Image source: Sigal Treatmet Scramble Phase Provides a all red phase for vehicles while providig pedestrias with a walk idicatio. Pedestrias may cross the street orthogoally or diagoally. Image source: 42

48 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 3 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Sigal Treatmet Protected Lefts Protected left turs give vehicles that are turig left a exclusive phase that does ot coicide with the pedestria walk phase. This elimiates the pedestria-vehicle coflict betwee permissive lefts ad pedestrias i a crosswalk. Image source: fhwa dot gov Sigal Treatmet Flashig Yellow Left Arrow A flashig yellow left-tur arrow allows permissive left turs ad wars motorists of potetial coflicts with pedestrias i the crosswalk. Image source: City of Pasadea Sigal Treatmet Full Time Recall/Fixed Time Pedestria Itervals Pre-timed sigals give pedestrias the walk sigal without requirig push butto actuatio. Image source: 43

49 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 3 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Sigal Treatmet Prohibited Right Tur o Red Prohibits vehicles from turig right whe the sigal has a red idicatio. Image Source: Geometrics Refuge Islad Raised islads are placed i the ceter of the roadway, separatig opposig laes of traffic with cutouts or ramps for accessibility alog the pedestria path. Image Source: City of Pasadea Geometrics Curb Extesio/Bus Bulbs/Short Right-Tur Lae Elimiatio Also kow as a pedestria bulb-out, this traffic-calmig measure is meat to slow traffic ad icrease driver awareess of pedestrias. It cosists of a extesio of the curb ito the street, makig the pedestria space (sidewalk) wider. Image Source: Fehr & Peers 44

50 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 3 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Geometrics Improved Right-Tur Slip-Lae Desig/Pork Chop Redesig Image Source: Fehr & Peers Right-tur slip laes (aka chaelized right-tur laes) are separated from the rest of the travel laes by a pork chop-shaped striped or raised media area. This measure separates right-turig traffic ad streamlies right turig movemets. Improved right-tur slip laes provide pedestria crossig islads withi the itersectio ad are desiged to optimize the right-turig motorist s view of the pedestria ad of vehicles to his or her left. Geometrics Two Stage Crossig Image Source: This measure is similar to traditioal media refuge islads except that the crosswalk is staggered such that a pedestria crosses half the street ad the must walk towards traffic to reach the secod half of the crosswalk. This measure must be desiged for accessibility by icludig rails ad trucated domes to direct sight-impaired pedestrias alog the path of travel. 45

51 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TREATMENTS AT STOP-CONTROLLED LOCATIONS This sectio presets best practices for the istallatio of pedestria treatmets ad ehacemets at stop-cotrolled locatios. Preferred Pedestria Treatmets As with sigalized itersectios, the preferred treatmets icluded i the toolbox for stop-cotrolled locatios should geerally be deployed as stadard practice. These treatmets are commoly recommeded as best practices i pedestria safety research ad literature. Table 4 icludes the list of preferred treatmets for stop-cotrolled locatios. TABLE 4 PREFERRED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR STOP-CONTROLLED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Geometrics/ ADA Treatmets Geometrics Directioal Curb Ramp with Trucated Domes Where right-of-way is available, directioal curb ramps are istalled at two per corer ad guide pedestrias i to the crosswalk they would utilize to cross the street. Trucated domes provide a tactile sigal to the visually impaired that they are leavig the sidewalk area. Exceptios for directioal curb ramps may be allowed whe physical cosideratios such as existig draiage or required tur radius deem ifeasible. Selectig directioal curb ramps as a preferred treatmet does ot call for retrofit of existig curb ramps, rather istallatio will be doe Image source: City of Pasadea oppurtuistically i scearios such as grat fudig, developmet review, ew costructio, ad recostructio. Far-Side Bus Stops Far-side bus stops allow pedestrias to cross behid the bus, improvig pedestria visibility ad trasit operatios. Exceptios for far-side bus stops iclude cosideratios for bus routig, sufficiet sidewalk area, ad coflicts with parkig, lad uses, or driveways. Image source: Fehr & Peers 46

52 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 4 PREFERRED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR STOP-CONTROLLED LOCATIONS Geometrics Type Measure Descriptio Reduced Turig Radius as Determied by Desig Vehicle The size of the curb radius determies the speed at which approachig vehicles ca avigate a tur. Reduced tur radii force approachig vehicles to slow dow whe turig, while still efficietly accommodatig the largest vehicle commoly expected at the itersectio. Image source: Geometrics Removal of Sight Distace Obstructios If objects impede sight distace, it may result i a usafe coditio whe motorists ad pedestrias are uable to see each other. Items such as parked cars, sigage, ladscapig, fecig, ad street furiture should be placed i a locatio that will ot obstruct sight distace. Image source: Nazir Lalai Sigage Limited Sigage/Sig Clutter Evaluatio Road sigs ad street sigs at itersectios may distract motorists from the road. Uecessary sigage should be removed ad relocated to preset motorists oly with sigage relevat to the operatio of the itersectio. Image source: dapik.com 47

53 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Ehaced Pedestria Treatmets The ehaced pedestria treatmets for stop-cotrolled locatios are iteded to provide additioal measures that may ot be appropriate at all locatios or are coutermeasures to address a particular issue at a give locatio. Table 5 icludes the list of ehaced treatmets for stop-cotrolled locatios. TABLE 5 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR STOP-CONTROLLED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Stripig Stadard crosswalk for stop-cotrolled approaches, Ladder or Triple Four at ucotrolled approaches High-visibility markigs iclude a family of crosswalk stripig styles such as the ladder ad the triplefour. Image source: Image source: Fehr & Peers Road Diet Road Diets The umber of laes of travel is reduced by wideig sidewalks, addig bicycle ad parkig laes, ad covertig parallel parkig to agled or perpedicular parkig. Geometrics Refuge Islad Image Source: Raised islads are placed i the ceter of the roadway, separatig opposig laes of traffic with cutouts or ramps for accessibility alog the pedestria path. Image Source: City of Pasadea 48

54 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 5 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR STOP-CONTROLLED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Geometrics Curb Extesio/Bus Bulbs/Short Right-Tur Lae Elimiatio Also kow as a pedestria bulb-out, this traffic-calmig measure is meat to slow traffic ad icrease driver awareess of pedestrias. It cosists of a extesio of the curb ito the street, makig the pedestria space (sidewalk) wider. Image Source: Fehr & Peers Geometrics Geometrics Improved Right-Tur Slip-Lae Desig/Pork Chop Redesig Image Source: Fehr & Peers Driveway Access Maagamet Image source: Right-tur slip laes (aka chaelized right-tur laes) are separated from the rest of the travel laes by a pork chop-shaped striped or raised media area. This measure separates right-turig traffic ad streamlies right turig movemets. Improved right-tur slip laes provide pedestria crossig islads withi the itersectio ad are desiged to optimize the right-turig motorist s view of the pedestria ad of vehicles to his or her left. Access maagemet strategies ca reduce the umber of driveway crossigs pedestrias ecouter ad result i a wider sidewalk through more efficiet allocatio of space. Pasadea s Departmet of Trasportatio recetly drafted Policies ad Procedures ad Driveway Desig to help address potetial coflicts. 49

55 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 5 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR STOP-CONTROLLED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Streetscape Pedestria-Scale Lightig Pedestria-scale lightig improves motorist visibility of pedestrias. Image source: DETERMINING WHERE AND HOW TO MARK UNCONTROLLED CROSSWALKS The secod step is Image source: idetifyig the locatios safest for people to cross. Of all road users, pedestrias have the highest risk because they are the least protected. Natioal statistics idicate that pedestrias represet 14 percet of all traffic icidet fatalities while walkig accouts for oly three percet of total trips. Pedestria collisios occur most ofte whe a pedestria is attemptig to cross the street at a itersectio or mid-block locatio. 4 Several major studies of pedestria collisio rates at marked ad umarked crosswalks have bee coducted. I 2002, The first step i idetifyig cadidate marked crosswalk locatios at a ucotrolled crossig (without a stop sig or sigal) is to idetify the places people would like to walk (pedestria desire lies), which are affected by local lad uses (homes, schools, parks, commercial establishmets, etc.) ad the locatio of trasit stops. This iformatio forms a basis for idetifyig pedestria crossig treatmet areas ad prioritizig such treatmets, thereby creatig a coveiet, coected, ad cotiuous walkig eviromet. Image source: 4 Pedestria Crash Types, A 1990 s Iformatio Guide, FHWA; This paper aalyzed 5,076 pedestria crashes that occurred durig the early 1990 s. Crashes were evely selected from small, medium, ad large commuities withi six states: Califoria, Florida, Marylad, Miesota, North Carolia, ad Utah. 50

56 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 the FHWA published a comprehesive report o the relative safety of marked ad umarked crossigs. 5 I 2006, aother study was completed that further assists egieers ad plaers i selectig the right treatmet for marked crosswalks based o studies of treatmet effectiveess. 6 With these studies as a backdrop, this documet presets a variety of treatmet optios to mitigate safety, visibility, or operatioal cocers at specific locatios. TREATMENTS AT UNCONTROLLED LOCATIONS This sectio presets best practices for the istallatio of marked crosswalks at ucotrolled itersectio ad mid-block locatios. Whe to Istall Marked Crosswalks The followig is the recommeded practice for providig pedestria treatmets at ucotrolled itersectios ad mid-block locatios. The most commo crosswalk of this type will be at itersectios where a mior side street is stop cotrolled ad a major street is ucotrolled. Crossigs should be marked where all of the followig occur: Sufficiet demad exists to justify the istallatio of a crosswalk (see Demad Cosideratios below) The locatio has sufficiet sight distace (as measured by stoppig sight distace calculatios) ad/or sight distace will be improved prior to crosswalk markig Safety cosideratios do ot preclude a crosswalk Demad Cosideratios Ucotrolled ad mid-block crossigs should be idetified as a cadidate for markig if there is a demostrated eed for a crosswalk. Charts 1 ad 2 provide a visual summary of the demad cosideratios, icludig suggested threshold values i some cases. Egieerig judgmet will ultimately be used to select locatios appropriate for a marked, ucotrolled crossig. 5 Zegeer, C.V., J.R. Stewart, H.H. Huag ad RA. Lagerwey. "Safety Effects of Marked vs. Umarked Crosswalks at Ucotrolled Locatios: Executive Summary ad Recommeded Guidelies. Report No. FHWA-RD Washigto, DC, USA: Federal Highway Admiistratio, March Fitzpatrick, Kay, et al... Improvig Pedestria Safety at Ucotrolled Crossigs. TCRP Report 112/NCHRP Report

57 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Chart 1. Recommeded Selectio Process for Ucotrolled ad Mid-Block Crosswalk Locatios City Staff receives request for a crosswalk istallatio or improvemet; or Citize walkability audits idetify a locatio for crosswalk istallatio or improvemet; or Citize surveys idetify a key locatio for crosswalk istallatio or improvemet; or Severe ijury or fatal pedestria collisio occurs Begi Traffic Ivestigatio process, icludig staff field visit Are demad cosideratios met (see Chart 2)? NO This is ot a good locatio for a marked crossig. YES Use Pasadea Pedestria Safety Toolbox ad Egieerig Judgmet to determie treatmet optios optioal * A field visit checklist is provided i Appedix A 52

58 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Chart 2. Feasibility Aalysis for Treatmets at Ucotrolled Locatios START 20 pedestrias per hour (i ay two hours, ot ecessarily cosecutive) cross at the locatio NO Locatio coects two pedestria geerators such as a school, park, bus stop, or hospital expected to geerate pedestrias o a regular basis NO Isufficiet eed to justify a marked crosswalk YES YES Nearest appropriately marked or protected crosswalk is at least 300 feet or more away NO Low speed (posted or prima facie 25 MPH), two-lae roadway NO Direct pedestrias to the earest marked or protected crosswalk YES YES Pedestrias ca be easily see from a feasible stoppig sight distace NO Is it feasible to remove sight distace obstructio or lower speed limit? ifeasible Direct pedestrias to the earest marked crosswalk or cosider istallig stop sig, sigal, or grade separatio YES feasible Use Pasadea Pedestria Toolbox ad Egieerig Judgmet to determie treatmet optios Note: Where o egieerig actio is recommeded i Chart 2, cosider applicable educatio ad eforcemet efforts. 53

59 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Cosideratios for Multi-Lae, High Volume, ad/or High Speed Locatios At ucotrolled locatios, ehaced treatmets beyod stripig ad sigig may be eeded for cadidate marked crosswalk locatios uder the followig coditios 7 : Multi-lae streets (three or more laes); or Two-lae streets with daily traffic volumes (ADT) greater tha 12,000; or Streets with posted speed limit exceedig 30 miles per hour Additioal fudig sources should be idetified as eeded for these ehacemets. Failig to provide a ehaced crosswalk ad/or removig a crosswalk should be a optio of last resort. Crosswalk Locatio ad Tool Feasibility Aalysis Charts 1 ad 2 describe the overall procedures from the momet City staff receives a request for a ew marked crosswalk (or cosiders removig a existig marked crosswalk) to the istallatio of the treatmet. As described, the first steps to determie the appropriate locatio ad treatmet for the crosswalk iclude a staff field visit (a sample form for this field visit is icluded i Appedix A). Treatmet Idetificatio Based o the results of Charts 1 ad 2, this Toolbox may be used to idetify potetial treatmets at a cadidate crosswalk locatio. If a cadidate ucotrolled locatio is determied to be appropriate for a marked crossig, the preferred treatmets should be provided at the subject locatio, as appropriate. Table 6 icludes the list of preferred treatmets for ucotrolled locatios. Uless otherwise oted, these treatmets are appropriate for all roadway cross-sectios. 7 See Appedix A discussio 54

60 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 6 PREFERRED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR UNCONTROLLED LOCATIONS* Type Measure Descriptio Geometrics/ ADA Treatmets Stripig Directioal Curb Ramp with Trucated Domes Where right-of-way is available, directioal curb ramps are istalled at two per corer ad guide pedestrias i to the crosswalk they would utilize to cross the street. Trucated domes provide a tactile sigal to the visually impaired that they are leavig the sidewalk area. Exceptios for directioal curb ramps may be allowed whe physical cosideratios such as existig draiage or required tur radius deem ifeasible. Selectig directioal curb ramps as a preferred treatmet does ot call for retrofit of existig curb ramps, rather Image Source: City of Pasadea istallatio will be doe oppurtuistically i scearios such as grat fudig, developmet review, ew costructio, ad recostructio. High-Visibility Marked Crosswalk High-visibility markigs iclude a family of crosswalk stripig styles such as the ladder ad the triplefour. Image source: Image source: Fehr & Peers Stripig Advace Yield Limit Lie (multi-lae roadways) Yield limit lies (also referred to as sharks teeth ) are placed i advace of marked, ucotrolled crosswalks. Image Source: City of Pasadea 55

61 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 6 PREFERRED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR UNCONTROLLED LOCATIONS* Road Diet Type Measure Descriptio Road Diet (multi-lae roadways) Image Source: The umber of laes of travel is reduced by wideig sidewalks, addig bicycle ad parkig laes, ad covertig parallel parkig to agled or perpedicular parkig. A road diet is recommeded for cosideratio i all scearios with four or more laes of traffic ad a daily traffic volume of less tha 15,000 vehicles (ADT). Streetscape Pedestria-Scale Lightig Pedestria-scale lightig improves pedestria visibility. Geometrics Image source: Removal of Sight Distace Obstructios If objects impede sight distace, this may result i a usafe coditio whe motorists ad pedestrias are uable to see each other. Items such as parked cars, sigage, ladscapig, fecig, ad street furiture should be placed i a locatio that will ot obstruct sight distace. Image source: Nazir Lalai 56

62 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 6 PREFERRED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR UNCONTROLLED LOCATIONS* Geometrics Type Measure Descriptio Refuge Islad Image Source: City of Pasadea Raised islads are placed i the ceter of the roadway, separatig opposig laes of traffic with cutouts or ramps for accessibility alog the pedestria path. Media refuge islads are recommeded where right-of-way allows ad coditios warrat. Sigage Advaced Warig Sigs High-visibility fluorescet yellow gree sigs are made of the approved fluorescet yellow-gree color ad posted at crossigs to icrease the visibility of a pedestria crossig. Image source: Table 7 provides a summary of the ehaced treatmets for ucotrolled crosswalks. Ehaced treatmets should be selected based o site-specific characteristics ad egieerig judgmet. Recet research o this topic has foud that primary cosideratios for the provisio of marked crossigs at ucotrolled locatios iclude traffic volumes, the presece of a media, the umber of laes to be crossed, ad posted speed limits. As idicated above, multi-lae locatios, ad locatios that experiece high travel volumes ad speeds are cadidates for ehaced treatmets, as research has idicated that for ucotrolled locatios the provisio of sigage ad stripig may be iadequate. 8 8 I Chapter 3, please see: Zegeer, C., J. Stuart, ad H. Huag, Safety Effects of Marked vs. Umarked Crosswalks at Ucotrolled Crossig Locatios, Federal Highway Admiistratio, Washigto, DC,

63 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 7 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR UNCONTROLLED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Geometrics Narrow Laes Narrow laes have a calmig effect ad reduce the distace pedestrias must travel whe crossig. Image source: Geometrics Curb Extesios Also kow as a pedestria bulb-out, this traffic-calmig measure is meat to slow traffic ad icrease driver awareess of pedestrias. It cosists of a extesio of the curb ito the street, makig the pedestria space (sidewalk) wider. Image source: Fehr & Peers Geometrics Split Pedestria Crossover (SPXO) Image Source: This measure is similar to traditioal media refuge islads; the differece is that the crosswalks i the roadway are staggered such that a pedestria crosses half the street ad the walks toward traffic to reach the secod half of the crosswalk. This measure must be desiged for accessibility by icludig rails ad trucated domes to direct sight-impaired pedestrias alog the path of travel. 58

64 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 7 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR UNCONTROLLED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Geometrics Raised Crosswalk A crosswalk with a surface elevated above the travel laes, attractig drivers attetio, ecouragig lower speeds, ad improvig the visibility of pedestrias. Image Source: Geometrics Pedestria Overpass/ Uderpass This measure cosists of a pedestria-oly overpass or uderpass over a roadway. It provides complete separatio of pedestrias from motor vehicle traffic, ormally where o other pedestria facility is available, ad coects offroad trails ad paths across major barriers. The device is recommeded oly where topography supports its use. Image source: omahamidceturymoder.blogsome.com Sigage I-Street Pedestria Crossig Sigs Image source: This measure ivolves postig regulatory pedestria sigage o lae edge lies ad/or road ceterlies. The I-Street Pedestria Crossig sig may be used to remid road users of laws regardig right of way at a usigalized pedestria crossig. 59

65 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 7 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR UNCONTROLLED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Sigage Crosswalk Flags Brightly-colored removal flags are placed at crosswalks to icrease pedestria visibility ad clearly commuicate their desire to cross the street. Image source: Sigal Treatmet I-Roadway Warig Lights Both sides of a crosswalk are lied with pavemet markers, ofte cotaiig a amber LED strobe light. The lights may be push-butto activated or activated with pedestria detectio. Image Source: Sigal Treatmet Flashig Beacos Flashig amber lights are istalled o overhead or postmouted sigs, i advace of the crosswalk or at the etrace to the crosswalk. Image source: tti.tamu.edu 60

66 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 7 ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS FOR UNCONTROLLED LOCATIONS Type Measure Descriptio Sigal Treatmet Stutter Flash (Rectagular Rapid Flashig Beaco) Image source: mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov The Flashig Beaco is ehaced by replacig the traditioal slow flashig icadescet lamps with rapid flashig LED lamps. The beacos may be push-butto activated or activated with pedestria detectio. This treatmet is ot curretly approved for use i Califoria, but has provisioal approval for use at the Federal level because of recet studies suggestig its effectiveess. Sigal Treatmet Sigal Treatmet HAWK/ Pedestria Hybrid Beaco HAWK (High Itesity Activated Crosswalks) are pedestria-actuated sigals that are a combiatio of a beaco flasher ad a traffic cotrol sigal. Whe actuated, HAWK displays a yellow (warig) idicatio followed by a solid red light. Durig pedestria clearace, the driver sees a flashig red wigwag patter util the clearace iterval has eded ad the sigal goes dark. While icluded i the Federal Image Source: MUTCD, this treatmet is ot curretly approved for use i Califoria. Pedestria Sigal Covetioal traffic cotrol devices with warrats for use based o the MUTCD (a ew warrat is provided i the 2009 Federal MUTCD). Image source: City of Pasadea 61

67 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Safety effectiveess studies have bee coducted for may of the devices i Table 7. Based o these studies, Table 8 provides the coditios uder which the ehaced pedestria treatmets for usigalized itersectios should typically be applied. Level 1 represets a mior itervetio, appropriate for situatios with lower speeds ad traffic volumes ad high driver yieldig rates. Higher levels represet more sigificat itervetios, as may be eeded o higher speed or volume roadways, wider roadways, ad roadways where motorists are less likely to yield to pedestrias. Treatmets may be combied with higher level treatmets added to lower level treatmets (i.e., flashig beacos with curb extesios). TABLE 8 APPLICATION OF ENHANCED TREATMENTS FOR UNCONTROLLED LOCATIONS Level 1: Basic Level 2: Low Speeds <= 30 MPH Level 3: Higher Speeds > 30 MPH Level 4: Higher Speeds (>30 MPH) ad Volumes (12,000 + ADT) All Widths Two to Three Laes Oly Two to Three Laes Oly Two to Three Laes Preferred Four or More Laes Preferred All Widths Narrow Laes Refuge Islad/ SPXO Curb Extesios I-Street Sigs Raised Crosswalk I-pavemet Flashers Crossig Flags (with Level 1 treatmets) Overhead/ Post Mouted Flashig Beacos Stutter Flash (RRFB)* Pedestria Hybrid (HAWK) Beaco* Pedestria Sigal Uder/ Overpass Notes: * Not curretly approved for use i Califoria. EDUCATION, ENFORCEMENT AND ENCOURAGEMENT This sectio presets best practices for educatio, ecouragemet, ad eforcemet compoets of pedestria safety programs. Educatio The followig is a list of pedestria safety practices for educatig pedestrias ad motorists about safe ad lawful behavior: Website a city website ca cotai iformatioal materials relatig to pedestria safety Videos such as public service aoucemets ca be posted to the city s website Commuity outreach evets evets such as Mayor s ight out provide opportuities for pedestria educatio 62

68 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Pamphlets iformatioal materials available through the City Studet group ivolvemet promote pedestria safety by ivolvig ad educatig studet groups Street/Bus Stop/School Baers advertisemets that ca be placed i high activity pedestria areas Yard Sigs commuicate roadway coditios to motorists ad pedestrias Strategic parterships parter with groups such as America Associatio of Retired Persos (AARP) to promote pedestria safety Local media campaigs ivolve local media i pedestria safety campaigs Classroom curricula work with local school districts to develop pedestria safety curricula for schools Structured skills practice develop a program that trais pedestrias i safe behavior Games, colorig books, etc. fu ad educatioal materials for childre Eforcemet The followig is a list of pedestria safety practices for eforcig pedestria ad vehicular right of way laws: Officer traiig courses provide law eforcemet with full uderstadig of pedestria laws ad safety practices Traffic complait hotlie provides a method for citizes to alert the city whe a public facility is of cocer, such as ioperable traffic sigal Commuity eforcemet provides a mechaism for commuity members to help eforce traffic laws, such as a radar gu checkout program Adult school crossig guards provides a traied adult to help pedestrias cross the street Pedestria decoys eforcemet activities with a staged pedestria or motorist, targetig motorists or pedestrias who do ot comply with traffic laws Partership with media, stakeholders, ad city departmets ivolve various stakeholders i pedestria educatio campaigs ad efforts Ecouragemet The followig is a list of pedestria safety practices orieted toward ecouragig pedestrias ad motorists to egage i safe ad lawful behavior: Wayfidig sigage directig pedestrias to desigated routes ad destiatios Walkig school buses/walkig Wedesdays activities orgaized by schools ad/or parets that has studets walk to school i groups o selected days 63

69 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Commuity walkig audits commuity members walk aroud a area otig positive practices ad areas for improvemet Silver seaker awards awards ecouragig physical activity amog seiors Icetives/cotests ca be used to reward those who walk or demostrate safe walkig habits Peer-to-peer educatio educatig pedestrias through iteractio with peers traied i pedestria safety 64

70 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary COLLISION HISTORY REVIEW AND ANALYSIS I this chapter we preset City-wide vehicle-pedestria collisio data. The data preseted icludes the frequecy of collisios ivolvig pedestrias, the severity of collisios ivolvig pedestrias, ad a specific focus o collisios at sigalized locatios. This data is coveyed through maps ad tables. The source for the collisio data is the City of Pasadea s Crossroads database for collisios ivolvig a pedestria(s) betwee July 2005 ad July FIVE YEAR ( ) COLLISION REVIEW AND MAPPING The five most recet years (July July 2010) of pedestria collisio data were mapped to illustrate the pedestria-vehicle collisios throughout the City. The five most recet years of pedestria-vehicle collisios at sigalized itersectios were also mapped. This data is useful for idetifyig the locatios with the most vehicle-pedestria collisios, the locatios with pedestria fatalities, the sigalized locatios with the most vehicle-pedestria collisios, ad the most commo primary collisio factors (PCFs) at sigalized itersectios. 9 The pedestria-vehicle collisio data at sigalized locatios was further reviewed for driver ad pedestria age, time of day, ivolvemet of alcohol, ad PCFs to assess potetial collisio treds. This data is also preseted i charts ad tables. Figure 1 displays the frequecy of all vehicle-pedestria collisios i Pasadea ad Table 9 provides the top te locatios for vehicle-pedestria collisios city-wide. Figure 2 displays the severity (icludig fatalities) of all vehicle-pedestria collisios i Pasadea ad Table 10 provides a list of the locatios with pedestria fatalities City-wide. Figure 3 illustrates pedestria-vehicle collisios at sigalized locatios i Pasadea ad Table 11 icludes a list of the top te locatios for pedestria-vehicle collisios at sigalized locatios. All but three of the locatios listed i Table 9 are sigalized, thus the list of top te pedestria-vehicle collisios for sigalized locatios listed i Table 11 is similar to the top te list of pedestria-vehicle collisios for all locatios i Pasadea i Table 9. This pedestria safety field visit cosidered prototypical locatios o may of the high collisio corridors i the City, icludig Lake Aveue, Colorado Boulevard, Orage Grove Boulevard, Moutai Street, Marego Aveue, ad Fair Oaks Aveue. 9 Collisios withi 25 feet of a itersectio were assiged to that itersectio. 65

71 FAIR OAKS AVE LOS ROBLES AVE LOS ROBLES AVE LAKE AVE ALLEN AVE HILL AVE HILL AVE FAIR OAKS AVE R #0 IH #0 IH ARROYO BLVD LOMA RD!H!H IH IH!H IH!H IH WASHINGTON BLVD ARROYO BLVD ROSEMONT AVE ORANGE GROVE BLVD #0 #0 IH IH #0 #0!H #0 MOUNTAIN ST LINCOLN AVE MAPLE ST GLENARM ST WOODBURY RD WALNUT ST NEW YORK DR WASHINGTON BLVD ORANGE GROVE BLVD COLORADO BLVD CALIFORNIA BLVD ALLEN AVE SIERRA MADRE BLVD N ALTADENA DR IH SIERRA MADRE BLVD FOOTHILL BLVD SAN GABRIEL BLVD LEGEND SIERRA MADRE VILLA AVE Collisio Frequecy IH!H #0 #0 IH!H Total Number of Collisios: 442 SIERRA MADRE BLVD ROSEMEAD BLVD DEL MAR BLVD Fire Statio Library School Parks N NOT TO SCALE W HUNTI Goldlie Track ad Statios SUNSET BLVD PASADENA PEDESTRIAN-VEHICLE COLLISIONS FIGURE 1

72 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 9 - TOP TEN PEDESTRIAN-VEHICLE COLLISION LOCATIONS IN PASADENA Itersectio Number of Collisios Lake Aveue ad Moutai Street 5 Hill Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 5 Lake Aveue ad Washigto Boulevard 4 Raymod Aveue ad Orage Grove Boulevard 4 Marego Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 4 Fair Oaks Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 3 Lake Aveue ad Uio Street 3 Lake Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 3 Marego Aveue ad Uio Street 3 Lake Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 3 Lake Aveue ad Corso Street 3 Fair Oaks Aveue ad Uio Street 3 Lake Aveue ad Maple Street 3 Gree Street ad Orage Grove Boulevard 3 De Lacey Aveue ad Uio Street 3 Hudso Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 3 Lake Aveue ad Claremot Street 3 Marego Aveue ad Villa Street 3 Fair Oaks Boulevard ad Howard St 3 Garfield Aveue ad Walut Street 3 Licol Aveue ad Wyomig 3 Catalia Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 3 Catalia ad Washigto Boulevard 3 Worcester Aveue ad Orage Grove Boulevard 3 Arroyo Parkway ad Fillmore Street 3 Source: City of Pasadea Notes: This list is based o umber of collisios ad does ot adjust for vehicle or pedestria volumes (exposure). Notes: Collisios occurrig 25 feet or closer to a itersectio were assiged to the earest itersectio. 67

73 FAIR OAKS AVE LOS ROBLES AVE LOS ROBLES AVE LAKE AVE ALLEN AVE HILL AVE HILL AVE FAIR OAKS AVE IH #0 #0 IH ARROYO BLVD LOMA RD WASHINGTON BLVD #0!H!H IH IH MOUNTAIN ST ARROYO BLVD ROSEMONT AVE ORANGE GROVE BLVD LINCOLN AVE IH IH #0!H IH!H ^_ MAPLE ST NEW YORK DR ^_ ^_ #0 ^_ GLENARM ST WOODBURY RD WALNUT ST IH #0 WASHINGTON BLVD ORANGE GROVE BLVD!H COLORADO BLVD CALIFORNIA BLVD ALLEN AVE SIERRA MADRE BLVD #0 E N ALTADENA DR IH SIERRA MADRE BLVD FOOTHILL BLVD SAN GABRIEL BLVD ^_ LEGEND Fatalities ^_ 1 Ijuries DUARTE RD SIERRA MADREVILLA AVE IH!H #0 IH!H #0 SIERRA MADRE BLVD ROSEMEAD BLVD DEL MAR BLVD Fire Statio Library School Parks N NOT TO SCALE Goldlie Track ad Statios W HUNT SUNSET BLVD PASADENA PEDESTRIAN-VEHICLE COLLISIONS RESULTING IN INJURIES AND/OR FATALITIES FIGURE 2

74 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 10 - PEDESTRIAN FATALITY LOCATIONS IN PASADENA, Primary Street Nearest Cross Street Colorado Boulevard Fair Oaks Aveue Orage Grove Boulevard Oaklad Aveue Fair Oaks Aveue Corso Street Colorado Boulevard El Nido Aveue Fair Oaks Aveue Tremot Street Source: City of Pasadea ad Fehr & Peers Notes: Collisios occurrig 25 feet or closer to a itersectio were assiged to the earest itersectio. 69

75 FAIR OAKS AVE LOS ROBLES AVE LOS ROBLES AVE LAKE AVE ALLEN AVE HILL AVE HILL AVE FAIR OAKS AVE ARROYO BLVD WOODBURY RD NEW YORK DR N NOT TO SCALE IH #0 WASHINGTON BLVD #0 IH IH WASHINGTON BLVD #0 IH LOMA RD ARROYO BLVD ROSEMONT AVE!H IH ORANGE GROVE BLVD MOUNTAIN ST LINCOLN AVE MAPLE ST #0!H!H IH IH IH #0 GLENARM ST!H #0!H #0 ORANGE GROVE BLVD WALNUT ST ALLEN AVE COLORADO BLVD CALIFORNIA BLVD SIERRA MADRE BLVD N ALTADENA DR IH SIERRA MADRE BLVD FOOTHILL BLVD SAN GABRIEL BLVD LEGEND Collisio Frequecy at Sigalized Locatios DUARTE RD SIERRA MADRE VILLA AVE IH!H #0 #0 IH!H SIERRA MADRE BLVD ROSEMEAD BLVD DEL MAR BLVD Fire Statio Library School Parks W HUNT Goldlie Track ad Statios SUNSET BLVD E PASADENA PEDESTRIAN-VEHICLE COLLISIONS FREQUENCY AT SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS FIGURE 3

76 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 TABLE 11 - TOP TEN SIGNALIZED PEDESTRIAN-VEHICLE COLLISION LOCATIONS IN PASADENA Itersectio Number of Collisios Lake Aveue ad Moutai Street 5 Hill Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 5 Lake Aveue ad Washigto Boulevard 4 Raymod Aveue ad Orage Grove Boulevard 4 Marego Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 4 Fair Oaks Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 3 Lake Aveue ad Uio Street 3 Lake Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 3 Marego Aveue ad Uio Street 3 Lake Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 3 Lake Aveue ad Corso Street 3 Fair Oaks Aveue ad Uio Street 3 Lake Aveue ad Maple Street 3 Gree Street ad Orage Grove Boulevard 3 De Lacey Aveue ad Uio Street 3 Hudso Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 3 Lake Aveue ad Claremot Street 3 Marego Aveue ad Villa Street 3 Fair Oaks Boulevard ad Howard St 3 Licol Aveue ad Wyomig 3 Catalia Aveue ad Colorado Boulevard 3 Arroyo Parkway ad Fillmore Street 3 Source: City of Pasadea Notes: This list is based o umber of collisios ad does ot adjust for vehicle or pedestria volumes (exposure). Notes: Collisios occurrig 25 feet or closer to a itersectio were assiged to the earest itersectio. 71

77 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 REVIEW OF COLLISION DATA AT SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS With a emphasis o collisios at sigalized locatios, the City s collisio ad associated demographic data was reviewed for relevat treds. Some of the data that was explored icludes commo PCFs, pedestria age, time of day, ad ivolvemet of alcohol. Approximately 213 collisios ivolvig pedestrias occurred at sigalized itersectios out of a total of 442 pedestria-vehicle collisios i Pasadea, idicatig just fewer tha 50% of the total pedestria-vehicle collisios occurred at sigalized locatios. Table 12 provides a list of the most commo PCFs for collisios at sigalized locatios. The top three PCFs were pedestria right-of-way violatio (vehicle at fault), pedestria violatio (pedestria at fault), ad traffic sigals ad sigs. Amog collisios at sigalized itersectios, these three PCFs accouted for 81% of collisios. With vehicles beig at fault at over 60% of pedestria collisios at sigalized itersectios, safety campaigs should iclude educatio messages for both motorists ad pedestrias. TABLE 12 PRIMARY COLLISION FACTORS (PCFS) FOR PEDESTRIAN-VEHICLE COLLISIONS AT SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS IN PASADENA, PCF % of Total Pedestria Right-of-Way Violatio 57% Pedestria Violatio 17% Traffic Sigals ad Sigs 7% Auto Right-of-Way Violatio 5% Usafe Startig or Backig 3% Usafe Speed 2% Other Hazardous Movemet 2% Improper Turig 2% Ukow 2% Wrog Side of Road 1% Drivig Uder Ifluece 0.5% Improper Passig 0.5% Other Improper Drivig 0.5% Other Tha Driver 0.5% Source: City of Pasadea ad Fehr & Peers 72

78 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Table 13 provides a summary of pedestria age data for collisios at sigalized locatios. The ages are grouped i five categories: ages 0-15, ages 15-30, ages 31-45, ages 46-60, ad ages 61 ad above. Amog collisios at sigalized itersectios, the greatest proportio of collisios ivolved the groups ages with 25%, followed by ages ad ages 55 ad over tied with 23%. Combied, these groups accout for 71% of pedestria collisios at sigalized itersectios. Pedestrias 16 or older were ivolved i 92% of pedestria collisios at sigalized itersectios, while pedestrias uder the age of 15 comprised 8% of pedestria collisios at sigalized locatio. This idicates educatio efforts aimed at adults would target the greatest umber of people with a propesity to be ivolved i pedestria collisios at sigalized locatios i Pasadea. TABLE 13 AGE RANGES FOR PEDESTRIAN-VEHICLE COLLISIONS AT SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS IN PASADENA, Age Rage Source: City of Pasadea ad Fehr & Peers % of Total % % % % % Table 14 provides a summary of time of day data for collisios at sigalized locatios. The time of day was grouped ito four categories: school/busiess hours (7:00 AM-4:59 PM), eveig hours (5:00 PM- 8:59 PM), ight hours (9:00 PM-2:59 AM), ad morig hours (3:00 AM-6:59 AM). Amog collisios at sigalized itersectios, the greatest proportio of collisios occurred durig busiess hours with 63% of the total, followed by eveig hours. Eveig ad ight hours combied for less tha 10% of the total collisios at sigalized locatios. TABLE 14 TIME OF DAY FOR PEDESTRIAN-VEHICLE COLLISIONS AT SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS IN PASADENA, Time of Day % of Total 7:00AM-4:59PM 63% 5:00PM-8:59PM 28% 9:00PM-2:59AM 8% 3:00AM-6:59AM 1% Source: City of Pasadea ad Fehr & Peers 73

79 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Table 15 provides iformatio o the ivolvemet of alcohol for collisios at sigalized locatios. The PCF drivig uder the ifluece occurred oce amog pedestria collisios at a sigalized locatio. Based o this data, alcohol was ivolved i 0.5% of collisios at sigalized itersectios i Pasadea. TABLE 15 INVOLVEMENT OF ALCOHOL FOR PEDESTRIAN-VEHICLE COLLISIONS AT SIGNALIZED LOCATIONS IN PASADENA, Alcohol Ivolved? % of Total Other PCF 99.5% PCF for Drivig Uder the Ifluece 0.5% Source: City of Pasadea ad Fehr & Peers I additio to the PCF, age, ad time of day data for collisios at sigalized itersectios, the directio of travel for vehicles was also tabulated. Amog these collisios, drivers were proceedig straight approximately 25% of the time ad makig a left- or right-tur approximately 69% of the time, for a total of 94%. A combiatio of backig up, chagig laes, slowig/stoppig, stopped i road, ad other comprises the remaiig six percet. The high percetage of pedestria-vehicle collisios occurrig while vehicles are turig or proceedig straight idicates a failure to yield to pedestrias at itersectios. It should be oted that pedestria volumes were ot available to provide pedestria crash rates. Pasadea may cosider collectig this data as a follow-up to this report. SUMMARY OF COLLISION REVIEW From 2005 to 2010 approximately 48% of pedestria-vehicle collisios i the City of Pasadea occurred at sigalized itersectios ad there were fatalities at five locatios. A majority of pedestria-vehicle collisios were the fault of the motorist, ivolved adult pedestrias, ad occurred durig busiess hours. The data aalyzed is icosistet with the perceptio that pedestria educatio programs should focus o vulerable populatios such as childre ad the elderly. The collisio data for sigalized itersectios i Pasadea idicates that these two groups are ot disproportioately affected by pedestria-vehicle collisios. Therefore, safety educatio campaigs may most effectively focus o icreasig motorist awareess of pedestrias ad o ecouragig safer walkig behavior by pedestrias of all ages, particularly adults. 74

80 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WALKING AUDIT LOCATIONS WALKING AUDIT RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presets the observatios ad recommedatios made durig the walkig audit coducted i the City of Pasadea o September 2, The recommedatios are based o best practices ad discussios with the participat group regardig local eeds ad feasibility. The recommedatios i this report are based o limited field observatios ad geeral kowledge of best practices i pedestria desig ad safety. As this report is coceptual i ature, the City should coduct more detailed studies before fializig ad implemetig ay physical chages. Coditios may exist i the focus areas that were ot observed ad are ot compatible with recommedatios i this report. City staff should coduct further aalysis to refie or discard the recommedatios i this report if they are cotextually iappropriate or do ot improve pedestria safety or accessibility due to coditios icludig, but ot limited to, high vehicular traffic volume or speeds, physical limitatios o space or sight distace, or other usafe coditios. The evaluatio team worked with City staff to select five focus areas for the walkig audit based o the followig criteria: The locatios were itersectios cotrolled by traffic sigals; There was a patter of collisios ivolvig pedestrias from 7/1/05 to 6/30/10; There was a high level of pedestria activity at all five itersectios; ad The itersectios were i close proximity to key geerators, such as trasit, retail, parks, schools ad pedestria-orieted retail busiesses. The focus o sigalized itersectios arose from a recet study completed by the City that idicated a majority of all pedestria-related collisios i the City occurred at itersectios cotrolled by traffic sigals. Documets reviewed durig the walkig audit site visit icluded sigal timig sheets, collisio reports, collisio diagrams geerated by the City s Crossroads collisio database, sigal desig plas ad collisio totals for the itersectios with the highest frequecy of pedestria collisios. SELECTION OF FOCUS AREAS The walkig audit focus areas are show i Figure 4. Five walkig itersectios were selected for the Pasadea study: Walkig Audit Site Number 1: Colorado Boulevard at Marego Aveue Walkig Audit Site Number 2: Lake Aveue at Moutai Street 75

81 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Walkig Audit Site Number 3: Colorado Boulevard at Fair Oaks Aveue Walkig Audit Site Number 4: Orage Grove Boulevard at Raymod Aveue Walkig Audit Site Number 5: Lake Aveue at Corso Street The followig sectios preset the key issues idetified durig the walkig audit. Recommedatios are preseted to respod to the issues at each site. Focus area summary graphics, with a compilatio of all recommedatios, have bee prepared. The graphics are show i Figures 5 through 9. Figure 4 - Walkig Audit Locatios 76

82 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Durig the walkig audit, the evaluators oted a umber of very positive treatmets that the City of Pasadea was already implemetig to make the street system more orieted to pedestrias i a effort to promote walkig as a mode of trasportatio. Those treatmets are discussed here. May bus stops were provided with shelters ad beches. Street trees were prevalet throughout the City. Wheelchair ramps were provided at may itersectios. Limit lies were striped i advace of marked crosswalks at may of the sigalized itersectios. Coutdow pedestria sigal idicatios were istalled at may itersectios ad the City is i the process of retrofittig all sigalized itersectios. ADA pushbuttos have bee retrofitted at a umber of itersectios, some of which provide locator toes ad verbal messages i both Eglish ad Spaish. A Road Diet (lae reductio treatmet) has bee implemeted o Cordova Street from Lake Aveue to Hill Aveue. The City is workig towards implemetig a Road Diet o Cordova Street from Arroyo Parkway to Lake Aveue ad o Licol Aveue from Washigto Street to Orage Grove Boulevard. Pedestria-orieted street lightig is provided alog some of the major corridors such as Orage Grove Boulevard ad Colorado Boulevard. Bicycle ramps ad racks are provide at the trai statios A Bicycle Boulevard is plaed for Marego Aveue from Orage Grove Boulevard to Moutai Street. Gold Lie light rail statios iclude a umber of treatmets desiged to improve pedestria awareess of trais approachig o the railroad tracks at statio platforms. A special type of crosswalk that icludes i-pavemet flashers that face the pedestrias i the crosswalk (ad ot drivers approachig the crosswalk) has recetly bee istalled at the itersectio of South Arroyo Parkway ad Fillmore Street as a pilot project. A major project was completed o September 3, 2010, durig the walkig audit site visit, to improve a heavily used pedestria walkway i the Rose Bowl area. This project icludes redesigig traffic flow at itersectios to reduced coflicts ad better separatio of the pedestria walkway from the vehicular travel laes. 77

83 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Colorado Boulevard at Marego Aveue Observatios The itersectio of Colorado Boulevard ad Marego Aveue is cotrolled by a six-phase traffic sigal. Protected/permissive left-tur phases are provided for the Colorado Boulevard approaches but ot for the Marego Aveue approaches. This itersectio is located oe block away from the Uio Boulevard ad Marego Aveue itersectio, which is also sigalized. The collisio patter primarily ivolves pedestrias beig hit by left- ad right-turig vehicles as well as vehicles travelig straight through the itersectio. All approaches of the itersectio are provided with two through laes ad a left-tur lae. The followig positive characteristics were either observed or discussed with the group: Pedestria push buttos with audible verbal messages i Eglish are provided to assist the visually impaired to cross the street usig the pedestria sigals. Separate left-tur phases are provided for two of the approaches. Marked crosswalks are provided o all legs of the itersectio with advace limit lies. Curb ramps are provided o all four corers of the itersectio. Approximately 7,500 vehicles eter the itersectio durig the highest peak hour, which begis at 5:15 PM. Possible Safety Treatmets To improve pedestria safety ad mobility at the itersectio of Colorado Boulevard ad Marego Aveue, the followig treatmets are suggested: Short-Term Operatioal Treatmets Cosider implemetig a Lead Pedestria Iterval (LPI) of at least four secods to allow pedestrias to establish their right-of-way before drivers receive a gree idicatio to make a coflictig right-tur movemet. Review the pedestria clearace itervals to make sure they meet the miimum requiremets specified by the CAMUTCD. 78

84 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Cosider restripig the crosswalk usig high visibility markigs to emphasize the presece of pedestrias i the crosswalks, especially those crossig Colorado Boulevard because of the uphill grade o the eastboud approach to the itersectio. Cosider implemetig a all-red clearace iterval of two secods. Cosider resychroizig the Colorado Boulevard/Marego Aveue itersectio with the Marego Aveue/Uio Boulevard itersectio so that the vehicular idicatios tur red at the same time for orthboud traffic approachig o Marego Aveue to avoid displayig coflictig red ad gree idicatios at these two closely-spaced itersectios. Review the vehicle chage itervals to make sure they meet the miimum requiremets specified by the CAMUTCD. Review the itersectio safety lightig to determie if the existig lumiaries are providig sufficiet light to make pedestrias usig the crosswalk at ight visible to drivers approachig the itersectio. Cosider extedig the media o the south of the itersectio orth to the crosswalk to provide a better refuge area for pedestrias. Loger-Term Capital Treatmets Cosider implemetig the flashig yellow arrow for left-tur phases similar to other sigalized itersectios i the City of Pasadea. Study the Marego Aveue approaches to determie if separate left-tur phasig should be provided for the orthboud ad southboud approaches. Lake Aveue at Moutai Street Observatios The itersectio of Lake Aveue ad Moutai Street is cotrolled by a two-phase traffic sigal. Separate lefttur phases are ot provided for the ay of the itersectio s approaches. Trasit stops close to the itersectio geerate sigificat amouts of pedestria activity, as do the commercial uses o all four corers of the itersectio. The west leg of the itersectio is wider tha is eeded for the vehicular travel laes. There is a clear history of southboud drivers turig left o Lake Aveue collidig with pedestrias i the crosswalk marked across the east leg of the itersectio. The southboud left-tur movemet is heavy eve durig off-peak hours. 79

85 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 The followig positive characteristics were either observed or discussed with the group: Crosswalks ad coutdow pedestria sigals are provided o all four approaches to the itersectio. Limit lies are striped i advace of the crosswalks to discourage vehicular ecroachmet ito the crosswalk area while stopped at the itersectio. The trasit stop is located o the far side of the itersectio i the southboud directio to miimize disruptio to traffic o Lake Aveue. Curb ramps with ADA-compliat trucated domes are provided all four corers of the itersectio. Possible Safety Treatmets To improve pedestria safety ad mobility at the itersectio of Lake Aveue ad Moutai Street, the followig treatmets are suggested: Short-Term Operatioal Treatmets Cosider implemetig LPI of at least four secods to allow pedestrias to establish their right-ofway before drivers receive a gree idicatio to make coflictig right-tur movemets. Review the pedestria clearace itervals to make sure they meet the miimum requiremets specified by the CAMUTCD. Cosider icreasig the pedestria walk iterval from five secods to seve secods. Cosider implemetig Coutdow pedestrias sigal idicatios. Cosider icreasig the all-red clearace iterval to two secods. If feasible, cosider legtheig the bus stop zoe o the southwest corer of the itersectio to miimize the potetial for buses stoppig i the middle of itersectio ad blockig traffic. Cosider restripig the crosswalk usig high visibility markigs to emphasize the presece of pedestrias i the crosswalks. Review the vehicle chage itervals to make sure they meet the miimum requiremets specified by the CAMUTCD. Review the itersectio safety lightig to determie if the existig lumiaries are providig sufficiet light to make pedestrias usig the crosswalk at ight visible to drivers approachig the itersectio. Loger-Term Capital Treatmets Cosider protected left-tur phases for the Lake Aveue approaches especially i the southboud directio. Cosider reducig the corer curb radius o the southeast corer of the itersectio to make it a more pedestria-friedly desig. Cosider cosolidatig the four driveways exitig oto 80

86 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 the south side of Moutai Street servig the CVS Pharmacy shoppig ceter to make this a more pedestria-friedly area, reduce the turig movemet coflicts, ad facilitate the stripig of desigated left-tur laes o Moutai Street for traffic turig left ito the shoppig ceter. Cosider reducig the width of the west leg of the itersectio (ad the legth of the crosswalk) by arrowig the orth half of Moutai Street o the orthwest corer of the itersectio. Colorado Boulevard at Fair Oaks Aveue Observatios The itersectio of Colorado Boulevard ad Fair Oaks Aveue is cotrolled by a two-phase traffic sigal. No separate left-tur phases are provided, ad left turs are restricted i the orthboud ad southboud directios o Fair Oaks Aveue for all vehicular traffic except buses. This left-tur restrictio is ecessary because there is isufficiet width o the Fair Oaks Aveue approaches to provide separate left-tur phases. Blak out No Left Tur Symbol sigs are displayed durig the gree iterval for traffic travelig o Fair Oaks Aveue to further emphasize to drivers that left turs are ot permitted. Pedestria activity is extremely heavy at this itersectio, which is located i the heart of the cetral busiess district. This itersectio is also heavily used by various trasit providers ad is a trasfer poit betwee differet trasit services. The potetial for coflicts betwee pedestrias ad turig vehicular traffic is high ad was cosidered a high priority issue for the evaluators. The adjacet sigalized itersectios icorporate Scramble pedestria phases that permit pedestrias to cross the street diagoally by requirig all vehicle traffic to come to a complete stop. Because of the heavy traffic flows at the Colorado Boulevard ad Fair Oaks itersectio, this particular modificatio to the operatio of the itersectio was ot cosidered feasible. The followig positive characteristics were either observed or discussed with the group: Accessible pedestria push buttos are provided. Blak out No Left Tur Symbol sigs are displayed durig the gree iterval for traffic travelig o Fair Oaks Aveue to further emphasize to drivers that left turs are ot permitted o the orthboud ad southboud approaches except for buses. Marked crosswalks with advace limit lies are provided o all legs of the itersectio. Curb ramps are provided o all four corers of the itersectio. The itersectio safety lightig as well as lightig emaatig from the adjacet commercial busiess illumiates the crosswalks well ad pedestrias are usig the crosswalks at ight are clearly visible. Approximately 3,150 vehicles eter the itersectio durig the PM peak hour, which begis at 5:00 PM. The mid-day peak hour has very similar volumes ad begis at 11:45 AM. 81

87 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Possible Safety Treatmets To improve pedestria safety ad mobility at the itersectio of Colorado Boulevard ad Fair Oaks Aveue, the followig treatmets are suggested: Short-Term Operatioal Treatmets Cosider implemetig LPI of at least four secods to allow pedestrias to establish their right-ofway before drivers receive a gree idicatio to make coflictig right-tur movemets. Review the pedestria clearace itervals to make sure they meet the miimum requiremets specified by the CAMUTCD. Cosider icreasig the Walk pedestria sigal iterval from five secods to seve secods. Cosider placig the pedestria sigals i recall durig the hours of the day whe pedestria flows are at their heaviest (cosider doig this at all sigalized itersectios i the Cetral Busiess District where pedestria activity is sigificat throughout the day). Cosider restripig the crosswalks usig high visibility markigs to emphasize the presece of pedestrias i the crosswalks. Cosider implemetig a all-red clearace iterval of two secods. Evaluate restrictig right-turs o red to reduce the coflicts that are occurrig betwee right-turig vehicles ad pedestrias i the crosswalks. Cosider postig additioal sigs restrictig left turs from Fair Oaks Aveue oto Colorado Boulevard o the sigal poles located o the ortheast ad southwest corers of the itersectio. Review the vehicle chage itervals to make sure they meet the miimum requiremets specified by the CAMUTCD. Work with Metro ad Foothill Trasit to implemet left tur restrictios that apply to trasit vehicles for the Fair Oaks Aveue approaches. Curretly all vehicles are prohibited from turig left from Fair Oaks Aveue oto Colorado Boulevard. Work with vedors to cosolidate ewspaper racks that clutter the sidewalks to improve pedestria circulatio. Loger-Term Capital Treatmets Study the Colorado Boulevard approaches to determie if separate left-tur phasig should be provided, especially for the eastboud approach, which experieces heavy left-tur movemets durig the oo peak hour. Cosider removig the right-tur laes o the Colorado Boulevard approaches, which are ot very effective due to their short legth. Use this street space to wide the sidewalks (ortheast, southeast, ad southwest corers), which are frequetly crowded with pedestrias. 82

88 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Cosider costructig streetscape treatmets i accordace with the provisios of the applicable Specific Pla. Orage Grove Boulevard at Raymod Aveue Observatios The itersectio of Orage Grove Boulevard ad Raymod Aveue is cotrolled by a two-phase traffic sigal. Separate left-tur phases are ot provided for ay of the itersectio s approaches. The itersectio is located i a higher desity, primarily residetial area. Trasit stops close to the itersectio geerate sigificat amouts of pedestria activity. There is a buildig housig a restaurat fairly close to the southwest corer of the itersectio ad creates a sight distace obstructio. Mast arm idicatios are provided for all but the southboud approach to the itersectio. The history of pedestria collisio shows that two pedestrias were hit i the crosswalk o the east leg of the itersectio by orthboud drivers o Raymod Aveue turig right oto Orage Grove Boulevard who said they could ot see approachig traffic. The followig positive characteristics were either observed or discussed with the group: Marked crosswalks ad coutdow pedestria sigals are provided o all four approaches to the itersectio. Limit lies are striped i advace of the crosswalks to discourage vehicular ecroachmet ito the crosswalk area while stopped at the itersectio. Pedestria orieted street lightig is provided o the Orage Grove Boulevard approaches. Curb ramps with ADA trucated domes are provided o the corers of the itersectio. Over 100 vehicles per hour tur right o the southboud approach durig the two hour periods from 7:00 AM to 9:00 AM ad from 4:00 PM to 6:00 PM. Possible Safety Treatmets To improve pedestria safety ad mobility at the itersectio of Orage Grove Boulevard ad Raymod Aveue, the followig treatmets are suggested: Short-Term Operatioal Treatmets Cosider implemetig LPI of at least four secods to allow pedestrias to establish their right-of-way before drivers receive a gree idicatio to make coflictig right-tur movemets. 83

89 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Cosider reviewig the pedestria clearace itervals to make sure they meet the miimum requiremets specified by the CAMUTCD. Cosider providig a all-red clearace iterval. Noe is curretly provided. Review the vegetatio growth at the itersectio ad request the City s ladscape maiteace crews to trim vegetatio as ecessary. Work with the ower of the buildig housig the restaurat located o the southwest corer of the itersectio to redesig the pedestria railig ruig alog the orth side of the restaurat to reduce its impact to sight distace for orthboud drivers o Raymod Aveue turig right oto Orage Grove Boulevard. Cosider restrictig right turs o red for orthboud drivers o Raymod Aveue turig right oto Orage Grove Boulevard if the sight distace obstructio caused by the pedestria railig caot be removed. Cosider treatmets to Orage Grove Boulevard bike route or desigatig a parallel bike route. Loger-Term Capital Treatmets Cosider protected left-tur phases for the Orage Grove Boulevard approaches, especially i the eastboud directio. Cosider reducig the corer curb radius o the orthwest corer of the itersectio to make it a more pedestria-friedly desig by removig the southboud right-tur lae. Over 100 vehicles tur right durig the periods from 7:00 AM to 9:00 AM ad from 4:00 PM to 6:00 PM. The City may ot feel that removig the right-tur oly lae is a viable optio. Cosider costructig a pole with a mast arm ad sigal o the southwest corer of the itersectio facig southboud traffic o Raymod Aveue. Lake Aveue at Corso Street Observatios The itersectio of Lake Aveue ad Corso Street is cotrolled by a complex phased traffic sigal. A separate left-tur phase is provided for the southboud approach of the itersectio o Lake Aveue to tur oto the eastboud SR 210 o ramp ad oto Corso Street, which serves as a frotage road to SR 210. The orthboud approach does ot have a sigal phase because the eastboud approach o Corso Street is desigated oe way ad is part of the eastboud off-ramp system for SR 210 at Lake Aveue. The east leg of the itersectio is oe-way leavig the Lake Aveue ad Corso Street itersectio because it is part of the o-ramp system for SR 210 at Lake Aveue ad is cotrolled by ramp meterig sigals. Although the itersectio is owed by the Califoria Departmet of Trasportatio, the City of Pasadea maitais the itersectio ad maitais the sigal timig. There is a Gold Lie Light Rail statio located 84

90 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 udereath Lake Aveue i the media of SR 210, which geerates high levels of pedestria activity at the Lake Aveue ad Corso Street itersectio, especially across the east leg. The statio is coected to Lake Aveue by a series of stairs ad elevators. There is a arrow, poorly lit pedestria walkway uder Lake Aveue orth of the Lake Aveue ad Corso Street itersectio, which ca be used by pedestrias to cross Lake Aveue. Therefore, o crosswalk is provided o the orth leg of the Lake Aveue ad Corso Street itersectio. The patter of pedestria collisios primarily ivolves southboud drivers cotiuig to tur left eve after the left-tur sigal has tured red ad pedestrias have begu to cross i the crosswalk o the east leg of the itersectio. The followig positive characteristics were either observed or discussed with the group: Marked crosswalks ad coutdow pedestria sigals are provided o all approaches to the itersectio except the orth leg, which is closed but has a pedestria udercrossig alterate. The traffic sigal that cotrols the itersectio provides a protected oly left-tur phase for southboud traffic that turs across the most heavily used crosswalk. Curb ramps with ADA-compliat trucated domes are provided o the corers of the itersectio. The 12-ich vehicular sigal displays are mouted o mast arms ad clearly visible to drivers approachig the itersectio. Approximately 6,500 vehicles eter the itersectio durig the highest peak hour, which begis at 5:00 PM. Possible Safety Treatmets To improve pedestria safety ad mobility at the itersectio of Lake Aveue ad Corso Street, the followig treatmets are suggested: Short-Term Operatioal Treatmets Cosider chagig the southboud left-tur phase of the traffic sigal that cotrols the itersectio from leadig to laggig. This meas that the lefttur phase will tur gree after the pedestrias have fiished crossig the east leg of the itersectio ad elimiate the curret patter of pedestria collisios ivolvig drivers ruig the red arrow sigal idicatio whe the left-tur phase has termiated (ote: this chage will require City staff to review the timig at adjacet itersectios ad modify the offsets so that orth/south traffic o Lake Aveue cotiues to flow smoothly. 85

91 City of Pasadea Pedestria Safety Study at Sigalized Itersectios Jauary 2011 Cosider istallig a o right tur blak out (R3-1 CA) sig, which will tur o oly whe the pedestria Walk iterval is displayed for pedestrias crossig the east leg of the itersectio to elimiate the coflicts occurrig whe the sigal turs gree for orthboud traffic o Lake Aveue. Cosider icreasig the pedestria walk iterval from five to seve secods. Cosider icreasig the all-red clearace iterval to two secods. Cosider restripig the crosswalks usig high visibility markigs to emphasize the presece of pedestrias i the crosswalks. Cosider reviewig the vehicle chage itervals to make sure they meet the miimum requiremets specified by the CAMUTCD. Cosider istallig way fidig sigs o the Gold Lie Platform ad sidewalks o Lake Aveue usig local ladmarks to ecourage use of the uderpass. Cosider relocatig the pedestria sigal idicatio o the ortheast corer of the itersectio to improve visibility to pedestrias. Loger-Term Capital Treatmets Cosider relocatig the Metro sig o the ortheast corer of the itersectio to improve the visibility of pedestrias waitig to cross the east leg of the itersectio. Cosider reducig the corer curb radius o the southeast corer of the itersectio to make it a more pedestria-friedly desig. 86

92 Morego Marego Ave N NOT TO SCALE Overall Commets: Cosider sychroizig orthboud sigals with orthboud sigal at Marego Aveue ad Uio Street Cosider implemetig Leadig Pedestria Iterval Cosider implemetig a all-red clearace iterval Cosider implemetig flashig yellow arrow for left-tur phase similar to other areas Review vehicle chage itervals Review pedestria clearace itervals Review itersectio lightig Evaluate Marego Aveue approaches for left-tur phasig Bus Stop Colorado Blvd Bus Stop Cosider extedig media with thumbail islad o souther leg Cosider restripig with high-visibility crosswalk markigs (sample triple four show) N NOT TO SCALE CITY OF PASADENA WALKING AUDIT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COLORADO BOULEVARD AND MARENGO AVENUE FIGURE 5

93 N NOT TO SCALE Overall Commets: Cosider icreasig all-red clearace iterval Cosider arrowig west leg Cosider tighteig southeast corer Cosider implemetig Leadig Pedestria Iterval Cosider restripig with high-visibility crosswalk Cosider icreasig pedestria walk iterval Cosider implemetig coutdow pedestria sigals Review vehicle chage itervals Review itersectio safety lightig Review pedestria clearace itervals Lake Ave Evaluate left-tur phase for Lake Ave approaches Cosider addig media tur lae Cosider addig bulbouts Moutai St Cosider legtheig bus zoe Bus Stop Cosider cosolidatig driveways Bus Stop CITY OF PASADENA WALKING AUDIT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LAKE AVENUE AND MOUNTAIN STREET FIGURE 6

94 Fair Oaks Ave Overall Commets: Cosider left-tur restrictios for trasit vehicles Cosider restrictig right-turs o red Cosider implemetig all-red clearace itervals Cosider Leadig Pedestria Iterval Cosider icreasig walk iterval from 5 secods to 7 secods Cosider placig pedestria sigals i recall durig peak pedestria hours Review pedestria clearace itervals Review vehicle chage itervals Cosider postig additioal sigs idicatig existig left-tur prohibitio for vehicles except buses N NOT TO SCALE Bus Stop Bus Stop Cosider high-visibility crosswalk ad streetscape treatmets cosistet with specific pla X Cosider removig right-tur lae ad add bulbout Colorado Blvd Evaluate left-tur phasig o Colorado Blvd Cosider removig right-tur lae ad add bulbout X Bus Stop Cosider cosolidatig ews racks to elarge pedestria area Bus Stop X Cosider removig right-tur lae ad add bulbout Cosider postig additioal sigs idicatig existig left-tur prohibitio for vehicles except buses CITY OF PASADENA WALKING AUDIT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COLORADO BOULEVARD AND FAIR OAKS AVENUE FIGURE 7

95 Raymod Ave N NOT TO SCALE Overall Commets: Cosider improvig bike route or desigatig parallel route to Orage Grove Blvd Cosider implemetig all-red clearace iterval Cosider Leadig Pedestria Iterval Review pedestria clearace itervals X Cosider removig southboud right-tur ad add bulbout Cosider protected left-tur phasig o Orage Grove Blvd Orage Grove Blvd Bus Stop Cosider istallig southboud traffic sigal mast arm Review improvig sight distace for orthboud right-turig vehicles Cosider RTOR restrictio orthboud if sight distace obstructio caot be removed at southwest corer Review vegetatio growth ad request City ladscapig maiteace, as eeded CITY OF PASADENA WALKING AUDIT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ORANGE GROVE BOULEVARD AND RAYMOND AVENUE FIGURE 8

96 Lake Ave Lake Ave Bus Stop N NOT TO SCALE Cosider istallig wayfidig sigs for trasit platform Foothill Fwy Bus Stop Overall Commets: Cosider chagig southboud left-turs from lead to leg Cosider icreasig all-red clearace iterval Cosider icreasig pedestria walk iterval from 5 secods to 7 secods Cosider restripig crosswalks with high-visibility markigs Review vehicle chage itervals Cosider relocatig pedestria sigal idicator to improve visibility to pedestrias Corso St Cosider relocatig Metro moumet sigs farther back to improve visibility of pedestrias Cosider reducig corer radius ad addig bulbout Cosider istallig o righttur blak out sig activated with orth-south pedestria walk phase CITY OF PASADENA WALKING AUDIT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LAKE AVENUE AND CORSON STREET FIGURE 9

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