PEDESTRIAN ACCOMMODATIONS DPS 201 AT INTERCHANGES

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1 PEDESTRIAN ACCOMMODATIONS DPS 201 AT INTERCHANGES

2 UNDERSTANDING THE ISSUES Intersections of freeway ramp terminals at crossroads are the most critical components of an interchange Challenge: balance mobility and safety of peds & bicycles with movement of vehicles Photo Source: Mark Doctor, FHWA I-40 at Carlisle Blvd Albuquerque NM

3 UNDERSTANDING THE ISSUES Free-flow ramp movements can be very challenging for pedestrians to cross I-55 exit to Main Street - Madison, MS Photo Source: Mark Doctor, FHWA

4 UNDERSTANDING THE ISSUES Drivers do not expect pedestrians around interchanges There is safety in numbers; but pedestrian numbers are usually low around interchanges After coming off freeway 45 mph appears to be a slow speed Provide visual cues Discontinuous facilities Free-flowing entry and exit ramps Insufficient lighting Unmarked crossings Poor sight distance Long crossing distances

5 RESOURCES

6 LACK OF NATIONAL GUIDELINES AASHTO - A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets th Edition 10 Grade Separations and Interchanges 10.1 Introduction and general Types of Interchanges To reduce conflicts between vehicles, pedestrians, or bicycles within interchanges, it is preferable to separate their movements. When separation of pedestrians and bicycle movements from vehicle traffic is not practical, each interchange site should be studied and alternate designs considered to determine the most appropriate arrangement of structures and ramps to accommodate bicycle and pedestrian traffic through and interchange area Interchanges The accommodation of pedestrian and bicyclists also should be considered in the selection of an interchange configuration

7 INTERCHANGES/LARGE INTERSECTIONS

8 PUBLISHED GUIDANCE

9 BEST PRACTICES Design for direct connections Mark crosswalks where ramps intersect local roads Use STOP signs or signals for pedestrian crossings Use appropriate warning signs Do not over-sign Provide adequate lighting Eliminate free-flow right turns where possible Ramp terminals should intersect local roads at right angles Right-turn slip lanes should use tighter angles Use only single rightturn lanes Accommodate bicycles

10 GUIDING PRINCIPLES Provide pedestrian & bicycle facilities Sidewalks Pavement markings Signing ADA accommodations Lighting Bike lanes Keep crosswalks short as possible but balance with most direct route Design ramp geometries to encourage slower vehicle speeds Provide good visibility

11 PEDESTRIAN & BICYCLE ACCOMMODATIONS Just do it!

12 PEDESTRIAN ACCOMMODATIONS Apply Principles from DPS 101 & DPS 201 Sidewalks or shoulders Zone System when designing sidewalks Crosswalks High visibility crosswalks Optimal placement Advance stop/yield bars Signing Florescent yellow-green for pedestrian warning signs Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacon (RRFB) Pedestrian crossing islands

13 ZONE SYSTEM Frontage Sidewalk Curb Furniture

14 HIGH VISIBILITY CROSSWALKS

15 SIGNING

16 RAISED ISLANDS Pedestrian pass through on channelization island Photo Source: Mark Doctor, FHWA

17 SIGNING RRFB & CROSSING ISLAND

18 AVOID EXCESSIVE USE OF SIGNS

19 PEDESTRIAN ACCOMMODATIONS WHAT S GOOD WHAT CAN BE IMPROVED?

20 MARK CROSSWALKS WHERE RAMPS INTERSECT LOCAL ROADS

21 DESIGN INTERCHANGES FOR BICYCLISTS I-75 exit ramp to Bruce B Downs Blvd Tampa FL Photo Source: Mark Doctor, FHWA

22 On-Ramps Off-Ramps INTERCHANGE CASES DDIs SPUIs Roundabout

23 ON-RAMPS

24 ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH FREE-FLOW ON-RAMPS

25 TREATMENTS FOR SINGLE-LANE ON-RAMPS

26 GREEN BIKE LANE Ocean Park Blvd, Santa Monica, CA

27 TREATMENTS FOR DUAL-LANE ON-RAMPS

28 TREATMENTS FOR DUAL-LANE ON-RAMPS

29 TREATMENTS FOR DUAL-LANE ON-RAMPS

30 TREATMENTS FOR DUAL-LANE ON-RAMPS

31 OFF -RAMPS

32 ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH FREE-FLOW OFF-RAMPS

33 SIGNING AND STRIPING TREATMENTS FOR FREE-FLOW RAMP INTERSECTIONS

34 PREFERRED TREATMENT FOR FREE-FLOW RAMP INTERSECTIONS

35 OFF RAMP SIGNING

36 CAN PEDESTRIAN BE ACCOMMODATED? Neighborhoods Malls Costco

37 ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

38 COMMON INTERSECTION TREATMENTS FOR PEDESTRIANS

39 INTERCHANGE GEOMETRY

40 HIGH SPEEDS, POOR VISIBILITY

41 WHAT S GOOD AND WHAT CAN BE IMPROVED UPON? Could have made this more of a right angle Tight right angle Could make this tighter radii

42 BEFORE & AFTER Flat angle = wide crossing & high-speed turns Tight angle = short crossing & slow speed turns Red arrow = old crosswalk Green arrow = new crosswalk Old ramp alignment Springfield OR

43 TEE IT UP

44 PREFER SLOW SPEED, RIGHT ANGLE URBAN DESIGNS

45 DESIGN DETAILS SLIP LANES W/ISLAND Tighter angle 55 to 60 degree angle between vehicle flows. 40 Old Way New way High speed, head turner = low visibility of pedestrians Slow speed, good angle = good visibility of pedestrians

46 RIGHT-TURN SLIP LANE - DETAILS Cut through medians and islands 2:1 length/width ratio 55 to 70 between vehicular flows. Crosswalk one car length back 25 to 40 radius depending on design vehicle Long radius followed by short Bicycle lane 150 to 275 radius

47 ALTERNATIVE INTERSECTIONS/ INTERCHANGES INFORMATION REPORT DIVERGING DIAMOND INTERCHANGE INFORMATION GUIDE (COMING LATE OCTOBER 2014)

48 WHAT IS A DIVERGING DIAMOND INTERCHANGE? An interchange form that allows two directions of traffic on the crossroad to temporarily cross to the opposite side to gain access to and from the freeway more easily

49 FHWA VIDEO ON HOW A DDI WORKS

50 OUTSIDE VS. INSIDE PEDESTRIAN PATH Pedestrian facilities on the inside minimizes conflicts with left-turning traffic to and from the freeway and allows crossing the interchange in all directions (along the arterial and crossing the arterial) For underpass DDIs, existing center bridge columns may dictate putting pedestrian walkways on the outside

51 PEDESTRIAN VEHICLE CONFLICT POINTS Outside Walkway Center Walkway

52 PEDESTRIAN PATH IN CENTER Source: MoDOT

53 PEDESTRIANS DOWN THE MIDDLE Very positive feedback from user surveys Saves bridge width May require structural capacity considerations

54 DIVERGING DIAMOND INTERCHANGES Photo Source: Mark Doctor, FHWA I-44 at SR 13 Springfield, MO

55 PEDESTRIAN PATH ALONG OUTSIDE Source: MoDOT

56 PEDESTRIANS HAVE DIFFICULTY VIEWING IF THERE IS AN APPROPRIATE GAP IN APPROACHING TRAFFIC DDI I-15 at American Fork, UT Photo Source: Mark Doctor, FHWA

57 PEDESTRIAN S LIMITED VIEW OF APPROACHING VEHICLES Photo Source: Mark Doctor, FHWA DDI I-15 at American Fork, UT

58 PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL Limited Sight Distance - use Pedestrian Signal DDI Kansas City, MO DDI Kansas City, MO

59 ROUNDABOUTS AT INTERCHANGES Dog Bone Diamond Compared to signalized intersections, roundabouts require fewer lanes on the crossroad (no need for turn lanes) resulting in a narrower bridge Roundabouts can have either a true circular shape or a raindrop shape Raindrop-shaped islands eliminate direct U-turn movements (U-turns can be made by circulating around both roundabouts)

60 City of Carmel, Indiana Photo Credit: American StructurePoint, Inc.

61 THE PEANUT INTERCHANGE

62 RETROFITTING EXISTING INTERCHANGES Photo Source: Mark Doctor, FHWA

63 PROVIDING PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS AS PART OF AN INTERCHANGE IMPROVEMENT PROJECT West Vail, CO Photo Source: Mark Doctor, FHWA

64 CASE STUDIES

65 Queens, NY CASE STUDY: PEDESTRIANS AT INTERCHANGES (QUEENS, NY) Problem/Background Pulaski Bridge is a major connector between Queens and Brooklyn Intersection at the base of the bridge had heavy traffic volumes, frequent vehicle crashes and a history of complaints about pedestrian crossings Northbound double right turns during different signal phases No crosswalk on the south side of the intersection Crossing for high-volume bus to subway transfer Source: NYC DOT

66 Queens, NY CASE STUDY: PEDESTRIANS AT INTERCHANGES (QUEENS, NY) Solution To simplify the intersection, right turns from the bridge guided to service road A new crosswalk and three median refuge islands added Signal phasing changed to ease movement from bus to subway Road nearest bridge converted from a two-way to one-way street to reduce conflicts Lanes on Jackson Ave converted to 2 left-turn-only & 1 through lane Source: NYC DOT

67 Queens, NY CASE STUDY: PEDESTRIANS AT INTERCHANGES (QUEENS, NY) Results Clarified vehicular movements Improved pedestrian safety, circulation and access; Intersection brought into a neighborhood scale Travel times on Jackson Ave declined 29% in the morning and 23% in the evening peak times No bicycle or pedestrian injuries recorded in 17 months after implementation

68 GROUP EXERCISE

69 EXERCISE TASKS Work in groups 15 minutes for exercise List 3 items that are positive for pedestrian safety List 3 improvements that could be made to improve pedestrian safety Designate someone to report out

70 Restaurants Gas Station Business Complex N Fast Food Strip Mall Casino Hotel Gas Station Gas Station

71 INFORMATION Along both Arterials Strip malls Casino Business complex's Restaurants Hotels Heavy truck traffic Port north of interchange Pedestrians Walk N/S on overpass Walk along arterial N

72 LOOKING NORTH AT WB ON-RAMP

73 LOOKING WB OFF-RAMP

74 LOOKING SB FROM NORTH INTERSECTION

75 LOOKING WB ON-RAMP

76 LOOKING SB FROM OVERPASS

77 LOOKING EB ON-RAMP & EB OFF-RAMP

78 EB OFF-RAMP

79 SOUTH INTERSECTION LOOKING NORTH

80 NORTH OF OVERPASS N

81 REPORT OUT List 3 items that are positive for pedestrian safety List 3 improvements that could be made for pedestrian safety

82 PEDESTRIAN ACCOMMODATIONS WHAT S GOOD WHAT CAN BE IMPROVED? Sidewalk on bridge & main Road Dirt trails leading up to bridge and intersection No crosswalks at interchange High visibility X-walks at intersection N

83 LOOKING NORTH AT WB ON-RAMP

84 LOOKING WB OFF-RAMP

85 LOOKING SB FROM NORTH INTERSECTION

86 LOOKING WB ON-RAMP

87 Overpass Sidewalk LOOKING SB FROM OVERPASS

88 LOOKING EB ON-RAMP & EB OFF-RAMP

89 AERIAL EB ON-RAMP & EB OFF-RAMP PEDESTRIAN ISLAND

90 EB OFF-RAMP

91 SOUTH INTERSECTION LOOKING NORTH

92 QUESTIONS / RESOURCES Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Needs at Grade-Separated Interchanges nal_report_final_ pdf Alternative Intersections/Interchanges: Informational Report FHWA Publication No FHWA-HRT CalTrans Complete Intersection: A Guide to Reconstructing Intersections and Interchanges for Bicyclists and Pedestrians intersection-guide-bicycles-pedestrians.pdf Diverging Diamond Interchange Information guide Coming Late October 2014

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