1 CHAPTER 1 - YOU ARE THE DRIVER HTS - Highway transportation system Purpose - to move people and cargo from place to place in a safe, efficient, and economic manner. Composed of 3 parts 1) people - anyone, who uses roadways; passengers, drivers, motorcyclists, bicyclists, pedestrians 2) vehicles - all kinds, sizes, and shapes; cars, buses, bicycles, motorcycles, trucks, semi-trucks 3) roadways - dirt to multilane expressways; made of dirt, gravel, asphalt, concrete, brick Conditions that affect use of roadways - rain, fog, snow, wind, potholes, construction, darkness Most important element in controlling the HTS- DRIVERS WHO OPERATE THEIR VEHICLES SAFELY, IN A RESPONSIBLE, LOW RISK MANNER Many federal, state, and local government agencies help regulate the HTS. National Highway Safety Act set of traffic safety guidelines. Vehicle Code federal and state laws that regulate the HTS Driving task - all skilled actions you must take to drive safely - most important is making the correct decision. 3 skills required 1. Social - interaction and cooperation with other people - eye contact, hand signals, lights, horn, turn signals, taillights, car position 2. Decision Making - mental skills that keep us out of conflict/hazards. Most important to safe driving. Ex: when to brake or not, accelerate or not, steering. Must be done at the right time and right amount
2 Ch 1 p2 3. Physical Skills use of hand, eyes, and feet to control the vehicle and avoid conflict IPDE PROCESS - 4 step organized visual, thinking, doing process 1) IDENTIFY-see potential hazards by looking at total picture (ahead, side-to-side, rear). 2) PREDICT - when and where possible points of conflict may develop (identify surroundings) 3) DECIDE - When, what, where, and how to adjust to avoid a conflict (speed, position) 4) Execute - Do it; correct or best actions to avoid conflict Defensive driving -protecting yourself and others from dangerous and unexpected driving situations. Attitude - affects your willingness to learn safe, efficient driving habits. Breakdowns occur when?? - any part of the HTS does not work well (traffic tie-ups, collisions) What is a collision?? - a vehicle hitting another object, moving or stationary What causes a collision?? - driver error is the most common. - turned too soon, too late - breaking various laws - not slowing down (good or bad weather) - following too closely - operating a defective vehicle - not wearing seat belts (kids) - driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs - tired Most times causes can be eliminated!!!!!
3 Ch 4 p4 Are teenagers bad drivers???? No - just inexperienced 41% of young people who were killed died in single car collisions A safe driver is responsible for passengers, other roadway users, and self. Driving is common sense - focus on driving not your friends. Financial responsibility - by law for damage or injuries you cause (personal and property) Graduated Licensing Program requires young drives to progress through a series of licensing stages 3 Stages 1) Learner s Permit supervised; -permit -no violations or collisions for 6 months -safety belts must be worn 2) Intermediate License Stage -successfully completed learner s permit stage and dr. ed program -supervised driving -safety belts -night driving is restricted -passengers are limited -no violations or collisions for 6 months if so time goes back to zero -violators must go to traffic court 3) Full-Privilege License Stage -completed stage 2 violation free Implied consent- automatically agree to when you accept a license - if pulled over, police can administer field sobriety tests. Refuse to be tested - lose your license GOOD DRIVERS NEVER STOP LEARNING
4 CHAPTER 2 SIGNS, SIGNALS, AND ROAD MARKINGS 8 SIGN SHAPES 1) Octagon regulatory (red); stop 2) Triangle regulatory (red); yield 3) Verticle Rectangle regulatory (white); speed limit, pass with care 4) Pentagon warning (yellow) 5) Round warning (yellow) 6) Pennant warning (yellow) 7) Diamond warning (yellow or orange 8) Horizontal Rectangle guide (blue, green, and brown) 8 SIGN COLORS 1) Red regulatory; stop, yield, wrong way, do not enter 2) Yellow warning; railroad, school zone, no passing zone, stop ahead 3) White regulatory; speed limit, pass with care, keep left, no trucks 4) Orange- warning; construction ahead, end construction 5) Black regulatory (one way); guide (route marker) 6) Green guide; destination, distance 7) Blue guide; motor services, lodging, hospital, phone, gas 8) Brown guide; parks, recreation, and points of interest (Herrick Lake, Zoo) 3 Types of Signs 1) Regulatory- controls flow of traffic; tells you what you can or cannot do. A) Stop sign- used on roadways to cross main highways or thru streets. Where do you stop?? At white line; before entering the crosswalk; before entering intersection where you can see approaching traffic clearly. Always yield the right of way to others.
5 Ch 2 p2 What does this mean?? Allow others to use intersection before you do. It is the privilege of immediate use of the roadway. What do you do at a 4 way stop sign?? 1) Stop- first to arrive should be allowed to go first. 2) Cars stop to left and right of each other at the same time the one on the right is the first to go. 3) Stopped across intersection looking at each other. -driver going straight has right of way. -turning left-must wait. 4) Show intention to proceed by moving forward slowly before entering crosswalk.. 5) Check traffic at all sides- watch for vehicles and pedestrians as you proceed. B) Yield Sign- Found where roadways merge or cross. Slow down and be prepared to stop -give right of way to traffic. C) Speed Limit Signs-to restrict travel to safe speeds-set for ideal driving conditions. Basic Speed- do not drive faster than what is safe and ideal for existing conditions regardless of posted speed limit. Minimum Speed- set on most highways/expressways to control flow of traffic -slower only if conditions call for it. Advisory Speed- for special conditions (sharp curves), times of day (school zone). What are some other regulatory signs?? -one way traffic -no parking/passing -turning only/straight -no walk signs -no trucks Black Symbol with red slash thru it - Not Allowed!!!
6 Ch 2 p3 2) Warning Signs- help to avoid surprise situations. A) Diamond Shaped Warnings- (yellow) warning of danger ahead road narrows, divided highway, sharp curve, deer, sign ahead, and pedestrian crossing B) No Passing - Yellow pennant shaped with black letters - at the start of a no passing zone with solid yellow lines C) Construction - orange diamond shaped - alerts you of construction zone ahead Fines and jail time if you hit a worker, slow down D) Railroad - round yellow sign with black X and 2 R's 250 ft in city and 750 ft in the country(rural areas) may have a white X painted on the ground flashing red lights and/or gates E) School Crossings - 2 types 1) school zone - with 2 children; within a block of the school 2) school crossing - 2 children in cross walk; near intersections -close to the schools 3) Guide Signs-information, mark routes, intersections, service areas. A) Route signs -local, state, US, interstate routes 1) US. markers - white shield with black background 2) State - white circle with black background 3) County - blue 4) Interstate - red, white, and blue East-West Rt.-Even numbered (I80 or 94) North-South Rt.-Odd numbered (I39 or 55) Heads into a city-3 figures begin with odd #(I-190) Around city-3 figures begin with an even number. (I-235or 294)
7 Ch 2 p4 Other Guide Signs- Green - information on destination and distance to go. Blue- highway services- fuel, food, lodging, hospital. Brown- recreational areas /cultural points. Traffic Signals- Examples- lights, arrows, flashing signals, lane signals, pedestrian signs. - used to help traffic flow smoothly. Where do you find stop lights? Beside roadways, over roadway, or at intersections - computerized lights are used to control flow of traffic - can be set to change when traffic approaches thru use of a sensor Right turn on red- What do you do? -full stop. -is it legal? Some say no turn on red. -yield right of way. -Complete turn if clear and safe. Left turn on red- What do you do? -stop check crosswalk -check left and right- proceed if clear When are you allowed? Turning from one-way street onto a oneway street or at an intersection that allows it to help the flow of traffic. Flashing signals- caution drivers or to tell to stop (at intersections or dangerous locations). What to do? Stop completely / yield right of way Red flashing light- stop completely (same as a stop sign) Yellow flashing light - be prepared to stop (same yield sign) Arrows - direct flow of traffic; yield the right of way if turning Lane Signals - lights above lane - show whether or not a lane is open to use Yellow X - prepare to change lanes Red X - closed; traffic coming at you
8 Ch 2 p5 Green arrow - lane open to use in that direction Pedestrian Signals - at intersections with heavy traffic; tell people when to cross Road markings - give you a warning or direction lines, words or figures on road 1) yellow line markings - 3 types a) broken yellow lines - separate 2 way traffic; may pass if no one is coming at you b) solid yellow lines - no passing on that side of the road c) double solid yellow lines - divide traffic and prohibits passing 2) white lane lines- 3 types a) broken white lines - separate lanes of traffic moving in the same direction b) solid white lane lines - keeps drivers in their lanes and restrict changes c) solid white lines - along side of the roadway to mark the right edge of the road helps at night/poor weather conditions also marks pedestrian cross walks and stop lines 3) white arrows - when and where to turn; with arrow and the word only 4) Rumble strips - short sections of corrugated roadway; alerts of approaching hazard thru noise 5) Raised or lowered markers - small reflectors; help drivers see the road at night a) white - right edge of the road b) yellow - left edge of the road c) red - wrong direction 6) other markings - curbs painted yellow and no passing zones, railroad crossings, school crossings
9 CHAPTER 3 - BASIC CAR CONTROL What is a blind spot? Area you can not see with your mirrors How do you check for cars in your blind spot? Glance over shoulder in direction you plan to move What does the temperature gauge or light warn you of? Coolant in engine is too hot; pull over and wait for it to cool off What are 4 outside checks to make before entering a vehicle? -walk around car to look for objects in your path -tires properly inflated -windows, windshield, headlights, taillights are clean -no loose objects in back window What is the correct hand position on the steering wheel? 10 and 2 What is tracking? Steering a car in its intended path of travel What is the purpose of each gear in an automatic tranmission? -Park (P) holds car when stopped backs car -Neutral (N) lets wheels roll and engine is disengaged -Drive (D) normal forward driving -2 or 1 hard pulling, up or down hills, and starting on snow When might you downshift?
10 Ch 3 p3 When added control is needed and to provide extra power when climbing hill What are 4 pre-drive checks? -adjust seat -adjust mirrors - fasten seat belt -lock doors What is meant by passive restraints? Give an example. A safety device that works w/out any action by car occupant. Air bags and Automatic seat belts What is the importance of removing the key from the ignition before leaving the car? Insurance could be cancelled if the key was in the ignition when the car was Stolen What are the procedures for putting the car into motion? -start car -foot on brake -shift to drive -release parking brake - check traffic ahead and in mirrors -check blind spot -signal -if clear go ahead -check blind spot again as you pull away -cancel signal -adjust speed to traffic
11 CHAPTER 4 - SAFE DRIVING DECISIONS AND IPDE PROCESS Safe driving depends upon - ability to correctly analyze traffic situations What is the driving task? A thinking task, brain tells hands and feet what to do. Smith System - stresses eye discipline and idea of space cushion Develop your visual search habits and protect you from unsafe Actions of others 5 steps of the Smith System 1) Aim high in steering- look far ahead; enables you to predict and avoid hazards 2) Keep eyes moving - glance around, side-to-side, mirrors, rear, gauges 3) Get the big picture - mental process of putting together what you've seen 4) Make sure others see you - communicate w/ others: lights, horn, position 5)Leave yourself an out - identify an escape path in case of an emergency; constantly adjust position to keep space around your vehicle IPDE PROCESS - organized system of seeing, thinking, and responding 1)Identify - give meaning to what you see sooner; identify possible hazards; more time to react. Zone control system organized method for managing 6 zones of space around your vehicle (left rear, left front, right front, right rear, rear, front) Zone 1 of 6 areas of space around your vehicle Open Zone space where you can drive w/out a restriction to your line of sight (distance you can see ahead in the direction you are
12 Ch 4 p2 traveling) or intended path of travel (space your vehicle will occupy) Closed Zone space not open due to restriction in your line of sight or intended path Target Area Range space from vehicle to target area Orderly Visual Search Pattern - search critical areas in a regular sequence. Where and How do you look? All around, quick glances What to look for? Selective Seeing - select/identify only those events and clues that pertain to the driving task look for users who might affect your planned path City - intersections, parked cars, pedestrian~ Highway - crossroads, slow moving vehicles, animals Expressways -lanes ahead, behind, side-to-side Always be on the look out for problem drivers: identify by; driving too fast, constantly changing lanes, passing without enough room, talking on the phone, eating and/or drinking Roadway features - intersections, hills, curves, width of lanes might change. Change from multi-lane to single- why? Repairs Roadside hazards - pedestrians, bicyclists, parked cars, animals, shopping center entrances/exits, roadside stands, restaurants Roadway surfaces - dry, wet from ice, rain, or snow, gravel, concrete Traffic controls - overhead, in center, on comers 2) Predict - how might a possible hazard create a conflict Interpret information Predict where possible pts of conflict can occur Try to foresee what might happen and how it will affect you
13 Ch 4 p3 To predict - evaluate situation, make judgements about possible consequences more complex a situation is, the more difficult to identify and predict. Knowledge - from studying traffic laws and Driver Education materials and from driving Experience - helps to improve your ability to predict accurately Judgment - involves measuring, comparing, and evaluating speed, time, space, distance, traction, and visibility What to predict? a) Actions of other roadway users - do not assume others will do what is right. What might they do! Predict - path might take, what action will they take, timing - when will it happen Space - will my planned space be used, pt of conflict - where might we meet b) Predicting control of your car - speed is most important to controlling your car Prepare to adjust speed for varying conditions/situations (traffic, roadways, weather conditions, affect time and space needed for de-acceleration and braking) c) Predicting consequences- most situations have a choice of actions to take; not always a correct action but a best action 3) Decide - action taken to avoid conflict - wisely a) change speed - any decision you make is influenced by your own speed and speed of others b) change directions - change position by changing lanes or swerve leave yourself an out to avoid conflict c) space cushion - area around your car that allows you to avoid conflict
14 Ch 4 p4 d) communicate - helps reduce possible conflict thru use of - horn - lights turn signals - brake lights - emergency lights - back up lights - taillights - car position - eye contact - parking lights - body movement e) minimize a hazard put more space between you and a hazard f) separate hazards dealing with more than one hazard, adjust speed to deal with one hazard at a time g) compromise space giving as much space as possible to the greater hazard 4) Execute - carry out decisions to avoid conflict Important actions are: a) accelerate - to get out of the way b) brake - to avoid conflict; depends upon situationspeed, condition of brakes, and road Do not lock brakes - makes steering impossible c) steering - adjust to situation; over-steering can cause you to lose control of vehicle d) communication - tell others what you plan to do Safe Paths - all activities involve some degree of risk Risk Taking - speeding, ignoring signs, and laws puts everyone at risk(in danger) 4 Steps to reducinq risk and maintaininq safe path 1) Visibility - 90% info from your eyes - limited visibility will affect IPDE process. - may not be able to identify all possible hazards in time - need to reduce speed, change lanes, positions -What shortens visibility? Curves, hills, weather, trees, buildings, large vehicles, dirty windshield
15 Ch 4 p5 3 factors needed for visibility a) sight distance - distance see ahead of you b} field of vision - area see around you while looking straight ahead c} depth perception - ability to judge distance between yourself and another object 2) Traction - gripping power between tires and road surfaces 3) Space - a cushion around your vehicle 4 No Zones - a) rear; b) left side; c) right side; d) front 4) Traffic flow - speed of traffic; avoid unnecessary stops. Adjust speed to handle one situation at a time Comprise space - give as much space as possible to the greatest hazard